Chapter 23

                Life's Ultimate Goal--Love of Godhead


   The following summary study of the Twenty-third Chapter is given by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya. In this chapter Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu describes the symptoms of emotion and love and the awakening of one's original loving relationship with the Lord, as well as the characteristics of a devotee who has actually attained that stage. He then describes the gradual increase of love of God up to the point of mahabhava. He then describes the five divisions of attraction and how they continue. He also describes the mellow derived from conjugal love, which is the supreme emotion. Conjugal love is divided into two categories-svakiya and parakiya. Svakiya refers to loving affairs between husband and wife, and parakiya refers to loving affairs between two lovers. There are a number of descriptions in this connection. There is also a description of the sixty-four transcendental qualities of Krsna. Srimati Radharani has twenty-five transcendental qualities.

   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then describes those candidates who are eligible to taste the mellows of devotional service. Their fundamental natures and their varieties are also described. The Lord also informs Sanatana Gosvami about all the confidential paraphernalia of devotional service. He gives a description of Goloka Vrndavana, where the Lord is engaged in His eternal pastimes described in the Hari-vamsa. There is also an opposing and favorable description of kesa-avatara. All these instructions are mentioned herein.

   In this way Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu blessed Sanatana Gosvami, placing His own hand on his head. Thus Sanatana received the power to describe these subjects in books like Hari-bhakti-vilasa.


                                TEXT 1




                   cirad adattam nija-gupta-vittam

                     svaprema-namamrtam atyudarah

                     apamaram yo vitatara gaurah

                  krsno janebhyas tam aham prapadye




   cirat--for a long time; adattam--not given; nija-gupta-vittam--His own personal confidential property; sva-prema--of love for Him; nama--of the holy name; amrtam--the ambrosia; ati-udarah--most munificent; a-pamaram--even down to the lowest of men; yah--one who; vitatara--distributed; gaurah--Sri Gaurasundara; krsnah--Lord Krsna Himself; janebhyah--to the people in general; tam--to Him; aham--I; prapadye--offer obeisances.




   The most munificent Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Gaurakrsna, distributed to everyone-even the lowest of men-His own confidential treasury in the form of the nectar of love of Himself and the holy name. This was never given to the people at any time before. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.


                                TEXT 2




                jaya jaya gauracandra jaya nityananda

              jayadvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda




   jaya jaya--all glories; gauracandra--to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; jaya--all glories; nityananda--to Nityananda Prabhu; jaya--all glories; advaita-candra--to Advaita Acarya; jaya--all glories; gaura-bhakta-vrnda--to the devotees of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.




   All glories to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityananda! All glories to Advaita Acarya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu!


                                TEXT 3




               ebe suna bhakti-phala 'prema'-prayojana

                yahara sravane haya bhakti-rasa-jnana




   ebe suna--now hear; bhakti-phala--the result of practice of devotional service; prema--love of Godhead; prayojana--the ultimate goal of life; yahara sravane--by hearing of which; haya--there is; bhakti-rasa-jnana--transcendental knowledge of the mellows of devotional service.




   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, "Now hear, O Sanatana, about the result of devotional service, which is love of Godhead, life's ultimate goal. If one hears this description, he will be enlightened in the transcendental mellows of devotional service.


                                TEXT 4




               krsne rati gadha haile 'prema'-abhidhana

              krsna-bhakti-rasera ei 'sthayi-bhava'-nama




   krsne--unto Lord Krsna; rati--affection; gadha--deep; haile--when it becomes; prema-abhidhana--called love of God; krsna-bhakti-rasera--of the mellows of devotional service to Krsna; ei--this sthayi-bhava-nama--called sthayi-bhava.




   "When affection for Krsna becomes deeper, one attains love of Godhead in devotional service. Such a position is called sthayi-bhava, permanent enjoyment of the mellows of devotional service to Krsna.


                                TEXT 5






                       rucibhis citta-masrnya-

                        krd asau bhava ucyate




   suddha-sattva--by unadultered goodness; visesa--distinguished; atma--whose nature; prema--of love of God; surya--like the sun; amsu--a ray; samya-bhak--which is similar to; rucibhih--by different tastes; citta--of the heart; masrnya--softness; krt--which causes; asau--that softness; bhavah--emotion; ucyate--is called.




   " 'When devotional service is situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness, it is like a ray of the sunlight of love for Krsna. At such a time, devotional service causes the heart to be softened by various tastes, and it is called bhava [emotion].'




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.1).


                                TEXT 6




           e dui,----bhavera 'svarupa', 'tatastha' laksana

                  premera laksana ebe suna, sanatana




   ei dui--these two; bhavera--of emotion; sva-rupa--constitutional; tatastha--marginal; laksana--symptoms; premera--of love; laksana--the symptoms; ebe--now; suna--hear; sanatana--O Sanatana.




   "Bhava [emotion] has two different symptoms-constitutional and marginal. Now, My dear Sanatana, listen to the symptoms of love.




