Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Is the Supreme Personality of Godhead
This chapter explains that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna Himself. Therefore, the Brahman effulgence is the bodily luster of Lord Caitanya, and the localized Supersoul situated in the heart of every living entity is His partial representation. The purusa-avataras are also explained in this connection. Maha-Visnu is the reservoir of all conditioned souls, but as confirmed in the authoritative scriptures, Lord Krsna is the ultimate fountainhead, the source of numerous plenary expansions, including Narayana, who is generally accepted by Mayavadi philosophers to be the Absolute Truth. The Lord's manifestation of prabhava and vaibhava expansions, as well as partial incarnations and incarnations with delegated powers, are also explained. Lord Krsna's ages of boyhood and youth are discussed, and it is explained that His age at the beginning of youth is His eternal form.
The spiritual sky contains innumerable spiritual planets, the Vaikunthas, which are manifestations of the Supreme Lord's internal energy. Innumerable material universes are similarly exhibited by His external energy, and the living entities are manifested by His marginal energy. Because Lord Krsna Caitanya is not different from Lord Krsna, He is the cause of all causes; there is no cause beyond Him. He is eternal, and His form is spiritual. Lord Caitanya is directly the Supreme Lord Krsna, as the evidence of authoritative scriptures proves. This chapter stresses that a devotee must have knowledge of Krsna's personal form, His three principal energies, His pastimes and the relationship of the living entities with Him in order to advance in Krsna consciousness.
I offer my obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, by whose mercy even an ignorant child can swim across the ocean of conclusive truth, which is full of the crocodiles of various theories.
By the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, even an inexperienced boy with no educational culture can be saved from the ocean of nescience, which is full of various types of philosophical doctrines that are like dangerous aquatic animals. The philosophy of the Buddha, the argumentative presentations of the jnanis, the yoga systems of Patanjali and Gautama, and the systems of philosophers like Kanada, Kapila and Dattatreya are dangerous creatures in the ocean of nescience. By the grace of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu one can have real understanding of the essence of knowledge by avoiding these sectarian views and accepting the lotus feet of Krsna as the ultimate goal of life. Let us all worship Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu for His gracious mercy to the conditioned souls.
karnanandi-kala-dhvanir vahatu me jihva-maru-prangane
sri-caitanya daya-nidhe tava lasal-lila-sudha-svardhuni
krsna--of the holy name of Lord Krsna; utkirtana--loud chanting; gana--singing; nartana--dancing; kala--of the other fine arts; pathah-jani--with lotuses; bhrajita--beautified; sat-bhakta--of pure devotees; avali--rows; hamsa--of swans; cakra--cakravaka birds; madhu-pa--and bumble bees; sreni--like swarms; vihara--of pleasure; aspadam--the abode; karna-anandi--gladdening the ears; kala--melodious; dhvanih--sound; vahatu--let it flow; me--my; jihva--of the tongue; maru--desertlike; prangane--in the courtyard; sri-caitanya daya-nidhe--O Lord Caitanya, ocean of mercy; tava--of You; lasat--shining; lila-sudha--of the nectar of the pastimes; svardhuni--the Ganges.
O my merciful Lord Caitanya, may the nectarean Ganges waters of Your transcendental activities flow on the surface of my desertlike tongue. Beautifying these waters are the lotus flowers of singing, dancing and loud chanting of Krsna's holy name, which are the pleasure abodes of unalloyed devotees. These devotees are compared to swans, ducks and bees. The river's flowing produces a melodious sound that gladdens their ears.
Our tongues always engage in vibrating useless sounds that do not help us realize transcendental peace. The tongue is compared to a desert because a desert needs a constant supply of refreshing water to make it fertile and fruitful. Water is the substance most needed in the desert. The transient pleasure derived from mundane topics of art, culture, politics, sociology, dry philosophy, poetry and so on is compared to a mere drop of water because although such topics have a qualitative feature of transcendental pleasure, they are saturated with the modes of material nature. Therefore neither collectively nor individually can they satisfy the vast requirements of the desertlike tongue. Despite crying in various conferences, therefore, the desertlike tongue continues to be parched. For this reason, people from all parts of the world must call for the devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who are compared to swans swimming around the beautiful lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu or bees humming around His lotus feet in transcendental pleasure, searching for honey. The dryness of material happiness cannot be moistened by so-called philosophers who cry for Brahman, liberation and similar dry speculative objects. The urge of the soul proper is different. The soul can be solaced only by the mercy of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His many bona fide devotees, who never leave the lotus feet of the Lord to become imitation Mahaprabhus but all cling to His lotus feet like bees that never leave a honey-soaked lotus flower.
Lord Caitanya's movement of Krsna consciousness is full of dancing and singing about the pastimes of Lord Krsna. It is compared herein to the pure waters of the Ganges, which are full of lotus flowers. The enjoyers of these lotus flowers are the pure devotees, who are like bees and swans. They chant like the flowing of the Ganges, the river of the celestial kingdom. The author desires such sweetly flowing waves to cover his tongue. He humbly compares himself to materialistic persons who always engage in dry talk from which they derive no satisfaction. If they were to use their dry tongues to chant the holy name of the Lord--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare--as exemplified by Lord Caitanya, they would taste sweet nectar and enjoy life.
jaya jaya--all glory; sri-caitanya--to Lord Caitanya; jaya--all glory; nityananda--to Lord Nityananda; jaya--all glory; advaita-candra--to Advaita Acarya; jaya--all glory; gaura-bhakta-vrnda--to the devotees of Lord Gauranga.
All glories to Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Sri Nityananda. All glories to Advaitacandra, and all glories to the devotees of Lord Gauranga.
trtiya slokera artha kari vivarana
trtiya--third; slokera--of the verse; artha--the meaning; kari--I do; vivarana--description; vastu--of the Absolute Truth; nirdesa-rupa--in the form of delineation; mangala--auspicious; acarana--conduct.
Let me describe the meaning of the third verse [of the first fourteen]. It is an auspicious vibration that describes the Absolute Truth.
yad advaitam brahmopanisadi tad apy asya tanu-bha
ya atmantar-yami purusa iti so 'syamsa-vibhavah
sad-aisvaryaih purno ya iha bhagavan sa svayam ayam
na caitanyat krsnaj jagati para-tattvam param iha
yat--that which; advaitam--without a second; brahma--the impersonal Brahman; upanisadi--in the Upanisads; tat--that; api--certainly; asya--His; tanu-bha--the effulgence of His transcendental body; yah--who; atma--the Supersoul; antah-yami--indwelling Lord; purusah--the supreme enjoyer; iti--thus; sah--He; asya--His; amsa-vibhavah--expansion of a plenary portion; sat-aisvaryaih--with the six opulences; purnah--full; yah--who; iha--here; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sah--He; svayam--Himself; ayam--this one; na--not; caitanyat--than Lord Caitanya; krsnat--than Lord Krsna; jagati--in the world; para--higher; tattvam--truth; param--another; iha--here.
What the Upanisads describe as the impersonal Brahman is but the effulgence of His body, and the Lord known as the Supersoul is but His localized plenary portion. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna Himself, full with six opulences. He is the Absolute Truth, and no other truth is greater than or equal to Him.
The compilers of the Upanisads speak very highly of the impersonal Brahman. The Upanisads, which are considered the most elevated portion of the Vedic literature, are meant for persons who desire to get free from material association and who therefore approach a bona fide spiritual master for enlightenment. The prefix upa- indicates that one must receive knowledge about the Absolute Truth from a spiritual master. One who has faith in his spiritual master actually receives transcendental instruction, and as his attachment for material life slackens, he is able to advance on the spiritual path. Knowledge of the transcendental science of the Upanisads can free one from the entanglement of existence in the material world, and when thus liberated, one can be elevated to the spiritual kingdom of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by advancement in spiritual life.
The beginning of spiritual enlightenment is realization of impersonal Brahman. Such realization is effected by gradual negation of material variegatedness. Impersonal Brahman realization is the partial, distant experience of the Absolute Truth that one achieves through the rational approach. It is compared to one's seeing a hill from a distance and taking it to be a smoky cloud. A hill is not a smoky cloud, but it appears to be one from a distance because of our imperfect vision. In imperfect or smoky realization of the Absolute Truth, spiritual variegatedness is conspicuous by its absence. This experience is therefore called advaita-vada, or realization of the oneness of the Absolute.
The impersonal glowing effulgence of Brahman consists only of the personal bodily rays of the Supreme Godhead, Sri Krsna. Since Sri Gaurasundara, or Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, is identical with Sri Krsna Himself, the Brahman effulgence consists of the rays of His transcendental body.
Similarly, the Supersoul, which is called the Paramatma, is a plenary representation of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The antar-yami, the Supersoul in everyone's heart, is the controller of all living entities. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (15.15), wherein Lord Krsna says, sarvasya caham hrdi sannivistah: "I am situated in everyone's heart." The Bhagavad-gita (5.29) also states, bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram, indicating that the Supreme Lord, acting in His expansion as the Supersoul, is the proprietor of everything. Similarly, the Brahma-samhita (5.35) states, andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham. The Lord is present everywhere, within the heart of every living entity and within each and every atom as well. Thus by this Supersoul feature the Lord is all-pervading.
Furthermore, Lord Caitanya is also the master of all wealth, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation because He is Sri Krsna Himself. He is described as purna, or complete. In the feature of Lord Caitanya, the Lord is an ideal renouncer, just as Sri Rama was an ideal king. He accepted the order of sannyasa and exemplified exceedingly wonderful principles in His own life. No one can compare to Him in the order of sannyasa. Although in Kali-yuga acceptance of the sannyasa order is generally forbidden, Lord Caitanya accepted it because He is complete in renunciation. Others cannot imitate Him but can only follow in His footsteps as far as possible. Those who are unfit for this order of life are strictly forbidden by the injunctions of the sastras to accept it. Lord Caitanya, however, is complete in renunciation as well as all other opulences. He is therefore the highest principle of the Absolute Truth.
By an analytical study of the truth of Lord Caitanya, one will find that He is not different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna; no one is greater than or even equal to Him. In the Bhagavad-gita (7.7) Lord Krsna says to Arjuna, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: "O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna], there is no truth superior to Me." Thus it is here confirmed that there is no truth higher than Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya.
The impersonal Brahman is the goal of those who cultivate the study of books of transcendental knowledge, and the Supersoul is the goal of those who perform the yoga practices. One who knows the Supreme Personality of Godhead surpasses realization of both Brahman and Paramatma because Bhagavan is the ultimate platform of absolute knowledge.
The Personality of Godhead is the complete form of sac-cid-ananda (full life, knowledge and bliss). By realization of the sat portion of the Complete Whole (unlimited existence), one realizes the impersonal Brahman of the Lord. By realization of the cit portion of the Complete Whole (unlimited knowledge), one can realize the localized aspect of the Lord, Paramatma. But neither of these partial realizations of the Complete Whole can help one realize ananda, or complete bliss. Without such realization of ananda, knowledge of the Absolute Truth is incomplete.
This verse of the Caitanya-caritamrta by Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami is confirmed by a parallel statement in the Tattva-sandarbha by Srila Jiva Gosvami. In the Ninth Part of the Tattva-sandarbha it is said that the Absolute Truth is sometimes approached as impersonal Brahman, which, although spiritual, is only a partial representation of the Absolute Truth. Narayana, the predominating Deity in Vaikuntha, is to be known as an expansion of Sri Krsna, but Sri Krsna is the Supreme Absolute Truth, the object of the transcendental love of all living entities.
brahma, atma, bhagavan----anuvada tina
anga-prabha, amsa, svarupa----tina vidheya-cihna
Impersonal Brahman, localized Paramatma and the Personality of Godhead are three subjects, and the glowing effulgence, the partial manifestation and the original form are their three respective predicates.
anuvada age, pache vidheya sthapana
sei artha kahi, suna sastra-vivarana
anuvada--the subject; age--first; pache--afterwards; vidheya--the predicate; sthapana--placing; sei--this; artha--the meaning; kahi--I speak; suna--please listen; sastra-vivarana--to the description of the scriptures.
A predicate always follows its subject. Now I shall explain the meaning of this verse according to the revealed scriptures.
Krsna, the original form of the Personality of Godhead, is the summum bonum of the all-pervading Visnu. He is all-perfect knowledge and all-perfect bliss. He is the Supreme Transcendence.
'nanda-suta' bali' yanre bhagavate gai
sei krsna avatirna caitanya-gosani
nanda-suta--the son of Nanda Maharaja; bali'--as; yanre--who; bhagavate--in Srimad-Bhagavatam; gai--is sung; sei--that; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatirna--descended; caitanya-gosani--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
He whom Srimad-Bhagavatam describes as the son of Nanda Maharaja has descended to earth as Lord Caitanya.
According to the rules of rhetorical arrangement for efficient composition in literature, a subject should be mentioned before its predicate. The Vedic literature frequently mentions Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan, and therefore these three terms are widely known as the subjects of transcendental understanding. But it is not widely known that what is approached as the impersonal Brahman is the effulgence of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's transcendental body. Nor is it widely known that the Supersoul, or Paramatma, is only a partial representation of Lord Caitanya, who is identical with Bhagavan Himself. Therefore the descriptions of Brahman as the effulgence of Lord Caitanya, the Paramatma as His partial representation, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna as identical with Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu must be verified by evidence from authoritative Vedic literatures.
The author wants to establish first that the essence of the Vedas is the visnu-tattva, the Absolute Truth, Visnu, the all-pervading Godhead. The visnu-tattva has different categories, of which the highest is Lord Krsna, the ultimate visnu-tattva, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita and throughout the Vedic literature. In Srimad-Bhagavatam the same Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna is described as Nanda-suta, the son of King Nanda. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami says that Nandasuta has again appeared as Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu because the conclusion of the Vedic literature is that there is no difference between Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This the author will prove. If it is thus proved that Sri Krsna is the origin of all tattvas (truths), namely Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan, and that there is no difference between Sri Krsna and Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, it will not be difficult to understand that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is also the same origin of all tattvas. The same Absolute Truth, as He is revealed to students of different realizations, is called Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan.
prakasa-visese tenha dhare tina nama
brahma, paramatma ara svayam-bhagavan
In terms of His various manifestations, He is known in three features, called the impersonal Brahman, the localized Paramatma and the original Personality of Godhead.
Srila Jiva Gosvami has explained the word bhagavan in his Bhagavat-sandarbha. The Personality of Godhead, being full of all conceivable and inconceivable potencies, is the absolute Supreme Whole. Impersonal Brahman is a partial manifestation of the Absolute Truth realized in the absence of such complete potencies. The first syllable of the word bhagavan is bha, which means "sustainer" and "protector." The next letter, ga, means "leader," "pusher" and "creator." Va means "dwelling" (all living beings dwell in the Supreme Lord, and the Supreme Lord dwells within the heart of every living being). Combining all these concepts, the word bhagavan carries the import of inconceivable potency in knowledge, energy, strength, opulence, power and influence, devoid of all varieties of inferiority. Without such inconceivable potencies, one cannot fully sustain or protect. Our modern civilization is sustained by scientific arrangements devised by many great scientific brains. We can just imagine, therefore, the gigantic brain whose arrangements sustain the gravity of the unlimited number of planets and satellites and who creates the unlimited space in which they float. If one considers the intelligence needed to orbit man-made satellites, one cannot be fooled into thinking that there is not a gigantic intelligence responsible for the arrangements of the various planetary systems. There is no reason to believe that all the gigantic planets float in space without the superior arrangement of a superior intelligence. This subject is clearly dealt with in the Bhagavad-gita (15.13) where the Personality of Godhead says, "I enter into each planet, and by My energy they stay in orbit." Were the planets not held in the grip of the Personality of Godhead, they would all scatter like dust in the air. Modern scientists can only impractically explain this inconceivable strength of the Personality of Godhead.
The potencies of the syllables bha, ga and va apply in terms of many different meanings. Through His different potential agents, the Lord protects and sustains everything, but He Himself personally protects and sustains only His devotees, just as a king personally sustains and protects his own children, while entrusting the protection and sustenance of the state to various administrative agents. The Lord is the leader of His devotees, as we learn from the Bhagavad-gita, which mentions that the Personality of Godhead personally instructs His loving devotees how to make certain progress on the path of devotion and thus surely approach the kingdom of God. The Lord is also the recipient of all the adoration offered by His devotees, for whom He is the objective and the goal. For His devotees the Lord creates a favorable condition for developing a sense of transcendental love of Godhead. Sometimes He does this by taking away a devotee's material attachments by force and baffling all his material protective agents, for thus the devotee must completely depend on the Lord's protection. In this way the Lord proves Himself the leader of His devotees.
The Lord is not directly attached to the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material world, for He is eternally busy in the enjoyment of transcendental bliss with His internal potential paraphernalia. Yet as the initiator of the material energy as well as the marginal potency (the living beings), He expands Himself as the purusa-avataras, who are invested with potencies similar to His. The purusa-avataras are also in the category of bhagavat-tattva because each and every one of them is identical with the original form of the Personality of Godhead. The living entities are His infinitesimal particles and are qualitatively one with Him. They are sent into this material world for material enjoyment to fulfill their desires to be independent individuals, but still they are subject to the supreme will of the Lord. The Lord deputes Himself in the state of Supersoul to supervise the arrangements for such material enjoyment. The example of a temporary fair is quite appropriate in this connection. If the citizens of a state assemble in a fair to enjoy for a short period, the government deputes a special officer to supervise it. Such an officer is invested with all governmental power, and therefore he is identical with the government. When the fair is over, there is no need for such an officer, and he returns home. The Paramatma is compared to such an officer.
The living beings are not all in all. They are undoubtedly parts of the Supreme Lord and are qualitatively one with Him; yet they are subject to His control. Thus they are never equal to the Lord or one with Him. The Lord who associates with the living being is the Paramatma, or supreme living being. No one, therefore, should view the tiny living beings and supreme living being to be on an equal level.
The all-pervading truth that exists eternally during the creation, maintenance and annihilation of the material world and in which the living beings rest in trance is called the impersonal Brahman.
"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth say that it is nondual knowledge and is called impersonal Brahman, localized Paramatma and the Personality of Godhead."
This Sanskrit verse appears as the eleventh verse of the First Canto, Second Chapter, of Srimad-Bhagavatam, where Suta Gosvami answers the questions of the sages headed by Saunaka Rsi concerning the essence of all scriptural instructions. Tattva-vidah refers to persons who have knowledge of the Absolute Truth. They can certainly understand knowledge without duality because they are on the spiritual platform. The Absolute Truth is known sometimes as Brahman, sometimes as Paramatma and sometimes as Bhagavan. Persons who are in knowledge of the truth know that one who tries to approach the Absolute simply by mental speculation will ultimately realize the impersonal Brahman, and one who tries to approach the Absolute through yoga practice will be able to realize Paramatma, but one who has complete knowledge and spiritual understanding realizes the spiritual form of Bhagavan, the Personality of Godhead.
Devotees of the Personality of Godhead know that Sri Krsna, the son of the King of Vraja, is the Absolute Truth. They do not discriminate between Sri Krsna's name, form, quality and pastimes. One who wants to separate the Lord's absolute name, form and qualities must be understood to be lacking in absolute knowledge. A pure devotee knows that when he chants the transcendental name Krsna, Sri Krsna is present as transcendental sound. He therefore chants with full respect and veneration. When he sees the forms of Sri Krsna, he does not see anything different from the Lord. If one sees otherwise, he must be considered untrained in absolute knowledge. This lack of absolute knowledge is called maya. One who is not Krsna conscious is ruled by the spell of maya under the control of a duality in knowledge. In the Absolute, all manifestations of the Supreme Lord are nondual, just as the multifarious forms of Visnu, the controller of maya, are nondual. Empiric philosophers who pursue the impersonal Brahman accept only the knowledge that the personality of the living entity is not different from the personality of the Supreme Lord, and mystic yogis who try to locate the Paramatma accept only the knowledge that the pure soul is not different from the Supersoul. The absolute conception of a pure devotee, however, includes all others. A devotee does not see anything except in its relationship with Krsna, and therefore his realization is the most perfect of all.
tanhara angera suddha kirana-mandala
upanisat kahe tanre brahma sunirmala
What the Upanisads call the transcendental, impersonal Brahman is the realm of the glowing effulgence of the same Supreme Person.
Three mantras of the Mundaka Upanisad (2.2.9-11) give information regarding the bodily effulgence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They state:
hiranmaye pare kose
virajam brahma niskalam
tac chubhram jyotisam jyotis
tad yad atma-vido viduh
na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam
nema vidyuto bhanti kuto 'yam agnih
tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvam
tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati
brahmaivedam amrtam purastad brahma
pascad brahma daksinatas cottarena
adhas cordhvam ca prasrtam brahmai-
vedam visvam idam varistham
"In the spiritual realm, beyond the material covering, is the unlimited Brahman effulgence, which is free from material contamination. That effulgent white light is understood by transcendentalists to be the light of all lights. In that realm there is no need of sunshine, moonshine, fire or electricity for illumination. Indeed, whatever illumination appears in the material world is only a reflection of that supreme illumination. That Brahman is in front and in back, in the north, south, east and west, and also overhead and below. In other words, that supreme Brahman effulgence spreads throughout both the material and spiritual skies."
carma-cakse dekhe yaiche surya nirvisesa
jnana-marge laite nare krsnera visesa
carma-cakse--by the naked eye; dekhe--one sees; yaiche--just as; surya--the sun; nirvisesa--without variegatedness; jnana-marge--by the path of philosophical speculation; laite--to accept; nare--not able; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; visesa--the variety.
As with the naked eye one cannot know the sun except as a glowing substance, merely by philosophical speculation one cannot understand Lord Krsna's transcendental varieties.
yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-
tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yasya--of whom; prabha--the effulgence; prabhavatah--of one who excels in power; jagat-anda--of universes; koti-kotisu--in millions and millions; asesa--unlimited; vasudha-adi--with planets, etc; vibhuti--with opulences; bhinnam--becoming variegated; tat--that; brahma--Brahman; niskalam--without parts; anantam--unlimited; asesa-bhutam--being complete; govindam--Lord Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
[Lord Brahma said:] "I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is endowed with great power. The glowing effulgence of His transcendental form is the impersonal Brahman, which is absolute, complete and unlimited and which displays the varieties of countless planets, with their different opulences, in millions and millions of universes.
This verse appears in the Brahma-samhita (5.40). Each and every one of the countless universes is full of innumerable planets with different constitutions and atmospheres. All these come from the unlimited nondual Brahman, or Complete Whole, which exists in absolute knowledge. The origin of that unlimited Brahman effulgence is the transcendental body of Govinda, who is offered respectful obeisances as the original and supreme Personality of Godhead.
koti koti brahmande ye brahmera vibhuti
sei brahma govindera haya anga-kanti
koti--tens of millions; koti--tens of millions; brahma-ande--in universes; ye--which; brahmera--of Brahman; vibhuti--opulences; sei--that; brahma--Brahman; govindera--of Lord Govinda; haya--is; anga-kanti--bodily effulgence.
"The opulences of the impersonal Brahman spread throughout the millions and millions of universes. That Brahman is but the bodily effulgence of Govinda."
sei govinda bhaji ami, tehon mora pati
tanhara prasade mora haya srsti-sakti
"I worship Govinda. He is my Lord. Only by His grace am I empowered to create the universe."