   The word suddha-sattva-visesatma means "situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness." In this way the soul is purified of all material contamination, and this position is called svarupa-laksana, the constitutional symptom of bhava, emotion. By various tastes, one's heart is softened, and there is an awakening of one's loving propensity to render spontaneous service to the Lord. This is called tatastha-laksana, the marginal symptom of bhava.


                                TEXT 7




                        samyan masrnita-svanto


                       bhavah sa eva sandratma

                       budhaih prema nigadyate




   samyak--completely; masrnita-svantah--which makes the heart soft; mamatva--of a sense of ownership; atisaya-ankitah--marked with an abundance; bhavah--emotion; sah--that; eva--certainly; sandra-atma--whose nature is very condensed; budhaih--by learned persons; prema--love of Godhead; nigadyate--is described.




   " 'When that bhava softens the heart completely, becomes endowed with a great feeling of possessiveness in relation to the Lord and becomes very much condensed and intensified, it is called prema [love of Godhead] by learned scholars.




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.4.1).


                                TEXT 8




                         ananya-mamata visnau

                         mamata prema-sangata

                      bhaktir ity ucyate bhisma-





   ananya-mamata--having a sense of relationships with no others; visnau--in Lord Visnu, or Krsna; mamata--the sense of ownership; prema-sangata--endowed only with love; bhaktih--devotional service; iti--thus; ucyate--is said; bhisma--by Bhisma; prahlada--by Prahlada Maharaja; uddhava--by Uddhava; naradaih--and by Narada.




   " 'When one develops an unflinching sense of ownership or possessiveness in relation to Lord Visnu, or, in other words, when one thinks Visnu and no one else to be the only object of love, such an awakening is called bhakti [devotion] by exalted persons like Bhisma, Prahlada, Uddhava and Narada.'




   This verse, quoted from the Narada-pancaratra, is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.4.2).


                                TEXT 9




             kona bhagye kona jivera 'sraddha' yadi haya

                tabe sei jiva 'sadhu-sanga' ye karaya




   kona bhagye--by some good fortune; kona jivera--of some living entity; sraddha yadi haya--if there is faith; tabe--then; sei jiva--that living entity; sadhu-sanga--association with devotees; ye--certainly; karaya--makes.




   "If, by good fortune, a living entity develops faith in Krsna, he begins to associate with devotees.


                               TEXT 10




               sadhu-sanga haite haya 'sravana-kirtana'

             sadhana-bhaktye haya 'sarvanartha-nivartana'




   sadhu-sanga haite--from association with devotees; haya--there is; sravana-kirtana--hearing, chanting and so on; sadhana-bhaktye--by devotional service; haya--there is; sarva--all; anartha-nivartana--disappearance of unwanted thing.




   "When one is encouraged in devotional service by the association of devotees, one becomes free from all unwanted contamination by following the regulative principles and chanting and hearing.


                               TEXT 11




             anartha-nivrtti haile bhaktye 'nistha' haya

                nistha haite sravanadye 'ruci' upajaya




   anartha-nivrtti--disappearance of all unwanted contamination; haile--when there is; bhaktye--in devotional service; nistha--firm faith; haya--there is; nistha haite--from such firm faith; sravana-adye--in hearing, chanting and so on; ruci--taste; upajaya--awakens.




   "When one is freed from all unwanted contamination, he advances with firm faith. When firm faith in devotional service awakens, a taste for hearing and chanting also awakens.


                               TEXT 12




               ruci haite bhaktye haya 'asakti' pracura

             asakti haite citte janme krsne prity-ankura




   ruci haite--from such a taste; bhaktye--in devotional service; haya--there is; asakti--attachment; pracura--deep; asakti haite--from attachment; citte--within the heart; janme--appears; krsne--for Krsna; priti-ankura--the seed of affection.




   "After taste is awakened, a deep attachment arises, and from that attachment the seed of love for Krsna grows in the heart.


                               TEXT 13




              sei 'bhava' gadha haile dhare 'prema'-nama

                sei prema 'prayojana' sarvananda-dhama




   sei bhava--that emotional condition; gadha haile--when it becomes intensified; dhare--takes; prema-nama--the name love of Godhead; sei prema--that love of Godhead; prayojana--the ultimate goal of life; sarva-ananda-dhama--the reservoir of all pleasure.




   "When that ecstatic emotional stage intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. Such love is life's ultimate goal and the reservoir of all pleasure.




   Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura summarizes this growth of love of Godhead as a gradual process. A person becomes interested in devotional service by some good fortune. Eventually he becomes interested in pure devotional service without material contamination. At that point, a person wants to associate with devotees. As a result of this association, he becomes more and more interested in discharging devotional service and hearing and chanting. The more one is interested in hearing and chanting, the more he is purified of material contamination. Liberation from material contamination is called anartha-nivrtti, indicating a diminishing of all unwanted things. This is the test of development in devotional service. If one actually develops the devotional attitude, he must be freed from the material contamination of illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating. These are the preliminary symptoms. When one is freed from all material contamination, his firm faith awakens in devotional service. When firm faith develops, a taste arises, and by that taste, one becomes attached to devotional service. When this attachment intensifies, the seed of love of Krsna fructifies. This position is called priti or rati (affection) or bhava (emotion). When rati intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. This love of Godhead is actually life's highest perfection and the reservoir of all pleasure.