Although the sun is situated far away from the other planets, its rays sustain and maintain them all. Indeed, the sun diffuses its heat and light all over the universe. Similarly, the supreme sun, Govinda, diffuses His heat and light everywhere in the form of His different potencies. The sun's heat and light are nondifferent from the sun. In the same way, the unlimited potencies of Govinda are nondifferent from Govinda Himself. Therefore the all-pervasive Brahman is the all-pervasive Govinda. The Bhagavad-gita (14.27) clearly mentions that the impersonal Brahman is dependent upon Govinda. That is the real conception of absolute knowledge.
munayah--saints; vata-vasanah--naked; sramanah--who perform severe physical penances; urdhva--raised up; manthinah--whose semen; brahma-akhyam--known as Brahmaloka; dhama--to the abode; te--they; yanti--go; santah--equipoised in Brahman; sannyasinah--who are in the renounced order of life; amalah--pure.
[Sri Uddhava said:] "Naked saints and sannyasis who undergo severe physical penances, who can raise the semen to the brain, and who are completely equipoised in Brahman can live in the realm known as Brahmaloka."
In this verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.6.47), vata-vasanah refers to mendicants who do not care about anything material, including clothing, but who depend wholly on nature. Such sages do not cover their bodies even in severe winter or scorching sunshine. They take great pains not to avoid any kind of bodily suffering, and they live by begging from door to door. They never discharge their semen, either knowingly or unknowingly. By such celibacy they are able to raise the semen to the brain. Thus they become most intelligent and develop very sharp memories. Their minds are never disturbed or diverted from contemplation on the Absolute Truth, nor are they ever contaminated by desire for material enjoyment. By practicing austerities under strict discipline, such mendicants attain a neutral state transcendental to the modes of nature and merge into the impersonal Brahman.
atmantaryami yanre yoga-sastre kaya
seha govindera amsa vibhuti ye haya
atma antah-yami--in-dwelling Supersoul; yanre--who; yoga-sastre--in the scriptures of yoga; kaya--is spoken; seha--that; govindera--of Govinda; amsa--plenary portion; vibhuti--expansion; ye--which; haya--is.
He who is described in the yoga-sastras as the indwelling Supersoul [atma antar-yami] is also a plenary portion of Govinda's personal expansion.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is by nature joyful. His enjoyments, or pastimes, are completely transcendental. He is in the fourth dimension of existence, for although the material world is measured by the limitations of length, breadth and height, the Supreme Lord is completely unlimited in His body, form and existence. He is not personally attached to any of the affairs within the material cosmos. The material world is created by the expansion of His purusa-avataras, who direct the aggregate material energy and all the conditioned souls. By understanding the three expansions of the purusa, a living entity can transcend the position of knowing only the twenty-four elements of the material world.
One of the expansions of Maha-Visnu is Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the Supersoul within every living entity. As the Supersoul of the total aggregate of living entities, or the second purusa, He is known as Garbhodakasayi Visnu. As the creator or original cause of innumerable universes, or the first purusa, who is lying on the Causal Ocean, He is called Maha-Visnu. The three purusas direct the affairs of the material world.
The authorized scriptures direct the individual souls to revive their relationship with the Supersoul. Indeed, the system of yoga is the process of transcending the influence of the material elements by establishing a connection with the purusa known as the Paramatma. One who has thoroughly studied the intricacies of creation can know very easily that this Paramatma is the plenary portion of the Supreme Being, Sri Krsna.
ananta--unlimited; sphatike--in crystals; yaiche--just as; eka--one; surya--sun; bhase--appears; taiche--just so; jive--in the living entity; govindera--of Govinda; amsa--portion; prakase--manifests.
As the one sun appears reflected in countless jewels, so Govinda manifests Himself [as the Paramatma] in the hearts of all living beings.
The sun is situated in a specific location but is reflected in countless jewels and appears in innumerable localized aspects. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although eternally present in His transcendental abode, Goloka Vrndavana, is reflected in everyone's heart as the Supersoul. In the Upanisads it is said that the jiva (living entity) and the Paramatma (Supersoul) are like two birds sitting in the same tree. The Supersoul engages the living being in executing fruitive work as a result of his deeds in the past, but the Paramatma has nothing to do with such engagements. As soon as the living being ceases to act in terms of fruitive work and takes to the service of the Lord (Paramatma), coming to know of His supremacy, he is immediately freed from all designations, and in that pure state he enters the kingdom of God known as Vaikuntha.
The Supersoul (Paramatma), the guide of the individual living beings, does not take part in fulfilling the desires of the living beings, but He arranges for their fulfillment by material nature. As soon as an individual soul becomes conscious of his eternal relationship with the Supersoul and looks only toward Him, he at once becomes free from the entanglements of material enjoyment. Christian philosophers who do not believe in the law of karma put forward the argument that it is absurd for a person to accept the results of past deeds of which he has no consciousness. A criminal is first reminded of his misdeeds by witnesses in a law court, and then he is punished. If death is complete forgetfulness, why should a person be punished for his past misdeeds? The conception of the Paramatma is an invincible answer to these fallacious arguments. The Paramatma is the witness of the past activities of the individual living being. A man may not remember what he has done in his childhood, but his father, who has seen him grow through different stages of development, certainly remembers. Similarly, the living being undergoes many changes of body through many lives, but the Supersoul is also with him and remembers all his activities, despite his evolution through different bodies.
atha va bahunaitena
kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam
ekamsena sthito jagat
tam--Him; imam--this; aham--I; ajam--the unborn; sarira-bhajam--of the conditioned souls endowed with bodies; hrdi hrdi--in each of the hearts; dhisthitam--situated; atma--by themselves; kalpitanam--which are imagined; prati-drsam--for every eye; iva--like; na eka-dha--not in one way; arkam--the sun; ekam--one; samadhigatah--one who has obtained; asmi--I am; vidhuta--removed; bheda-mohah--whose misconception of duality.
[Grandfather Bhisma said:] "As the one sun appears differently situated to different seers, so also do You, the unborn, appear differently represented as the Paramatma in every living being. But when a seer knows himself to be one of Your own servitors, no longer does he maintain such duality. Thus I am now able to comprehend Your eternal forms, knowing well the Paramatma to be only Your plenary portion."
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.42) was spoken by Bhismadeva, the grandfather of the Kurus, when he was lying on a bed of arrows at the last stage of his life. Arjuna, Krsna and numberless friends, admirers, relatives and sages had gathered on the scene as Maharaja Yudhisthira took moral and religious instructions from the dying Bhisma. Just as the final moment arrived for him, Bhisma spoke this verse while looking at Lord Krsna.
Just as the one sun is the object of vision of many different persons, so the one partial representation of Lord Krsna who lives in the heart of every living entity as the Paramatma is a variously perceived object. One who comes intimately in touch with Lord Krsna by engaging in His eternal service sees the Supersoul as the localized partial representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhisma knew the Supersoul to be a partial expansion of Lord Krsna, whom he understood to be the supreme unborn transcendental form.
seita govinda saksac caitanya gosani
jiva nistarite aiche dayalu ara nai
seita--that; govinda--Govinda; saksat--personally; caitanya--Lord Caitanya; gosani--Gosani; jiva--the fallen living entities; nistarite--to deliver; aiche--such; dayalu--a merciful Lord; ara--another; nai--there is not.
That Govinda personally appears as Caitanya Gosani. No other Lord is as merciful in delivering the fallen souls.
Having described Govinda in terms of His Brahman and Paramatma features, now the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta advances his argument to prove that Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the identical personality. The same Lord Sri Krsna, in the garb of a devotee of Sri Krsna, descended to this mortal world to reclaim the fallen human beings who had misunderstood the Personality of Godhead even after the explanation of the Bhagavad-gita. In the Bhagavad-gita the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna directly instructed that the Supreme is a person. Impersonal Brahman is His glowing effulgence, the Paramatma is His partial representation, and all men are therefore advised to follow the path of Sri Krsna, leaving aside all mundane "isms." Offenders misunderstood this instruction, however, because of their poor fund of knowledge. Thus by His causeless, unlimited mercy Sri Krsna came again as Sri Caitanya Gosani.
The author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta most emphatically stresses that Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Sri Krsna Himself. He is not an expansion of the prakasa or vilasa forms of Sri Krsna; He is the svayam-rupa, Govinda. Apart from the relevant scriptural evidence forwarded by Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, there are innumerable other scriptural statements regarding Lord Caitanya's being the Supreme Lord Himself. The following examples may be cited:
(1) From the Caitanya Upanisad (5): gaurah sarvatma maha-puruso mahatma maha-yogi tri-gunatitah sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kasyati. "Lord Gaura, who is the all-pervading Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears as a great saint and powerful mystic who is above the three modes of nature and is the emblem of transcendental activity. He disseminates the cult of devotion throughout the world."
(2) From the Svetasvatara Upanisad:
tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram
tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam
patim patinam paramam parastad
vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam
"O Supreme Lord, You are the Supreme Mahesvara, the worshipable Deity of all the demigods and the Supreme Lord of all lords. You are the controller of all controllers, the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of everything worshipable." (Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.7)
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Mahaprabhu, who disseminates transcendental enlightenment. Just to be in touch with Him is to be in contact with the indestructible brahmajyoti." (Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.12)
"One who sees that golden-colored Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, is liberated."
(4) From Srimad-Bhagavatam:
dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham
tirthaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam
bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam
vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam
"We offer our respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Him, the Lord, upon whom one should always meditate. He destroys insults to His devotees. He removes the distresses of His devotees and satisfies their desires. He, the abode of all holy places and the shelter of all sages, is worshipable by Lord Siva and Lord Brahma. He is the boat of the demigods for crossing the ocean of birth and death." (Bhag. 11.5.33)
dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agad aranyam
maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad
vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam
"We offer our respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of the Lord, upon whom one should always meditate. He left His householder life, leaving aside His eternal consort, whom even the denizens of heaven adore. He went into the forest to deliver the fallen souls, who are put into illusion by material energy." (Bhag. 11.5.34)
lokan vibhavayasi hamsi jagat-pratipan
dharmam maha-purusa pasi yuganuvrttam
channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo 'tha sa tvam
"My Lord, You kill all the enemies of the world in Your multifarious incarnations in the families of men, animals, demigods, rsis, aquatics and so on. Thus You illuminate the worlds with transcendental knowledge. In the Age of Kali, O Mahapurusa, You sometimes appear in a covered incarnation. Therefore You are known as Tri-yuga [one who appears in only three yugas)." (Bhag. 7.9.38)
(5) From the Krsna-yamala-tantra: punya-ksetre navadvipe bhavisyami saci-sutah. "I shall appear in the holy land of Navadvipa as the son of Sacidevi."
(6) From the Vayu Purana: kalau sankirtanarambhe bhavisyami saci-sutah. "In the Age of Kali when the sankirtana movement is inaugurated, I shall descend as the son of Sacidevi."
(7) From the Brahma-yamala-tantra:
atha vaham dharadhame
mayayam ca bhavisyami
"Sometimes I personally appear on the surface of the world in the garb of a devotee. Specifically, I appear as the son of Saci in Kali-yuga to start the sankirtana movement."
(8), From the Ananta-samhita:
ya eva bhagavan krsno
srsty adau sa jagan-natho
gaura asin mahesvari
"The Supreme Person, Sri Krsna Himself, who is the life of Sri Radharani and is the Lord of the universe in creation, maintenance and annihilation, appears as Gaura, O Mahesvari."
para-vyomete vaise narayana nama
sad-aisvarya-purna laksmi-kanta bhagavan
para-vyomete--in the transcendental world; vaise--sits; narayana--Lord Narayana; nama--of the name; sat-aisvarya--of six kinds of opulences; purna--full; laksmi-kanta--the husband of the goddess of opulence; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Lord Narayana, who dominates the transcendental world, is full in six opulences. He is the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of the goddess of fortune.
veda, bhagavata, upanisat, agama
'purna-tattva' yanre kahe, nahi yanra sama
The Personality of Godhead is He who is described as the Absolute Whole in the Vedas, Bhagavatam, Upanisads and other transcendental literatures. No one is equal to Him.