   Thus devotional life is divided into two stages-sadhana-bhakti and bhava-bhakti. Sadhana-bhakti refers to the development of devotional service through the regulative principles. The basic principle for the execution of devotional service is faith. Above that, there is association with devotees, and after that there is initiation by a bona fide spiritual master. After initiation, when one follows the regulative principles of devotional service, one becomes freed from all unwanted things. In this way one becomes firmly fixed and gradually develops a taste for devotional service. The more the taste grows, the more one desires to render service to the Lord. In this way one becomes attached to a particular mellow in the Lord's service-santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura. As a result of such attachment, bhava develops. Bhava-bhakti is the platform of purified goodness. By such purified goodness, one's heart melts in devotional service. Bhava-bhakti is the first seed of love of Godhead. This emotional stage is there before one attains pure love. When that emotional stage intensifies, it is called prema-bhakti, or transcendental love of Godhead. This gradual process is also described in the following two verses found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.4.15-16).


                             TEXTS 14-15




                      adau sraddha tatah sadhu-

                       sango 'tha bhajana-kriya

                      tato 'nartha-nivrttih syat

                       tato nistha rucis tatah


                        athasaktis tato bhavas

                        tatah premabhyudancati

                       sadhakanam ayam premnah

                      pradurbhave bhavet kramah




   adau--in the beginning; sraddha--firm faith, or disinterest in material affairs and interest in spiritual advancement; tatah--thereafter; sadhu-sangah--association with pure devotees; atha--then; bhajana-kriya--performance of devotional service to Krsna (surrendering to the spiritual master and being encouraged by the association of devotees, so that initiation takes place); tatah--thereafter; anartha-nivrttih--the diminishing of all unwanted habits; syat--there should be; tatah--then; nistha--firm faith; rucih--taste; tatah--thereafter; atha--then; asaktih--attachment; tatah--then; bhavah--emotion of affection; tatah--thereafter; prema--love of God; abhyudancati--arises; sadhakanam--of the devotees practicing Krsna consciousness; ayam--this; premnah--of love of Godhead; pradurbhave--in the appearance; bhavet--is; kramah--the chronological order.




   " 'In the beginning there must be faith. Then one becomes interested in associating with pure devotees. Thereafter one is initiated by the spiritual master and executes the regulative principles under his orders. Thus one is freed from all unwanted habits and becomes firmly fixed in devotional service. Thereafter, one develops taste and attachment. This is the way of sadhana-bhakti, the execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles. Gradually emotions intensify, and finally there is an awakening of love. This is the gradual development of love of Godhead for the devotee interested in Krsna consciousness.'


                               TEXT 16




                  satam prasangan mama virya-samvido

                  bhavanti hrt-karna-rasayanah kathah

                  taj-josanad asv apavarga-vartmani

                  sraddha ratir bhaktir anukramisyati




   satam--of the devotees; prasangat--bu the intimate association; mama--of Me; virya-samvidah--talks full of spiritual potency; bhavanti--appear; hrt--to the heart; karna--and to the ears; rasa-ayanah--a source of sweetness; kathah--talks; tat--of them; josanat--from proper cultivation; asu--quickly; apavarga--of liberation; vartmani--on the path; sraddha--faith; ratih--attraction; bhaktih--love; anukramisyati--will follow one after another.




   " 'The spiritually powerful message of Godhead can be properly discussed only in a society of devotees, and it is greatly pleasing to hear in that association. If one hears from devotees, the way of transcendental experience quickly opens to him, and gradually he attains firm faith that in due course develops into attraction and devotion.'




   This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.25.25).


                               TEXT 17




                  yanhara hrdaye ei bhavankura haya

                tanhate eteka cihna sarva-sastre kaya




   yanhara--of whom; hrdaye--in the heart; ei--this; bhava-ankura--seed of emotion; haya--there is; tanhate--in him; eteka--these; cihna--symptoms; sarva-sastre--all revealed scriptures; kaya--say.




   "If one actually has the seed of transcendental emotion in his heart, the symptoms will be visible in his activities. That is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.


                             TEXTS 18-19




                      ksantir avyartha-kalatvam

                        viraktir mana-sunyata

                       asa-bandhah samutkantha

                         nama-gane sada rucih


                        asaktis tad-gunakhyane

                       pritis tad-vasati-sthale

                       ity adayo 'nubhavah syur

                         jata-bhavankure jane




   ksantih--forgiveness; avyartha-kalatvam--being free from wasting time; viraktih--detachment; mana-sunyata--absence of false prestige; asa-bandhah--hope; samutkantha--eagerness; nama-gane--in chanting the Holy names; sada--always; rucih--taste; asaktih--attachment; tat--of Lord Krsna; guna-akhyane--in describing the transcendental qualities; pritih--affection; tat--His; vasati-sthale--in places of residence (the temple or holy places); iti--thus; adayah--and so on; anubhavah--the signs; syuh--are; jata--developed; bhava-ankure--whose seed of ecstatic emotion; jane--in a person.




   " 'When the seed of ecstatic emotion for Krsna fructifies, the following nine symptoms manifest in one's behavior: forgiveness, concern that time should not be wasted, detachment, absence of false prestige, hope, eagerness, a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord, attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and affection for those places where the Lord resides-that is, a temple or a holy place like Vrndavana. These are all called anubhava, subordinate signs of ecstatic emotion. They are visible in a person in whose heart the seed of love of God has begun to fructify.'




   These two verses are found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.25-26).


                               TEXT 20




                ei nava prity-ankura yanra citte haya

                prakrta-ksobhe tanra ksobha nahi haya




   ei--this; nava--nine; priti-ankura--fructification of the seed of love; yanra--of whom; citte--in the mind; haya--there is; prakrta--material; ksobhe--in agitation; tanra--his; ksobha--agitation; nahi haya--there is not.




   "If love for Krsna in a seedling state has fructified in one's heart, one is not agitated by material things.


                               TEXT 21




                    tam mopayatam pratiyantu vipra

                    ganga ca devi dhrta-cittam ise

                   dvijopasrstah kuhakas taksako va

                    dasatv alam gayata visnu-gathah




   tam--him; ma--me; upayatam--surrendered; pratiyantu--you may know; viprah--O brahmanas; ganga--mother Ganges; ca--and; devi--the demigoddess; dhrta--offered; cittam--whose mind; ise--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dvija-upasrstah--created by the brahmana; kuhakah--some trickery; taksakah--snake-bird; va--or; dasatu--let it bite; alam--never mind; gayata--chant; visnu-gathah--the holy names of Lord Visnu.'




   " 'O brahmanas, just accept me as a completely surrendered soul, and let mother Ganges, the representative of the Lord, also accept me in that way, for I have already taken the lotus feet of the Lord into my heart. Let the snakebird-or whatever magical thing the brahmana created-bite me at once. I only desire that you all continue singing the deeds of Lord Visnu.'




   This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.19.15) spoken by Maharaja Pariksit while he was sitting on the bank of the Ganges expecting to be bitten by a snakebird summoned by the curse of a brahmana boy named Srngi, who was the son of a great sage named Samika. News of the curse was conveyed to the King, who prepared for his imminent death. Many great saintly persons, sages, brahmanas, kings and demigods came to see him in his last days. Maharaja Pariksit, however, was not at all afraid of being bitten by the snake-bird. Indeed, he requested all the great personalities assembled to continue chanting the holy name of Lord Visnu.


                               TEXT 22




             krsna-sambandha vina kala vyartha nahi yaya




   krsna-sambandha vina--without a connection with Krsna; kala--time; vyartha--useless; nahi yaya--does not become.




   "Not a moment should be lost. Every moment should be utilized for Krsna or connected with Him.




   Maharaja Pariksit's expression of anxiety is explained in this verse. He says, "Let whatever is destined to happen take place. It doesn't matter. Just let me see that not a moment of my time is wasted without a relationship with Krsna." One has to tolerate all obstacles on the path of Krsna consciousness, and one has to see that not a moment of his life is wasted outside of Krsna's service.


                               TEXT 23




                  vagbhih stuvanto manasa smarantas

                  tanva namanto 'py anisam na trptah

                 bhaktah sravan-netra-jalah samagram

                      ayur harer eva samarpayanti




   vagbhih--by words; stuvantah--offering prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manasa--by the mind; smarantah--remembering; tanva--by the body; namantah--offering obeisances; api--although; anisam--all the time; na trptah--not satisfied; bhaktah--the devotees; sravat--shedding; netra-jalah--tears from the eyes; samagram--the whole; ayuh--life; hareh--to Krsna; eva--only; samarpayanti--dedicate.




   " 'With their words, they offer prayers to the Lord. With their minds, they always remember the Lord. With their bodies, they offer obeisances to the Lord. Despite all these activities, they are still not satisfied. This is the nature of pure devotees. Shedding tears from their eyes, they dedicate their whole lives to the Lord's service.'




   This verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.29).


                               TEXT 24




             bhukti, siddhi, indriyartha tare nahi bhaya




   bhukti--material enjoyment; siddhi--mystic power; indriya-artha--the objects of the senses; tare--unto him; nahi bhaya--do not appeal.




   "In the material field, people are interested in material enjoyment, mystic power and sense gratification. However, these things do not appeal to the devotee at all.


                               TEXT 25




                       yo dustyajan dara-sutan

                       suhrd-rajyam hrdi sprsah

                        jahau yuvaiva malavad





   yah--who (Bharata Maharaja); dustyajan--difficult to give up; dara-sutan--wife and children; suhrt--friends; rajyam--kingdom; hrdi sprsah--dear to the core of the heart; jahau--gave up; yuva--youthful; eva--at that time; malavat--like stool; uttamah-sloka-lalasah--being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   " 'King Bharata was very eager to attain the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, who is called uttama-sloka because poems and prayers are offered to Him for His favor. In his youth, King Bharata gave up his attractive wife and children, as well as his beloved friends and opulent kingdom, just as one gives up stool after passing it.'