There are innumerable authoritative statements in the Vedas regarding the personal feature of the Absolute Truth. Some of them are as follows:
(1) From the Rk-samhita (1.22.20):
tad visnoh paramam padam sada
pasyanti surayo diviva caksur atatam
"The Personality of Godhead Visnu is the Absolute Truth, whose lotus feet all the demigods are always eager to see. Like the sun-god, He pervades everything by the rays of His energy. He appears impersonal to imperfect eyes."
(2) From the Narayanatharva-sira Upanisad (1-2): narayanad eva samutpadyante narayanat pravartante narayane praliyante. . . . atha nityo narayanah. . . . narayana evedam sarvam yad bhutam yac ca bhavyam. . . . suddho deva eko narayano na dvitiyo 'sti kascit. "It is from Narayana only that everything is generated, by Him only that everything is maintained, and in Him only that everything is annihilated. Therefore Narayana is eternally existing. Everything that exists now or will be created in the future is nothing but Narayana, who is the unadulterated Deity. There is only Narayana and nothing else."
(3) From the Narayana Upanisad (1.4): yatah prasuta jagatah prasuti. "Narayana is the source from whom all the universes emanate."
(4) From the Hayasirsa Pancaratra: paramatma harir devah. "Hari is the Supreme Lord."
(5) From the Bhagavatam (11.3.34-35):
nistham arhatha no vaktum
yuyam hi brahma-vittamah
"O best of the brahmanas, please tell us of the position of Narayana, who is also known as Brahman and Paramatma."
sthity-udbhava-pralaya-hetur ahetur asya
yat svapna-jagara-susuptisu sad bahis ca
dehendriyasu-hrdayani caranti yena
sanjivitani tad avehi param narendra
"O King, know Him who is causeless and yet is the cause of creation, maintenance and annihilation. He exists in the three states of consciousness--namely waking, dreaming and deep sleep--as well as beyond them. He enlivens the body, the senses, the breath of life, and the heart, and thus they move. Know Him to be supreme."
Through their service, devotees see that Personality of Godhead, just as the denizens of heaven see the personality of the sun.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has His eternal form, which cannot be seen by material eyes or mental speculation. Only by transcendental devotional service can one understand the transcendental form of the Lord. The comparison is made here to the qualifications for viewing the personal features of the sun-god. The sun-god is a person who, although not visible to our eyes, is seen from the higher planets by the demigods, whose eyes are suitable for seeing through the glaring sunshine that surrounds him. Every planet has its own atmosphere according to the influence of the arrangement of material nature. It is therefore necessary to have a particular type of bodily construction to reach a particular planet. The inhabitants of earth may be able to reach the moon, but the inhabitants of heaven can reach even the fiery sphere called the sun. What is impossible for man on earth is easy for the demigods in heaven because of their different bodies. Similarly, to see the Supreme Lord one must have the spiritual eyes of devotional service. The Personality of Godhead is unapproachable by those who are habituated to speculation about the Absolute Truth in terms of experimental scientific thought, without reference to the transcendental vibration. The ascending approach to the Absolute Truth ends in the realization of impersonal Brahman and the localized Paramatma but not the Supreme Transcendental Personality.
jnana-yoga-marge tanre bhaje yei saba
brahma-atma-rupe tanre kare anubhava
jnana--of philosophical speculation; yoga--and of mystic yoga; marge--on the paths; tanre--Him; bhaje--worship; yei--who; saba--all; brahma--of impersonal Brahman; atma--and of the Supersoul (Paramatma); rupe--in the forms; tanre--Him; kare--do; anubhava--perceive.
Those who walk the paths of knowledge and yoga worship only Him, for it is Him they perceive as the impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma.
Those who are fond of mental speculation (jnana-marga) or want to meditate in mystic yoga to find the Absolute Truth must approach the impersonal effulgence of the Lord and His partial representation respectively. Such persons cannot realize the eternal form of the Lord.
upasana-bhede jani isvara-mahima
ataeva surya tanra diyeta upama
upasana-bhede--by the different paths of worship; jani--I know; isvara--of the Supreme Lord; mahima--greatness; ataeva--therefore; surya--the sun; tanra--of Him; diyeta--was given; upama--simile.
Thus one may understand the glories of the Lord through different modes of worship, as the example of the sun illustrates.
sei narayana krsnera svarupa-abheda
eka-i vigraha, kintu akara-vibheda
This Personality of Godhead [Sri Krsna] has two hands and holds a flute, whereas the other [Narayana] has four hands, with conch, wheel, mace and lotus.
Narayana is identical to Sri Krsna. They are in fact the same person manifested differently, like a high court judge who is differently situated in his office and at home. As Narayana the Lord is manifested with four hands, but as Krsna He is manifested with two hands.
narayanas tvam na hi sarva-dehinam
narayano 'ngam nara-bhu-jalayanat
tac capi satyam na tavaiva maya
narayanah--Lord Narayana; tvam--You; na--not; hi--certainly; sarva--all; dehinam--of the embodied beings; atma--the Supersoul; asi--You are; adhisa--O Lord; akhila-loka--of all the worlds; saksi--the witness; narayanah--known as Narayana; angam--plenary portion; nara--of Nara; bhu--born; jala--in the water; ayanat--due to the place of refuge; tat--that; ca--and; api--certainly; satyam--highest truth; na--not; tava--Your; eva--at all; maya--the illusory energy.
"O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father, Narayana? Narayana refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara [Garbhodakasayi Visnu], and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of maya."
This statement, which is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.14), was spoken by Lord Brahma in his prayers to Lord Krsna after the Lord had defeated him by displaying His mystic powers. Brahma had tried to test Lord Krsna to see if He were really the Supreme Personality of Godhead playing as a cowherd boy. Brahma stole all the other boys and their calves from the pasturing grounds, but when he returned to the pastures he saw that all the boys and calves were still there, for Lord Krsna had created them all again. When Brahma saw this mystic power of Lord Krsna's, he admitted defeat and offered prayers to the Lord, addressing Him as the proprietor and seer of everything in the creation and as the Supersoul who is within each and every living entity and is dear to all. That Lord Krsna is Narayana, the father of Brahma, because Lord Krsna's plenary expansion Garbhodakasayi Visnu, after placing Himself on the Garbha Ocean, created Brahma from His own body. Maha-Visnu in the Causal Ocean and Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the Supersoul in everyone's heart, are also transcendental expansions of the Supreme Truth.
sisu vatsa hari' brahma kari aparadha
aparadha ksamaite magena prasada
Sri Krsna said, "O Brahma, your father is Narayana. I am but a cowherd boy. How can you be My son?"
brahma balena, tumi ki na hao narayana
tumi narayana----suna tahara karana
brahma--Lord Brahma; balena--says; tumi--You; ki na hao--are not; narayana--Lord Narayana; tumi--You; narayana--Lord Narayana; suna--please hear; tahara--of that; karana--reason.
Brahma replied, "Are You not Narayana? You are certainly Narayana. Please listen as I state the proofs.
prakrtaprakrta-srstye yata jiva-rupa
tahara ye atma tumi mula-svarupa
prakrta--material; aprakrta--and spiritual; srstye--in the creations; yata--as many as there are; jiva-rupa--the living beings; tahara--of them; ye--who; atma--the Supersoul; tumi--You; mula-svarupa--ultimate source.
"All the living beings within the material and spiritual worlds are ultimately born of You, for You are the Supersoul of them all."
The cosmic manifestation is generated by the interaction of the three modes of material nature. The transcendental world has no such material modes, although it is nevertheless full of spiritual variegatedness. In that spiritual world there are also innumerable living entities, who are eternally liberated souls engaged in transcendental loving service to Lord Krsna. The conditioned souls, who remain within the material cosmic creation, are subjected to the threefold miseries and pangs of material nature. They exist in different species of life because they are eternally averse to transcendental loving devotion to the Supreme Lord.
Sankarsana is the original source of all living entities because they are all expansions of His marginal potency. Some of them are conditioned by material nature, whereas others are under the protection of the spiritual nature. The material nature is a conditional manifestation of spiritual nature, just as smoke is a conditional stage of fire. Smoke is dependent on fire, but in a blazing fire there is no place for smoke. Smoke disturbs, but fire serves. The serving spirit of the residents of the transcendental world is displayed in five varieties of relationship with the Supreme Lord, who is the central enjoyer. In the material world everyone is a self-centered enjoyer of mundane happiness and distress. A person considers himself the lord of everything and tries to enjoy the illusory energy, but he is not successful because he is not independent: he is but a minute particle of the energy of Lord Sankarsana. All living beings exist under the control of the Supreme Lord, who is therefore called Narayana.
prthvi--the earth; yaiche--just as; ghata--of earthen pots; kulera--of the multitude; karana--the cause; asraya--the shelter; jivera--of the living beings; nidana--root cause; tumi--You; tumi--You; sarva-asraya--shelter of all.
"As the earth is the original cause and shelter of all pots made of earth, so You are the ultimate cause and shelter of all living beings."
As the vast earth is the source for the ingredients of all earthen pots, so the Supreme Soul is the source for the complete substance of all individual living entities. The cause of all causes, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the cause of the living entities. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7.10), where the Lord says, bijam mam sarva-bhutanam ("I am the seed of all living entities"), and in the Upanisads (Katha Upanisad 5.3), which say, nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam ("the Lord is the supreme leader among all the eternal living beings").
The Lord is the reservoir of all cosmic manifestation, animate and inanimate. The advocates of Visistadvaita-vada philosophy explain the Vedanta-sutra by saying that although the living entity has two kinds of bodies--subtle (consisting of mind, intelligence and false ego) and gross (consisting of the five basic elements)--and although he thus lives in three bodily dimensions (gross, subtle and spiritual), he is nevertheless a spiritual soul. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who emanates the material and spiritual worlds, is the Supreme Spirit. As an individual spirit soul is almost identical to his gross and subtle bodies, so the Supreme Lord is almost identical to the material and spiritual worlds. The material world, full of conditioned souls trying to lord it over matter, is a manifestation of the external energy of the Supreme Lord, and the spiritual world, full of perfect servitors of the Lord, is a manifestation of His internal energy. Since all living entities are minute sparks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is the Supreme Soul in both the material and spiritual worlds. The Vaisnavas following Lord Caitanya stress the doctrine of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva, which states that the Supreme Lord, being the cause and effect of everything, is inconceivably, simultaneously one with His manifestations of energy and different from them.
'nara'-sabde kahe sarva jivera nicaya
'ayana'-sabdete kahe tahara asraya
nara-sabde--by the word nara; kahe--one means; sarva jivera--of all living entities; nicaya--the assemblage; ayana-sabdete--by the word ayana; kahe--one means; tahara--of them; asraya--the refuge.
"The word nara refers to the aggregate of all the living beings, and the word ayana refers to the refuge of them all."
ataeva tumi hao mula narayana
ei eka hetu, suna dvitiya karana
ataeva--therefore; adhisvara--primeval Lord; tumi--You; sarva--of all; pita--father; tomara--Your; saktite--by the energy; tanra--They; jagat--of the cosmic creations; raksita--protectors.
"Therefore You are the primeval Lord, the original father of everyone. They [the purusas] are protectors of the universes by Your power."
narera ayana yate karaha palana
ataeva hao tumi mula narayana
narera--of the living beings; ayana--the shelters; yate--those to whom; karaha--You give; palana--protection; ataeva--therefore; hao--are; tumi--You; mula--original; narayana--Narayana.
"Since You protect those who are the shelters of all living beings, You are the original Narayana."
The controlling Deities of the living beings in the mundane worlds are the three purusa-avataras. But the potent energy displayed by Sri Krsna is far more extensive than that of the purusas. Sri Krsna is therefore the original father and Lord who protects all creative manifestations through His various plenary portions. Since He sustains even the shelters of the collective living beings, there is no doubt that Sri Krsna is the original Narayana.