   These are the signs of virakti (detachment) found in a person who has developed bhava, the preliminary stage of love of Godhead; This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.14.43).


                               TEXT 26




                'sarvottama' apanake 'hina' kari mane




   sarva-uttama--although standing above all; apanake--himself; hina kari--as the lowest; mane--considers.




   "Although a pure devotee's standard is above all, he still considers himself to be in the lowest stage of life.


                               TEXT 27




                        harau ratim vahann esa

                        narendranam sikhamanih

                        bhiksam atann ari-pure

                        sva-pakam api vandate




   harau--toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ratim--affection; vahan--carrying; esah--this one; nara-indranam--of all the kings; sikha-manih--brilliant crown jewel; bhiksam--begging alms; atan--wandering for; ari-pure--even in the city of enemies; sva-pakam--the fifth-grade candalas; api--even; vandate--worships.




   " 'Bharata Maharaja always carried affection for Krsna within his heart. Although Bharata Maharaja was the crown jewel of kings, he was still wandering about and begging alms in the city of his enemies. He was even offering respects to candalas, low-class men who eat dogs.'




   This is a quotation from Padma Purana.


                               TEXT 28




              'krsna krpa karibena'----drdha kari' jane




   krsna--Lord Krsna; krpa karibena--will show His mercy; drdha kari'--making firm; jane--he believes.




   "A fully surrendered devotee always hopes that Lord Krsna will be kind to him. This hope is very firm in him.


                               TEXT 29




        na prema sravanadi-bhaktir api va yogo 'thava vaisnavo

       jnanam va subha-karma va kiyad aho saj-jatir apy asti va

        hinarthadhika-sadhake tvayi tathapy acchedya-mula sati

         he gopi-jana-vallabha vyathayate ha ha mad-asaiva mam




   na--not; prema--love of Godhead; sravana-adi--consisting of chanting, hearing and so on; bhaktih--devotional service; api--also; va--or; yogah--the power of mystic yoga; athava--or; vaisnavah--befitting a devotee; jnanam--knowledge; va--or; subha-karma--pious activities; va--or; kiyat--a little; aho--O my Lord; sat-jatih--birth in a good family; api--even; asti--there is; va--or; hina-artha-adhika-sadhake--who bestows greater benedictions upon one who is fallen and possesses no good qualities; tvayi--unto You; tathapi--still; acchedya-mula--whose root is uncuttable; sati--being; he--O; gopi-jana-vallabha--most dear friend of the gopis; vyathayate--gives pain; ha ha--alas; mat--my; asa--hope; eva--certainly; mam--to me.




   " 'O my Lord, I do not have any love for You, nor am I qualified for discharging devotional service by chanting and hearing. Nor do I possess the mystic power of a Vaisnava, knowledge or pious activities. Nor do I belong to a very high-caste family. On the whole, I do not possess anything. Still, O beloved of the gopis, because You bestow Your mercy on the most fallen, I have an unbreakable hope that is constantly in my heart. That hope is always giving me pain.'




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.35).


                               TEXT 30




                samutkantha haya sada lalasa-pradhana




   samutkantha--eagerness; haya--is; sada--always; lalasa--ardent desire; pradhana--chiefly characterized by.




   "This eagerness is chiefly characterized by an ardent desire to associate with the Lord.


                               TEXT 31




             tvac-chaisavam tri-bhuvanadbhutam ity avehi

                mac-capalam ca tava va mama vadhigamyam

                 tat kim karomi viralam murali-vilasi

               mugdham mukhambujam udiksitum iksanabhyam




   tvat--Your; saisavam--early age; tri-bhuvana--within the three worlds; adbhutam--wonderful; iti--thus; avehi--know; mat-capalam--My unsteadiness; ca--and; tava--of You; va--or; mama--of Me; va--or; adhigamyam--to bu understood; tat--that; kim--what; karomi--I do; viralam--in solitude; murali-vilasi--O player of the flute; mugdham--attractive; mukha-ambujam--lotuslike face; udiksitum--to see sufficiently; iksanabhyam--by the eyes.




   " 'O Krsna, O flute player, the sweetness of Your early age is wonderful within these three worlds. You know My unsteadiness, and I know Yours. No one else knows about this. I want to see Your beautiful, attractive face somewhere in a solitary place, but how can this be accomplished?'




   This is a verse from Krsna-karnamrta (32).


                               TEXT 32




                 nama-gane sada ruci, laya krsna-nama




   nama-gane--in chanting the holy names; sada--constantly; ruci--taste,relish; laya--takes; krsna-nama--the Hare Krsna mantra.




   "Due to having great relish for the holy name, one is inclined to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra constantly.