"Both in this material world and in the transcendental world, You see all the deeds of all living beings, in the past, present and future. Since You are the witness of all such deeds, You know the essence of everything."
tomara darsane sarva jagatera sthiti
tumi na dekhile karo nahi sthiti gati
tomara--Your; darsane--by the seeing; sarva--all; jagatera--of the universe; sthiti--maintenance; tumi--You; na dekhile--in not seeing; karo--of anyone; nahi--there is not; sthiti--staying; gati--moving.
"All the worlds exist because You oversee them. None can live, move or have their being without Your supervision."
narera ayana yate kara darasana
tahateo hao tumi mula narayana
narera--of the living beings; ayana--the motion; yate--since; kara--You do; darasana--seeing; tahateo--therefore; hao--are; tumi--You; mula--original; narayana--Narayana.
"You oversee the wanderings of all living beings. For this reason also, You are the primeval Lord Narayana."
Sri Krsna, in His Paramatma feature, lives in the hearts of all living beings in both the transcendental and mundane creations. As Paramatma, He witnesses all actions the living beings perform in all phases of time, namely past, present and future. Sri Krsna knows what the living beings have done for hundreds and thousands of past births, He sees what they are doing now, and therefore He knows the results of their present actions that will fructify in the future. As stated in the Bhagavad-gita, the entire cosmic situation is created as soon as He glances over the material energy. Nothing can exist without His superintendence. Since He sees even the abode for rest of the collective living beings, He is the original Narayana.
krsna kahena----brahma, tomara na bujhi vacana
jiva-hrdi, jale vaise sei narayana
krsna--Lord Krsna; kahena--says; brahma--O Brahma; tomara--your; na--not; bujhi--I understand; vacana--speech; jiva--of the living entity; hrdi--in the heart; jale--in the water; vaise--sits; sei--that; narayana--Lord Narayana.
Krsna said, "Brahma, I cannot understand what you are saying. Lord Narayana is He who sits in the hearts of all living beings and lies down in the waters of the Karana Ocean."
brahma kahe----jale jive yei narayana
se saba tomara amsa----e satya vacana
brahma--Lord Brahma; kahe--says; jale--in the water; jive--in the living being; yei--who; narayana--Narayana; se--They; saba--all; tomara--Your; amsa--plenary part; e--this; satya--truthful; vacana--word.
Brahma replied, "What I have said is true. The same Lord Narayana who lives on the waters and in the hearts of all living beings is but a plenary portion of You."
maya-dvare srsti kare, tate saba mayi
karana-abdhi--Karanodakasayi Visnu; garbha-udaka--Garbhodakasayi Visnu; ksira-udaka-sayi--Ksirodakasayi Visnu; maya-dvare--with the material energy; srsti--creation; kare--They do; tate--therefore; saba--all; mayi--connected with maya.
"The Karanodakasayi, Garbhodakasayi and Ksirodakasayi forms of Narayana all create in cooperation with the material energy. In this way They are attached to maya."
sei tina jala-sayi sarva-antaryami
brahmanda-vrndera atma ye purusa-nami
sei--these; tina--three; jala-sayi--lying in the water; sarva--of all; antah yami--the Supersoul; brahma-anda--of universes; vrndera--of the multitude; atma--Supersoul; ye--who; purusa--purusa; nami--named.
"These three Visnus lying in the water are the Supersoul of everything. The Supersoul of all the universes is known as the first purusa."
hiranya-garbhera--of the total of the living entities; atma--the Supersoul; garbha-udaka-sayi--Garbhodakasayi Visnu; vyasti--the individual; jiva--of the living entity; antah-yami--Supersoul; ksira-udaka-sayi--Ksirodakasayi Visnu.
"Garbhodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of the aggregate of living entities, and Ksirodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of each individual living being."
e sabhara darsanete ache maya-gandha
turiya krsnera nahi mayara sambandha
e--this; sabhara--of the assembly; darsanete--in seeing; ache--there is; maya-gandha--connection with maya; turiya--the fourth; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; nahi--there is not; mayara--of the material energy; sambandha--connection.
"Superficially we see that these purusas have a relationship with maya, but above them, in the fourth dimension, is Lord Krsna, who has no contact with the material energy."
The three purusas--Karanodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu--all have a relationship with the material energy, called maya, because through maya They create the material cosmos. These three purusas, who lie on the Karana, Garbha and Ksira oceans, are the Supersoul of everything that be: Karanodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of the collective universes, Garbhodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of the collective living beings, and Ksirodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of all individual living entities. Because all of Them are somehow attracted to the affairs of the material energy, They can be said to have some affection for maya. But the transcendental position of Sri Krsna Himself is not even slightly tinged by maya. His transcendental state is called turiya, or the fourth-dimensional stage.
virad hiranya-garbhas ca
karanam cety upadhayah
isasya yat tribhir hinam
turiyam tat pracaksate
" 'In the material world the Lord is designated as virat, hiranyagarbha and karana. But beyond these three designations, the Lord is ultimately in the fourth dimension.' "
The phenomenal manifestation of the Supreme Whole, the numinous soul of everything, and the cause or causal nature are all but designations of the purusas, who are responsible for material creation. The transcendental position surpasses these designations and is therefore called the position of the fourth dimension. This is a quotation from Sridhara Svami's commentary on the Eleventh Canto, Fifteenth Chapter, verse 16, of Srimad-Bhagavatam.
yadyapi--although; tinera--of these three; maya--the material energy; la-iya--taking; vyavahara--the dealings; tathapi--still; tat--of that; sparsa--the touch; nahi--there is not; sabhe--all of them; maya-para--beyond the material energy.
"Although these three features of the Lord deal directly with the material energy, none of them are touched by it. They are all beyond illusion."
etat--this; isanam--opulence; isasya--of the Supreme Lord; prakrti-sthah--situated in the material nature; api--although; tat--of maya; gunaih--by the qualities; na--not; yujyate--is affected; sada--always; atma-sthaih--which are situated in His own energy; yatha--as also; buddhih--the intelligence; tat--of Him; asraya--which has taken shelter.
" 'This is the opulence of the Lord: Although situated in the material nature, He is never affected by the modes of nature. Similarly, those who have surrendered to Him and fixed their intelligence upon Him are not influenced by the modes of nature.' "
This text is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.38). Those who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead do not identify with the material world, even while living in it. Pure devotees may deal with the three modes of material nature, but because of their transcendental intelligence in Krsna consciousness, they are not influenced by the material qualities. The spell of material activities does not attract such devotees. Therefore, the Supreme Lord and His devotees acting under Him are always free from material contamination.
sei tina janera tumi parama asraya
tumi mula narayana----ithe ki samsaya
"You are the ultimate shelter of these three plenary portions. Thus there is not the slightest doubt that You are the primeval Narayana."
Brahma has confirmed that Lord Krsna is the Supreme, the source of the three manifestations known as Ksirodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Karanodakasayi Visnu (Maha-Visnu). For His pastimes, Lord Krsna has four original manifestations--namely Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. The first purusa-avatara, Maha-Visnu in the Causal Ocean, who is the creator of the aggregate material energy, is an expansion of Sankarsana; the second purusa, Garbhodakasayi Visnu, is an expansion of Pradyumna; and the third purusa, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, is an expansion of Aniruddha. All these are within the category of manifestations of Narayana, who is a manifestation of Sri Krsna.
sei tinera amsi paravyoma-narayana
tenha tomara vilasa, tumi mula-narayana
sei--these; tinera--of the three; amsi--source; para-vyoma--in the spiritual sky; narayana--Lord Narayana; tenha--He; tomara--Your; vilasa--pastime expansion; tumi--You; mula--original; narayana--Narayana.
"The source of these three features is the Narayana in the spiritual sky. He is Your vilasa expansion. Therefore You are the ultimate Narayana."
ataeva--therefore; brahma--of Lord Brahma; vakye--in the speech; para-vyoma--in the spiritual sky; narayana--Lord Narayana; tenho--He; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vilasa--pastime incarnation; ei--this; tattva--of the truth; vivarana--description.
Therefore according to the authority of Brahma, the Narayana who is the predominating Deity in the transcendental world is but the vilasa feature of Krsna. This has now been conclusively proved.
ei sloka tattva-laksana bhagavata-sara
paribhasa-rupe ihara sarvatradhikara
ei--this; sloka--verse; tattva--the truth; laksana--indicating; bhagavata--of Srimad-Bhagavatam; sara--the essence; paribhasa--of synonyms; rupe--in the form; ihara--of this (Srimad-Bhagavatam); sarvatra--everywhere; adhikara--jurisdiction.
The truth indicated in this verse [Text 30] is the essence of Srimad-Bhagavatam. This conclusion, through synonyms, applies everywhere.
brahma, atma, bhagavan----krsnera vihara
e artha na jani' murkha artha kare ara
brahma--impersonal Brahman; atma--Supersoul; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vihara--manifestations; e--this; artha--meaning; na--not; jani'--knowing; murkha--fools; artha--meaning; kare--make; ara--other.
Not knowing that Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan are all features of Krsna, foolish scholars speculate in various ways.
avatari--source of incarnations; narayana--Lord Narayana; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatara--incarnation; tenha--that; catuh-bhuja--four arms; inha--this; manusya--like a man; akara--form.
Because Narayana has four hands whereas Krsna looks just like a man, they say that Narayana is the original God whereas Krsna is but an incarnation.
Some scholars argue that Narayana is the original Personality of Godhead of whom Krsna is an incarnation because Sri Krsna has two hands whereas Narayana has four. Such unintelligent scholars do not understand the features of the Absolute.
ei-mate nana-rupa kare purva-paksa
tahare nirjite bhagavata-padya daksa
My dear brothers, kindly listen to the explanation of this verse and consider its meaning: the one original entity is known in His three different features.
advaya-jnana tattva-vastu krsnera svarupa
brahma, atma, bhagavan----tina tanra rupa
advaya-jnana--knowledge without duality; tattva-vastu--the Absolute Truth; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sva-rupa--own nature; brahma--Brahman; atma--Paramatma; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tina--three; tanra--of Him; rupa--forms.
Lord Krsna Himself is the one undivided Absolute Truth, the ultimate reality. He manifests Himself in three features--as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan.
In the verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam cited above (Bhag. 1.2.11), the principal word, bhagavan, indicates the Personality of Godhead, and Brahman and Paramatma are concomitants deduced from the Absolute Personality, as a government and its ministers are deductions from the supreme executive head. In other words, the principal truth is exhibited in three different phases. The Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna (Bhagavan), is also known as Brahman and Paramatma, although all these features are identical.
ei slokera arthe tumi haila nirvacana
ara eka suna bhagavatera vacana
ei--this; slokera--of the verse; arthe--by the meaning; tumi--you; haila--have become; nirvacana--speechless; ara--other; eka--one; suna--please hear; bhagavatera--of Srimad-Bhagavatam; vacana--speech.
The import of this verse has stopped you from arguing. Now listen to another verse of Srimad-Bhagavatam.
ete--these; ca--and; amsa--plenary portions; kalah--parts of plenary portions; pumsah--of the purusa-avataras; krsnah--Lord Krsna; tu--but; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam--Himself; indra-ari--the enemies of Lord Indra; vyakulam--full of; lokam--the world; mrdayanti--make happy; yuge yuge--at the right time in each age.
"All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the purusa-avataras. But Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the enemies of Indra."
This statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28) definitely negates the concept that Sri Krsna is an avatara of Visnu or Narayana. Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead, the supreme cause of all causes. This verse clearly indicates that incarnations of the Personality of Godhead such as Sri Rama, Nrsimha and Varaha all undoubtedly belong to the Visnu group, but all of Them are either plenary portions or portions of plenary portions of the original Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna.
saba avatarera kari samanya-laksana
tara madhye krsna-candrera karila ganana
saba--all; avatarera--of the incarnations; kari--making; samanya--general; laksana--symptoms; tara--of them; madhye--in the middle; krsna-candrera--of Lord Sri Krsna; karila--did; ganana--counting.
The Bhagavatam describes the symptoms and deeds of the incarnations in general and counts Sri Krsna among them.
tabe suta gosani mane pana bada bhaya
yara ye laksana taha karila niscaya
avatara--the incarnations; saba--all; purusera--of the purusa-avataras; kala--parts of plenary portions; amsa--plenary portions; svayam--Himself; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna--Lord Krsna; sarva--of all; avatamsa--crest.
All the incarnations of Godhead are plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the purusa-avataras, but the primeval Lord is Sri Krsna. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the fountainhead of all incarnations.
purva-paksa kahe----tomara bhala ta' vyakhyana
purva-paksa--opposing side; kahe--says; tomara--your; bhala--nice; ta'--certainly; vyakhyana--exposition; para-vyoma--situated in the spiritual sky; narayana--Lord Narayana; svayam--Himself; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
An opponent may say, "This is your interpretation, but actually the Supreme Lord is Narayana, who is in the transcendental realm.
tenha asi' krsna-rupe karena avatara
ei artha sloke dekhi ki ara vicara
tenha--He (Narayana); asi'--coming; krsna-rupe--in the form of Lord Krsna; karena--makes; avatara--incarnation; ei--this; artha--meaning; sloke--in the verse; dekhi--I see; ki--what; ara--other; vicara--consideration.
"He [Narayana] incarnates as Lord Krsna. This is the meaning of the verse as I see it. There is no need for further consideration."
tare kahe----kene kara kutarkanumana
sastra-viruddhartha kabhu na haya pramana
tare--to him; kahe--one says; kene--why; kara--you make; ku-tarka--of a fallacious argument; anumana--conjecture; sastra-viruddha--contrary to scripture; artha--a meaning; kabhu--at any time; na--not; haya--is; pramana--evidence.
To such a misguided interpreter we may reply, "Why should you suggest such fallacious logic? An interpretation is never accepted as evidence if it opposes the principles of scripture."
anuvadam anuktva tu
na vidheyam udirayet
na hy alabdhaspadam kincit
anuvadam--the subject; anuktva--not stating; tu--but; na--not; vidheyam--the predicate; udirayet--one should speak; na--not; hi--certainly; alabdha-aspadam--without a secure position; kincit--something; kutracit--anywhere; pratitisthati--stands.
" 'One should not state a predicate before its subject, for it cannot thus stand without proper support.' "
This rhetorical rule appears in the Ekadasi-tattva, Thirteenth Canto, in connection with the metaphorical use of words. An unknown object should not be put before the known subject because the object has no meaning if the subject is not first given.
anuvada na kahiya na kahi vidheya
age anuvada kahi, pascad vidheya
vipratva--the quality of being a vipra; vikhyata--well known; tara--his; panditya--erudition; ajnata--unknown; ataeva--therefore; vipra--the word vipra; age--first; panditya--erudition; pascata--afterwards.
"The man's being a vipra is known, but his erudition is unknown. Therefore the person is identified first and his erudition later."
taiche inha avatara saba haila jnata
kara avatara?----ei vastu avijnata
taiche--in the same way; inha--these; avatara--incarnations; saba--all; haila--were; jnata--known; kara--whose; avatara--incarnations; ei--this; vastu--thing; avijnata--unknown.
"In the same way, all these incarnations were known, but whose incarnations they are was unknown."
'ete'-sabde avatarera age anuvada
'purusera amsa' pache vidheya-samvada
ete-sabde--in the word ete (these); avatarera--of the incarnations; age--first; anuvada--the subject; purusera--of the purusa-avataras; amsa--plenary portions; pache--afterwards; vidheya--of the predicate; samvada--message.
"First the word, 'ete' ['these'], establishes the subject [the incarnations]. Then 'plenary portions of the purusa-avataras' follows as the predicate."
taiche krsna avatara-bhitare haila jnata
tanhara visesa-jnana sei avijnata
taiche--in the same way; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatara-bhitare--among the incarnations; haila--was; jnata--known; tanhara--of Him; visesa-jnana--specific knowledge; sei--that; avijnata--unknown.
"In the same way, when Krsna was first counted among the incarnations, specific knowledge about Him was still unknown."
ataeva 'krsna'-sabda age anuvada
'svayam-bhagavatta' piche vidheya-samvada
ataeva--therefore; krsna-sabda--the word krsna; age--first; anuvada--the subject; svayam-bhagavatta--being Himself the Supreme Personality of Godhead; piche--afterwards; vidheya--of the predicate; samvada--the message
"Therefore first the word 'krsna' appears as the subject, followed by the predicate, describing Him as the original Personality of Godhead."
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; svayam-bhagavatta--the quality of being Himself the Supreme Personality of Godhead; iha--this; haila--was; sadhya--to be established; svayam-bhagavanera--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsnatva--the quality of being Lord Krsna; haila--was; badhya--obligatory
"This establishes that Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead. The original Personality of Godhead is therefore necessarily Krsna."
narayana--Lord Narayana; amsi--the source of all incarnations; yei--who; svayam-bhagavan--Himself the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tenha--He; sri-krsna--Lord Krsna; aiche--in such away; karita--would have made; vyakhyana--explanation.
"Thus he would have said: 'Narayana, the source of all incarnations, is the original Personality of Godhead. He has appeared as Sri Krsna.' "
bhrama, pramada, vipralipsa, karanapatava
arsa-vijna-vakye nahi dosa ei saba
bhrama--mistakes; pramada--illusion; vipralipsa--cheating; karana-apatava--imperfectness of the senses; arsa--of the authoritative sages; vijna-vakye--in the wise speech; nahi--not; dosa--faults; ei--these; saba--all.
"Mistakes, illusions, cheating and defective perception do not occur in the sayings of the authoritative sages."
Srimad-Bhagavatam has listed the avataras, the plenary expansions of the purusa, and Lord Krsna appears among them. But the Bhagavatam further explains Lord Krsna's specific position as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since Lord Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead, reason and argument establish that His position is always supreme.
Had Krsna been a plenary expansion of Narayana, the original verse would have been differently composed; indeed, its order would have been reversed. But there cannot be mistakes, illusion, cheating or imperfect perception in the words of liberated sages. Therefore there is no mistake in this statement that Lord Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Sanskrit statements of Srimad-Bhagavatam are all transcendental sounds. Srila Vyasadeva revealed these statements after perfect realization, and therefore they are perfect, for liberated sages like Vyasadeva never commit errors in their rhetorical arrangements. Unless one accepts this fact, there is no use in trying to obtain help from the revealed scriptures.
Bhrama refers to false knowledge or mistakes, such as accepting a rope as a snake or an oyster shell as gold. Pramada refers to inattention or misunderstanding of reality, and vipralipsa is the cheating propensity. Karanapatava refers to imperfectness of the material senses. There are many examples of such imperfection. The eyes cannot see that which is very distant or very small. One cannot even see his own eyelid, which is the closest thing to his eye, and if one is disturbed by a disease like jaundice, he sees everything to be yellow. Similarly, the ears cannot hear distant sounds. Since the Personality of Godhead and His plenary portions and self-realized devotees are all transcendentally situated, they cannot be misled by such deficiencies.
viruddhartha kaha tumi, kahite kara rosa
tomara arthe avimrsta-vidheyamsa-dosa
viruddha-artha--contrary meaning; kaha--say; tumi--you; kahite--pointing out; kara--you do; rosa--anger; tomara--your; arthe--in the meaning; avimrsta-vidheya-amsa--of the unconsidered predicate portion; dosa--the fault.
"You say something contradictory and become angry when this is pointed out. Your explanation has the defect of a misplaced object. This is an unconsidered adjustment."
yanra--of whom; bhagavatta--the quality of being the Supreme Personality of Godhead; haite--from; anyera--of others; bhagavatta--the quality of being the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam-bhagavan-sabdera--of the word svayam-bhagavan; tahatei--in that; satta--the presence.
"Only the Personality of Godhead, the source of all other Divinities, is eligible to be designated svayam bhagavan, or the primeval Lord."
dipa haite yaiche bahu dipera jvalana
mula eka dipa taha kariye ganana
"When from one candle many others are lit, I consider that one the original."
The Brahma-samhita, Chapter Five, verse 46, states that the visnu-tattva, or the principle of the Absolute Personality of Godhead, is like a lamp because the expansions equal their origin in all respects. A burning lamp can light innumerable other lamps that are not inferior, but still one lamp must be considered the original. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself in the plenary forms of the visnu-tattva, but although they are equally powerful, the original powerful Personality of Godhead is considered the source. This example also explains the appearance of qualitative incarnations like Lord Siva and Lord Brahma--According to Srila Jiva Gosvami, sambhos tu tamo-'dhisthanatvat kajjalamaya-suksma-dipa-sikha-sthaniyasya na tatha samyam: "The sambhu-tattva, or the principle of Lord Siva, is like a lamp covered with carbon because of his being in charge of the mode of ignorance. The illumination from such a lamp is very minute. Therefore the power of Lord Siva cannot compare to that of the Visnu principle."
taiche saba avatarera krsna se karana
ara eka sloka suna, kuvyakhya-khandana
taiche--in a similar way; saba--all; avatarera--of the incarnations; krsna--Lord Krsna; se--He; karana--the cause; ara--another; eka--one; sloka--verse; suna--please hear; ku-vyakhya--fallacious explanations; khandana--refuting.
"Krsna, in the same way, is the cause of all causes and all incarnations. Please hear another verse to defeat all misinterpretations."
atra--in Srimad-Bhagavatam; sargah--the creation of the ingredients of the universe; visargah--the creations of Brahma; ca--and; sthanam--the maintenance of the creation; posanam--the favoring of the Lord's devotees; utayah--impetuses for activity; manu-antara--prescribed duties given by the Manus; isa-anukathah--a description of the incarnations of the Lord; nirodhah--the winding up of creation; muktih--liberation; asrayah--the ultimate shelter, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dasamasya--of the tenth (the asraya); visuddhi-artham--for the purpose of perfect knowledge; navanam--of the nine; iha--here; laksanam--the nature; varnayanti--describe; maha-atmanah--the great souls; srutena--by prayer; arthena--by explanation; ca--and; anjasa--direct.
" 'Here [in Srimad-Bhagavatam] ten subjects are described: (1) the creation of the ingredients of the cosmos, (2) the creations of Brahma, (3) the maintenance of the creation, (4) special favor given to the faithful, (5) impetuses for activity, (6) prescribed duties for law-abiding men, (7) a description of the incarnations of the Lord, (8) the winding up of the creation, (9) liberation from gross and subtle material existence, and (10) the ultimate shelter, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The tenth item is the shelter of all the others. To distinguish this ultimate shelter from the other nine subjects, the mahajanas have described these nine, directly or indirectly, through prayers or direct explanations.' "
These verses from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.10.1-2) list the ten subject matters dealt with in the text of the Bhagavatam. Of these, the tenth is the substance, and the other nine are categories derived from the substance. These ten subjects are listed as follows:
(1) Sarga--the first creation by Visnu, the bringing forth of the five gross material elements, the five objects of sense perception, the ten senses, the mind, the intelligence, the false ego and the total material energy, or universal form.
(2) Visarga--the secondary creation, or the work of Brahma in producing the moving and unmoving bodies in the universe (brahmanda).
(3) Sthana--the maintenance of the universe by the Personality of Godhead, Visnu. Visnu's function is more important and His glory greater than Brahma's and Lord Siva's, for although Brahma is the creator and Lord Siva the destroyer, Visnu is the maintainer.
(4) Posana--special care and protection for devotees by the Lord. As a king maintains his kingdom and subjects but nevertheless gives special attention to the members of his family, so the Personality of Godhead gives special care to His devotees who are souls completely surrendered to Him.
(5) Uti--the urge for creation, or initiative power, that is the cause of all inventions, according to the necessities of time, space and objects.