                               TEXT 33





                       drg-indivaradya govinda

                      tava madhura-svara-kanthi

                        gayati namavalim bala




   rodana-bindu--with teardrops; maranda--like the nectar or juice of flowers; syandi--pouring; drk-indivara--whose lotus eyes; adya--today; govinda--O my Lord Govinda; tava--Your; madhura-svara-kanthi--who has a very sweet voice; gayati--sings; nama-avalim--holy names; bala--this young girl (Radhika).




   " 'O Govinda, this youthful girl named Radhika is today constantly pouring forth tears like nectar falling from flowers. She is also singing Your holy name in a sweet voice.'




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.38).


                               TEXT 34




                 krsna-gunakhyane haya sarvada asakti




   krsna-guna-akhyane--in describing the transcendental qualities of Krsna; haya--there is; sarvada--always; asakti--attachment.




   "At this stage of bhava, a devotee has awakened the tendency to chant and describe the transcendental qualities of the Lord. He has attachment for this process.


                               TEXT 35




                 madhuram madhuram vapur asya vibhor

                  madhuram madhuram vadanam madhuram

                  madhu-gandhi mrdu-smitam etad aho

                  madhuram madhuram madhuram madhuram




   madhuram--sweet; madhuram--sweet; vapuh--the transcendental form; asya--His; vibhoh--of the Lord; madhuram--sweet; madhuram--sweet; vadanam--face; madhuram--more sweet; madhu-gandhi--the fragrance of honey; mrdu-smitam--soft smiling; etat--this; aho--oh; madhuram--sweet; madhuram--sweet; madhuram--sweet; madhuram--still more sweet.




   " 'O my Lord, the transcendental body of Krsna is very sweet, and His face is even sweeter than His body. The soft smile on His face, which is like the fragrance of honey, is sweeter still.'




   This is a verse quoted from Bilvamangala Thakura's Krsna-karnamrta (92).


                               TEXT 36




                krsna-lila-sthane kare sarvada vasati




   krsna-lila-sthane--in the place where Krsna has His pastimes; kare--makes; sarvada--always; vasati--abode.




   "A devotee absorbed in ecstatic emotion for Krsna always resides in a place where Krsna's pastimes were performed.


                               TEXT 37




                         kadaham yamuna-tire

                         namani tava kirtayan

                        udbaspah pundarikaksa

                         racayisyami tandavam




   kada--when; aham--I; yamuna-tire--on the bank of the Yamuna; namani--holy names; tava--Your; kirtayan--chanting; udbaspah--full of tears; pundarika-aksa--O lotus-eyed one; racayisyami--I shall create; tandavam--dancing like a madman.




   " 'O Lord Pundarikaksa, while chanting Your holy name with tears in my eyes, when shall I dance in ecstasy on the bank of the Yamuna?'




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.156).


                               TEXT 38




               krsne 'ratira' cihna ei kailun vivarana

               'krsna-premera' cihna ebe suna sanatana




   krsne--for Krsna; ratira--of attraction; cihna--the symptoms; ei--all these; kailun vivarana--I have described; krsna-premera--of love for Lord Krsna; cihna--the symptoms; ebe--now; suna sanatana--please hear, Sanatana.




   "These are the symptoms of a person who has developed attraction [bhava] for Krsna. Now let me describe the symptoms of a person who is actually elevated to love of Krsna. O Sanatana, please hear this from Me.


                               TEXT 39




                 yanra citte krsna-prema karaye udaya

             tanra vakya, kriya, mudra vijneha na bujhaya




   yanra citte--in whose heart; krsna-prema--love of Krsna; karaye udaya--awakens; tanra--his; vakya--words; kriya--activities; mudra--symptoms; vijneha--even a learned scholar; na bujhaya--does not understand.




   "Even the most learned man cannot understand the words, activities and symptoms of a person situated in love of Godhead.


                               TEXT 40




                       dhanyasyayam nava-prema

                         yasyonmilati cetasi

                        antarvanibhir apy asya

                        mudra susthu sudurgama




   dhanyasya--of a most fortunate person; ayam--this; navah--new; prema--love of Godhead; yasya--of whom; unmilati--manifests; cetasi--in the heart; antarvanibhih--by persons well versed in sastras; api--even; asya--of him; mudra--symptoms; susthu--exceedingly; sudurgama--difficult to understand.




   " 'Even a most learned scholar cannot understand the activities and symptoms of an exalted personality in whose heart love of Godhead has awakened.'




   This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.4.17).


                               TEXT 41




                   evamvratah sva-priya-nama-kirtya

                     jatanurago druta-citta uccaih

                   hasaty atho roditi rauti gayaty

                     unmadavan nrtyati loka-bahyah




   evam-vratah--when one thus engages in a vow to chant and dance; sva--own; priya--very dear; nama--the holy name; kirtya--by chanting; jata--in this way develops; anuragah--attachment; druta-cittah--very eagerly; uccaih--loudly; hasati--laughs; atho--also; roditi--cries; rauti--becomes agitated; gayati--chants; unmada-vat--like a madman; nrtyati--dances; loka-bahyah--not caring for outsiders.




   " 'When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders.'




   This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.40).