(6) Manvantara--the regulative principles for living beings who desire to achieve perfection in human life. The rules of Manu, as described in the Manu-samhita, guide the way to such perfection.
(7) Isanukatha: scriptural information regarding the Personality of Godhead, His incarnations on earth and the activities of His devotees. Scriptures dealing with these subjects are essential for progressive human life.
(8) Nirodha: the winding up of all energies employed in creation. Such potencies are emanations from the Personality of Godhead who eternally lies in the Karana Ocean. The cosmic creations, manifested with His breath, are again dissolved in due course.
(9) Mukti: liberation of the conditioned souls encaged by the gross and subtle coverings of body and mind. When freed from all material affection, the soul, giving up the gross and subtle material bodies, can attain the spiritual sky in his original spiritual body and engage in transcendental loving service to the Lord in Vaikunthaloka or Krsnaloka. When the soul is situated in his original constitutional position of existence, he is said to be liberated. It is possible to engage in transcendental loving service to the Lord and become jivan-mukta, a liberated soul, even while in the material body.
(10) Asraya: the Transcendence, the summum bonum, from whom everything emanates, upon whom everything rests and in whom everything merges after annihilation. He is the source and support of all. The asraya is also called the Supreme Brahman, as in the Vedanta-sutra (athato brahma-jijnasa, janmady asya yatah). Srimad-Bhagavatam especially describes this Supreme Brahman as the asraya. Sri Krsna is this asraya, and therefore the greatest necessity of life is to study the science of Krsna.
Srimad-Bhagavatam accepts Sri Krsna as the shelter of all manifestations because Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the ultimate source of everything, the supreme goal of all.
Two different principles are to be considered herein--namely asraya, the object providing shelter, and asrita, the dependents requiring shelter. The asrita exist under the original principle, the asraya. The first nine categories, described in the first nine cantos of Srimad-Bhagavatam, from creation to liberation--including the purusa-avataras; the incarnations; the marginal energy, or living entities; and the external energy, or material world--are all asrita. The prayers of Srimad-Bhagavatam, however, aim for the asraya-tattva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna. The great souls expert in describing Srimad-Bhagavatam have very diligently delineated the other nine categories, sometimes by direct narrations and sometimes by indirect narrations such as stories. The real purpose of doing this is to know perfectly the Absolute Transcendence, Sri Krsna, for the entire creation, both material and spiritual, rests on the body of Sri Krsna.
asraya janite kahi e nava padartha
e navera utpatti-hetu sei asrayartha
asraya--the ultimate shelter; janite--to know; kahi--I discuss; e--these; nava--nine; pada-artha--categories; e--these; navera--of the nine; utpatti--of the origin; hetu--cause; sei--that; asraya--of the shelter; artha--the meaning.
"To know distinctly the ultimate shelter of everything that be, I have described the other nine categories. The cause for the appearance of these nine is rightly called their shelter."
krsna--Lord Krsna; eka--one; sarva-asraya--shelter of all; krsna--Lord Krsna; sarva-dhama--the abode of all; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sarire--in the body; sarva-visvera--of all the universes; visrama--resting place.
"The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna is the shelter and abode of everything. All the universes rest in His body."
dasame dasamam laksyam
sri-krsnakhyam param dhama
jagad-dhama namami tat
dasame--in the Tenth Canto; dasamam--the tenth subject matter; laksyam--to be seen; asrita--of the sheltered; asraya--of the shelter; vigraham--who is the form; sri-krsna-akhyam--known as Lord Sri Krsna; param--supreme; dhama--abode; jagat-dhama--the abode of the universes; namami--I offer my obeisances; tat--to Him.
" 'The Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam reveals the tenth object, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the shelter of all surrendered souls. He is known as Sri Krsna, and He is the ultimate source of all the universes. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him.' "
This quotation comes from Sridhara Svami's commentary on the first verse of the Tenth Canto, Chapter One, of Srimad-Bhagavatam.
krsnera svarupa, ara sakti-traya-jnana
yanra haya, tanra nahi krsnete ajnana
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sva-rupa--the real nature; ara--and; sakti-traya--of the three energies; jnana--knowledge; yanra--whose; haya--there is; tanra--of him; nahi--there is not; krsnete--in Lord Krsna; ajnana--ignorance.
"One who knows the real feature of Sri Krsna and His three different energies cannot remain ignorant about Him."
Srila Jiva Gosvami states in his Bhagavat-sandarbha (16) that by His potencies, which act in natural sequences beyond the scope of the speculative human mind, the Supreme Transcendence, the summum bonum, eternally and simultaneously exists in four transcendental features: His personality, His impersonal effulgence, particles of His potency (the living beings), and the principal cause of all causes. The Supreme Whole is compared to the sun, which also exists in four features, namely the personality of the sun-god, the glare of his glowing sphere, the sun rays inside the sun planet, and the sun's reflections in many other objects. The ambition to corroborate the existence of the transcendental Absolute Truth by limited conjectural endeavors cannot be fulfilled, because He is beyond the scope of our limited speculative minds. In an honest search for truth, we must admit that His powers are inconceivable to our tiny brains. The exploration of space has demanded the work of the greatest scientists of the world, yet there are countless problems regarding even fundamental knowledge of the material creation that bewilder scientists who confront them. Such material knowledge is far removed from the spiritual nature, and therefore the acts and arrangements of the Absolute Truth are, beyond all doubts, inconceivable.
The primary potencies of the Absolute Truth are mentioned to be three: internal, external and marginal. By the acts of His internal potency, the Personality of Godhead in His original form exhibits the spiritual cosmic manifestations known as the eternal Vaikunthalokas, which exist eternally, even after the destruction of the material cosmic manifestation. By His marginal potency the Lord expands Himself as living beings who are part of Him, just as the sun distributes its rays in all directions. By His external potency the Lord manifests the material creation, just as the sun with its rays creates fog. The material creation is but a perverse reflection of the eternal Vaikuntha nature.
These three energies of the Absolute Truth are also described in the Visnu Purana, where it is said that the living being is equal in quality to the internal potency, whereas the external potency is indirectly controlled by the chief cause of all causes. Maya, the illusory energy, misleads a living being as fog misleads a pedestrian by blocking off the light of the sun. Although the potency of maya is inferior in quality to the marginal potency, which consists of the living beings, who are part and parcel of the Lord, it nevertheless has the power to control the living beings, just as fog can block the actions of a certain portion of the sun's rays although it cannot cover the sun. The living beings covered by the illusory energy evolve in different species of life, with bodies ranging from that of an insignificant ant to that of Brahma, the constructor of the cosmos. The pradhana, the chief cause of all causes in the impersonal vision, is none other than the Supreme Lord, whom one can see face to face in the internal potency. He takes the material all-pervasive form by His inconceivable power. Although all three potencies--namely internal, external and marginal--are essentially one in the ultimate issue, they are different in action, like electric energy, which can produce both cold and heat under different conditions. The external and marginal potencies are so called under various conditions, but in the original, internal potencies there are no such conditions, nor is it possible for the conditions of the external potency to exist in the marginal, or vice versa. One who is able to understand the intricacies of all these energies of the Supreme Lord can no longer remain an empiric impersonalist under the influence of a poor fund of knowledge.
krsnera svarupera haya sad-vidha vilasa
prabhava-vaibhava-rupe dvi-vidha prakasa
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; svarupera--of the form; haya--there are; sat-vidha--six kinds; vilasa--pastime forms; prabhava-vaibhava-rupe--in the divisions of prabhava and vaibhava; dvi-vidha--two kinds; prakasa--manifestations.
"The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna enjoys Himself in six primary expansions. His two manifestations are prabhava and vaibhava."
Now the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta turns to a description of the Personality of Godhead Krsna in His innumerable expansions. The Lord primarily expands Himself in two categories, namely prabhava and vaibhava. The prabhava forms are fully potent like Sri Krsna, and the vaibhava forms are partially potent. The prabhava forms are manifested in relation with potencies, but the vaibhava forms are manifested in relation with excellences. The potent prabhava manifestations are also of two varieties: temporary and eternal. The Mohini, Hamsa and Sukla forms are manifested only temporarily, in terms of a particular age. Among the other prabhavas, who are not very famous according to the material estimation, are Dhanvantari, Rsabha, Vyasa, Dattatreya and Kapila. Among the vaibhava-prakasa forms are Kurma, Matsya, Nara-Narayana, Varaha, Hayagriva, Prsnigarbha, and Baladeva, as well as the manv-antara avataras Yajna, Vibhu, Satyasena, Hari, Vaikuntha, Ajita, Vamana, Sarvabhauma, Rsabha, Visvaksena, Dharmasetu, Sudhama, Yogesvara and Brhadbhanu.
balya pauganda dharma dui ta' prakara
amsa--of the plenary expansion; sakti-avesa--of the empowered; rupe--in the forms; dvi-vidha--two kinds; avatara--incarnations; balya--childhood; pauganda--boyhood; dharma--characteristics of age; dui--two; ta'--certainly; prakara--kinds
"His incarnations are of two kinds, namely partial and empowered. He appears in two ages--childhood and boyhood."
The vilasa forms are six in number. Incarnations are of two varieties, namely sakty-avesa (empowered) and amsavesa (partial). These incarnations also come within the category of prabhava and vaibhava manifestations. Childhood and boyhood are two special features of the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, but His permanent feature is His eternal form as an adolescent youth. The original Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna is always worshiped in this eternal adolescent form.
kisora-svarupa krsna svayam avatari
krida kare ei chaya-rupe visva bhari'
kisora-svarupa--whose real nature is that of an adolescent; krsna--Lord Krsna; svayam--Himself; avatari--the source of all incarnations; krida kare--He plays; ei--these; chaya-rupe--in six forms; visva--the universes; bhari'--maintaining
"The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, who is eternally an adolescent, is the primeval Lord, the source of all incarnations. He expands Himself in these six categories of forms to establish His supremacy throughout the universe."
ei chaya-rupe haya ananta vibheda
ananta-rupe eka-rupa, nahi kichu bheda
ei--these; chaya-rupe--in six forms; haya--there are; ananta--unlimited; vibheda--varieties; ananta-rupe--in unlimited forms; eka-rupa--one form; nahi--there is not; kichu--any; bheda--difference.
"In these six kinds of forms there are innumerable varieties. Although they are many, they are all one: there is no difference between them."
The Personality of Godhead manifests Himself in six different features: (1) prabhava, (2) vaibhava, (3) empowered incarnations, (4) partial incarnations, (5) childhood and (6) boyhood. The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, whose permanent feature is adolescence, enjoys His transcendental proclivities by performing pastimes in these six forms. In these six features there are unlimited divisions of the Personality of Godhead's forms. The jivas, or living beings, are differentiated parts and parcels of the Lord. They are all diversities of the one without a second, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
cic-chakti, svarupa-sakti, antaranga nama
tahara vaibhava ananta vaikunthadi dhama
"The cit-sakti, which is also called svarupa-sakti or antaranga-sakti, displays many varied manifestations. It sustains the kingdom of God and its paraphernalia."
maya-sakti, bahiranga, jagat-karana
tahara vaibhava ananta brahmandera gana
maya-sakti--the illusory energy; bahih-anga--external; jagat-karana--the cause of the universe; tahara--of that; vaibhava--manifestations; ananta--unlimited; brahma-andera--of universes; gana--multitudes.
"The external energy, called maya-sakti, is the cause of innumerable universes with varied material potencies."
jiva-sakti tatasthakhya, nahi yara anta
mukhya tina sakti, tara vibheda ananta
jiva-sakti--the energy of the living entity; tata-stha-akhya--known as marginal; nahi--there is not; yara--of which; anta--end; mukhya--principal; tina--three; sakti--energies; tara--of them; vibheda--varieties; ananta--unlimited.
"The marginal potency, which is between these two, consists of the numberless living beings. These are the three principal energies, which have unlimited categories and subdivisions."