                               TEXT 42




            prema krame badi' haya----sneha, mana, pranaya

                 raga, anuraga, bhava, mahabhava haya




   prema--love of God; krame--gradually; badi'--increasing; haya--is; sneha--affection; mana--indignation due to affection; pranaya--love; raga--attachment; anuraga--subattachment; bhava--ecstasy; maha-bhava--exalted ecstasy; haya--is.




   "Love of Godhead increases and is manifest as affection, counter-love, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and sublime ecstasy.


                               TEXT 43




               bija, iksu, rasa, guda tabe khanda-sara

              sarkara, sita-michari, suddha-michari ara




   bija--seeds; iksu--sugarcane plants; rasa--juice; guda--molasses; tabe--then; khanda-sara--crude sugar; sarkara--sugar; sita-michari--sugar candy; suddha-michari--rock candy; ara--also.




   "This development is compared to sugarcane seeds, sugarcane plants, sugarcane juice, molasses, crude sugar, refined sugar, sugar candy and rock candy.


                               TEXT 44




              iha yaiche krame nirmala, krame bade svada

                 rati-premadira taiche badaye asvada




   iha--this; yaiche--like; krame--by succession; nirmala--pure; krame--gradually; bade--increases; svada--taste; rati--from attachment; prema-adira--of love of Godhead and so on; taiche--in that way; badaye--increases; asvada--taste.




   "Just as the taste of sugar increases as it is gradually purified, one should understand that when love of Godhead increases from rati, which is compared to the beginning seed, its taste increases.


                               TEXT 45




                adhikari-bhede rati----panca parakara

             santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, madhura ara




   adhikari--of possessor; bhede--according to differences; rati--attachment; panca parakara--five varieties; santa--neutral; dasya--servitude; sakhya--friendship; vatsalya--paternal love; madhura--conjugal love; ara--also.




   "According to the candidate possessing these transcendental qualities [sneha, mana and so on], there are five transcendental mellows-neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental love and conjugal love.

   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, rati (attraction) is thus described:


                       vyaktam masrnitevantar-

                        laksyate rati-laksanam

                       mumuksu-prabhrtinam ced

                        bhaved esa ratir na hi


                        kintu bala-camatkara-

                        kari tac-cihna-viksaya

                        abhijnena subodho 'yam

                       raty-abhasah prakirtitah


   The real symptoms of the fructification of the seed of love (rati) are manifest because the heart is melted. When such symptoms are found among speculators and fruitive actors, they cannot be accepted as real symptoms of attachment. Foolish people without knowledge of devotional service praise such symptoms of attachment even when they are based on something other than a desire to serve Krsna. However, one who is expert in devotional service calls such symptoms rati-abhasa, a mere glimpse of attachment.


                               TEXT 46




               ei panca sthayi bhava haya panca 'rasa'

              ye-rase bhakta 'sukhi', krsna haya 'vasa'




   ei panca--these five kinds of transcendental mellow; sthayi bhava--permanent ecstatic moods; haya--become; panca rasa--five kinds of transcendental mellow; ye-rase--in a particular mellow; bhakta sukhi--a devotee becomes happy; krsna--Lord Krsna; haya--becomes; vasa--under the control.




   "These five transcendental mellows exist permanently. The devotee may be attracted to one of these mellows, and thus he becomes happy. Krsna also becomes inclined toward such a devotee and comes under his control.




   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, sthayi-bhava, permanent ecstasy, is thus described:


                       aviruddhan viruddhams ca

                       bhavan yo vasatam nayan

                          su-rajeva virajeta

                        sa sthayi bhava ucyate

                     sthayi bhavo 'tra sa proktah

                        sri-krsna-visaya ratih


   These moods (bhavas) bring under control the favorable ecstasies (such as laughing) and unfavorable ecstasies (such as anger). When these continue to remain as kings, they are called sthayi-bhava, or permanent ecstasies. Continuous ecstatic love for Krsna is called permanent ecstasy.


                               TEXT 47




                premadika sthayi-bhava samagri-milane

                 krsna-bhakti rasa-rupe paya pariname




   prema-adika--love of Godhead, beginning with santa, dasya and so on; sthayi-bhava--the permanent ecstasies; samagri-milane--by mixing with other ingredients; krsna-bhakti--devotional service to Lord Krsna; rasa-rupe--composed of transcendental mellows; paya--becomes; pariname--by transformation.




   "When the permanent ecstasies [neutrality, servitorship and so on] are mixed with other ingredients, devotional service in love of Godhead is transformed and becomes composed of transcendental mellows.




   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, the following definition is given:


                        athasyah kesava-rater

                         laksitaya nigadyate


                          parama rasa-rupata


                       vibhavair anubhavais ca

                      sattvikair vyabhicaribhih

                      svadyatvam hrdi bhaktanam

                         anita sravanadibhih

                        esa krsna-ratih sthayi

                       bhavo bhakti-raso bhavet


   Love for Krsna, Kesava, as previously described, reaches the supreme state of being composed of mellows when its ingredients are fulfilled. By means of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari, hearing and chanting are activated, and the devotee is able to taste love for Krsna. Then attachment for Krsna, or permanent ecstasy (sthayi-bhava), becomes the mellow of devotional service (bhakti-rasa).