The internal potency of the Lord, which is called cit-sakti or antaranga-sakti, exhibits variegatedness in the transcendental Vaikuntha cosmos. Besides ourselves, there are unlimited numbers of liberated living beings who associate with the Personality of Godhead in His innumerable features. The material cosmos displays the external energy, in which the conditioned living beings are provided all liberty to go back to the Personality of Godhead after leaving the material tabernacle. The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.8) informs us:
na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate
na tat-samas cabhyadhikas ca drsyate
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate
svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca
"The Supreme Lord is one without a second. He has nothing to do personally, nor does He have material senses. No one is equal to Him or greater than Him. He has unlimited, variegated potencies of different names, which exist within Him as autonomous attributes and provide Him full knowledge, power and pastimes."
e-mata svarupa-gana, ara tina sakti
sabhara asraya krsna, krsne sabhara sthiti
e-mata--in this way; svarupa-gana--personal forms; ara--and; tina--three; sakti--energies; sabhara--of the whole assembly; asraya--the shelter; krsna--Lord Krsna; krsne--in Lord Krsna; sabhara--of the whole assembly; sthiti--the existence.
"These are the principal manifestations and expansions of the Personality of Godhead and His three energies. They are all emanations from Sri Krsna, the Transcendence. They have their existence in Him."
yadyapi brahmanda-ganera purusa asraya
sei purusadi sabhara krsna mulasraya
yadyapi--although; brahma-anda-ganera--of the multitude of universes; purusa--the purusa-avatara; asraya--the shelter; sei--that; purusa-adi--of the purusa-avataras, etc.; sabhara--of the assembly; krsna--Lord Krsna; mula-asraya--original source.
"Although the three purusas are the shelter of all the universes, Lord Krsna is the original source of the purusas."
svayam bhagavan krsna, krsna sarvasraya
parama isvara krsna sarva-sastre kaya
isvarah--the controller; paramah--supreme; krsnah--Lord Krsna; sat--eternal existence; cit--absolute knowledge; ananda--absolute bliss; vigrahah--whose form; anadih--without beginning; adih--the origin; govindah--Lord Govinda; sarva-karana-karanam--the cause of all causes.
" 'Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.' "
This is the first verse of the Fifth Chapter of the Brahma-samhita.
e saba siddhanta tumi jana bhala-mate
tabu purva-paksa kara ama calaite
e--these; saba--all; siddhanta--conclusions; tumi--you; jana--know; bhala-mate--in a good way; tabu--still; purva-paksa--objection; kara--you make; ama--to me; calaite--to give useless anxiety.
"You know all the conclusions of the scriptures very well. You create these logical arguments just to agitate me."
A learned man who has thoroughly studied the scriptures cannot hesitate to accept Sri Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If such a man argues about this matter, certainly he must be doing so to agitate the minds of his opponents.
sei krsna avatari vrajendra-kumara
apane caitanya-rupe kaila avatara
sei--that; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatari--the source of all incarnations; vrajendra-kumara--the son of the King of Vraja; apane--personally; caitanya-rupe--in the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kaila--made; avatara--incarnation.
That same Lord Krsna, the fountainhead of all incarnations, is known as the son of the King of Vraja. He has descended personally as Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
ataeva caitanya gosani paratattva-sima
tanre ksiroda-sayi kahi, ki tanra mahima
ataeva--therefore; caitanya gosani--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; para-tattva-sima--the highest limit of the Absolute Truth; tanre--Him; ksiroda-sayi--Ksirodakasayi Visnu; kahi--if I say; ki--what; tanra--of Him; mahima--glory.
Therefore Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Absolute Truth. To call Him Ksirodakasayi Visnu does not add to His glory.
sei ta' bhaktera vakya nahe vyabhicari
sakala sambhave tante, yate avatari
sei--that; ta'--certainly; bhaktera--of a devotee; vakya--speech; nahe--is not; vyabhicari--deviation; sakala--all; sambhave--possibilities; tante--in Him; yate--since; avatari--the source of all incarnations.
But such words from the lips of a sincere devotee cannot be false. All possibilities abide in Him, for He is the primeval Lord.
avatarira dehe saba avatarera sthiti
keho kona-mate kahe, yemana yara mati
avatarira--of the source; dehe--in the body; saba--all; avatarera--of the incarnations; sthiti--existence; keho--someone; kona-mate--in some way; kahe--says; yemana--as in the manner; yara--of whom; mati--the opinion.
All other incarnations are situated in potential form in the original body of the primeval Lord. Thus according to one's opinion, one may address Him as any one of the incarnations.
It is not contradictory for a devotee to call the Supreme Lord by any one of the various names of His plenary expansions because the original Personality of Godhead includes all such categories. Since the plenary expansions exist within the original person, one may call Him by any of these names. In Sri Caitanya-bhagavata (Madhya 6.95) Lord Caitanya says, "I was lying asleep in the ocean of milk, but I was awakened by the call of Nada, Sri Advaita Prabhu." Here the Lord refers to His form as Ksirodakasayi Visnu.
krsnake kahaye keha----nara-narayana
keho kahe, krsna haya saksat vamana
"According to the intimate relationships between Sri Krsna (the primeval Lord) and His devotees, the Puranas describe Him by various names. Sometimes He is called Narayana; sometimes Upendra (Vamana), the younger brother of Indra, King of heaven; and sometimes Ksirodakasayi Visnu. Sometimes He is called the thousand-hooded Sesa Naga, and sometimes the Lord of Vaikuntha."
keho kahe, para-vyome narayana hari
sakala sambhave krsne, yate avatari
keho--someone; kahe--says; para-vyome--in the transcendental world; narayana--Lord Narayana; hari--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sakala sambhave--all possibilities; krsne--in Lord Krsna; yate--since; avatari--the source of all incarnations.
Some call Him Hari, or the Narayana of the transcendental world. Everything is possible in Krsna, for He is the primeval Lord.
saba srota-ganera kari carana vandana
e saba siddhanta suna, kari' eka mana
saba--all; srota-ganera--of the hearers; kari--I do; carana--to the lotus feet; vandana--praying; e--these; saba--all; siddhanta--conclusions; suna--please hear; kari'--making; eka--one; mana--mind.
I offer my obeisances unto the feet of all who hear or read this discourse. Kindly hear with attention the conclusion of all these statements.
Prostrating himself at the feet of his readers, the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta entreats them in all humility to hear with rapt attention these conclusive arguments regarding the Absolute Truth. One should not fail to hear such arguments because only by such knowledge can one perfectly know Krsna.
siddhanta baliya citte na kara alasa
iha ha-ite krsne lage sudrdha manasa
siddhanta--conclusion; baliya--considering; citte--in the mind; na kara--do not be; alasa--lazy; iha--this; ha-ite--from; krsne--in Lord Krsna; lage--becomes fixed; su-drdha--very firm; manasa--the mind.
A sincere student should not neglect the discussion of such conclusions, considering them controversial, for such discussions strengthen the mind. Thus one's mind becomes attached to Sri Krsna.
There are many students who, in spite of reading the Bhagavad-gita, misunderstand Krsna because of imperfect knowledge and conclude Him to be an ordinary, historical personality. This one must not do. One should be particularly careful to understand the truth about Krsna. If because of laziness one does not come to know Krsna conclusively, one will be misguided about the cult of devotion, like those who declare themselves advanced devotees and imitate the transcendental symptoms sometimes observed in liberated souls. Although the use of thoughts and arguments is a most suitable process for inducing an uninitiated person to become a devotee, neophytes in devotional service must always alertly understand Krsna through the vision of the revealed scriptures, the bona fide devotees and the spiritual master. Unless one hears about Sri Krsna from such authorities, one cannot make advancement in devotion to Sri Krsna. The revealed scriptures mention nine means of attaining devotional service, of which the first and foremost is hearing from authority. The seed of devotion cannot sprout unless watered by the process of hearing and chanting. One should submissively receive the transcendental messages from spiritually advanced sources and chant the very same messages for one's own benefit as well as the benefit of one's audience.
When Brahma described the situation of pure devotees freed from the culture of empiric philosophy and fruitive actions, he recommended the process of hearing from persons who are on the path of devotion. Following in the footsteps of such liberated souls, who are able to vibrate real transcendental sound, can lead one to the highest stage of devotion, and thus one can become a maha-bhagavata. From the teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Sanatana Gosvami (Cc. Madhya 22.65) we learn:
sastra-yuktye sunipuna, drdha-sraddha yanra
'uttama-adhikari' sei taraye samsara
"A person who is expert in understanding the conclusion of the revealed scriptures and who fully surrenders to the cause of the Lord is actually able to deliver others from the clutches of material existence." Srila Rupa Gosvami, in his Upadesamrta (3), advises that to make rapid advancement in the cult of devotional service one should be very active and should persevere in executing the duties specified in the revealed scriptures and confirmed by the spiritual master. Accepting the path of liberated souls and the association of pure devotees enriches such activities.
Imitation devotees, who wish to advertise themselves as elevated Vaisnavas and who therefore imitate the previous acaryas but do not follow them in principle, are condemned in the words of Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.3.24) as stone-hearted. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has commented on their stone-hearted condition as follows: bahir asru-pulakayoh sator api yad dhrdayam na vikriyeta tad asma-saram iti kanisthadhikarinam eva asru-pulakadi-mattve 'pi asma-sara-hrdayataya nindaisa. "Those who shed tears by practice but whose hearts have not changed are to be known as stone-hearted devotees of the lowest grade. Their imitation crying, induced by artificial practice, is always condemned." The desired change of heart referred to above is visible in reluctance to do anything not congenial to the devotional way. To create such a change of heart, conclusive discussion about Sri Krsna and His potencies is absolutely necessary. False devotees may think that simply shedding tears will lead one to the transcendental plane, even if one has not had a factual change in heart, but such a practice is useless if there is no transcendental realization. False devotees, lacking the conclusion of transcendental knowledge, think that artificially shedding tears will deliver them. Similarly, other false devotees think that studying books of the previous acaryas is unadvisable, like studying dry empiric philosophies. But Srila Jiva Gosvami, following the previous acaryas, has inculcated the conclusions of the scriptures in the six theses called the Sat-sandarbhas. False devotees who have very little knowledge of such conclusions fail to achieve pure devotion for want of zeal in accepting the favorable directions for devotional service given by self-realized devotees. Such false devotees are like impersonalists, who also consider devotional service no better than ordinary fruitive actions.
caitanya-mahima jani e saba siddhante
citta drdha hana lage mahima-jnana haite
caitanya-mahima--the glory of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; jani--I know; e--these; saba--all; siddhante--by the conclusions; citta--the mind; drdha--firm; hana--becoming; lage--becomes fixed; mahima-jnana--knowledge of the greatness; haite--from.
By such conclusive studies I know the glories of Lord Caitanya. Only by knowing these glories can one become strong and fixed in attachment to Him.
One can know the glories of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu only by reaching, in knowledge, a conclusive decision about Sri Krsna, strengthened by bona fide study of the conclusions of the acaryas.
caitanya-prabhura--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; mahima--the glories; kahibara tare--for the purpose of speaking; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; mahima--the glories; kahi--I speak; kariya--doing; vistare--in expansion.
Just to enunciate the glories of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, I have tried to describe the glories of Sri Krsna in detail.
caitanya-gosanira ei tattva-nirupana
svayam-bhagavan krsna vrajendra-nandana
caitanya-gosanira--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; ei--this; tattva--of the truth; nirupana--settling; svayam-bhagavan--Himself the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna--Lord Krsna; vrajendra-nandana--the son of the King of Vraja.
The conclusion is that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, the son of the King of Vraja.
sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa
caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa
sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha--Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; pade--at the lotus feet; yara--whose; asa--expectation; caitanya-caritamrta--the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe--describes; krsna-dasa--Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, following in their footsteps.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta Purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Second Chapter, describing Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.