                               TEXT 48




               vibhava, anubhava, sattvika, vyabhicari

                sthayi-bhava 'rasa' haya ei cari mili'




   vibhava--special ecstasy; anubhava--subordinate ecstasy; sattvika--natural ecstasy; vyabhicari--transitory ecstasy; sthayi-bhava--permanent ecstasy; rasa--mellow; haya--becomes; ei cari--these four; mili'--meeting.




   "The permanent ecstasy becomes a more and more tasteful transcendental mellow through the mixture of special ecstasy, subordinate ecstasy, natural ecstasy and transitory ecstasy.


                               TEXT 49




               dadhi yena khanda-marica-karpura-milane

                 'rasalakhya' rasa haya apurvasvadane




   dadhi--yogurt; yena--as if; khanda--sugar candy; marica--black pepper; karpura--camphor; milane--being mixed; rasala-akhya--known os delicious; rasa--mellow; haya--becomes; apurva-asvadane--by an unprecedented taste.




   "Yogurt mixed with sugar candy, black pepper and camphor is very palatable and tasty. Similarly, when permanent ecstasy mixes with other ecstatic symptoms, it becomes unprecedentedly tasty.


                               TEXT 50




              dvividha 'vibhava',----alambana, uddipana

          vamsi-svaradi----'uddipana', krsnadi----'alambana'




   dvi-vidha--two kinds; vibhava--particular ecstasy; alambana--the support; uddipana--awakening; vamsi-svara-adi--such as the vibration of the flute; uddipana--exciting; krsna-adi--Krsna and others; alambana--the support.




   "There are two kinds of particular ecstasies [vibhava]. One is called the support, and the other is called the awakening. The vibration of Krsna's flute is an example of the awakening, and Lord Krsna Himself is an example of the support.


                               TEXT 51




            'anubhava'----smita, nrtya, gitadi udbhasvara

              stambhadi----'sattvika' anubhavera bhitara




   anubhava--subordinate ecstasy; smita--smiling; nrtya--dancing; gita-adi--songs and so on; udbhasvara--symptoms of bodily manifestation; stambha-adi--being stunned and others; sattvika--natural; anubhavera bhitara--within the category of subordinate ecstasies.




   "The subordinate ecstasies are smiling, dancing and singing, as well as different manifestations in the body. The natural ecstasies, such as being stunned, are considered among the subordinate ecstasies [anubhava].

   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, vibhava is described as follows:


                       tatra jneya vibhavas tu


                         te dvidhalambana eke

                        tathaivoddipanah pare


   "The cause bringing about the tasting of love for Krsna is called vibhava. Vibhava is divided into two categories-alambana (support) and uddipana (awakening)."

   In the Agni Purana it is stated:


                       vibhavyate hi raty-adir

                        yatra yena vibhavyate

                       vibhavo nama sa dvedha-



   "That which causes love for Krsna to appear is called vibhava. That has two divisions-alambana [in which love appears] and uddipana [by which love appears]."

   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, the following is stated about alambana:


                      krsnas ca krsna-bhaktas ca

                        budhair alambana matah

                        raty-ader visayatvena

                         tathadharatayapi ca


   "The object of love is Krsna, and the container of that love is the devotee of Krsna. Both of them are called by the learned scholars alambana-the foundations." Similarly, uddipana is described:


                        uddipanas tu te prokta

                        bhavam uddipayanti ye


   "Those things which awaken ecstatic love are called uddipana."


                      te tu sri-krsna-candrasya

                       gunas cestah prasadhanam


   Mainly this awakening is made possible by the qualities and activities of Krsna, as well as by His mode of decoration and the way His hair is arranged.


                       smitanga-saurabhe vamsa-





   "Krsna's smile, the fragrance of His transcendental body, His flute, bugle, ankle bells, conchshell, the marks on His feet, His place of residence, His favorite plant [tulasi], His devotees, and the observance of fasts and vows connected to His devotion all awaken the symptoms of ecstatic love."

   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, anubhava is described as follows:


                       anubhavas tu citta-stha-

                         bhavanam avabodhakah

                       te bahir vikriya prayah

                       prokta udbhasvarakhyaya


   The many external ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind, and which are also called udbhasvara, are the anubhavas, or subordinate ecstatic expressions of love. Some of these are dancing, falling down and rolling on the ground, singing and crying very loudly, bodily contortions, loud vibrations, yawning, deep breathing, disregard for others, the frothing of saliva, mad laughter, spitting, hiccups and other similar symptoms. All these symptoms are divided into two divisions-sita and ksepana. Singing, yawning and so on are called sita. Dancing and bodily contortions are called ksepana.

   The Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu describes udbhasvara as follows:


                        udbhasante svadhamniti

                      prokta udbhasvara budhaih


                       sramsanam gatra-motanam

                     jrmbha ghranasya phullatvam

                       nisvasadyas ca te matah


   The ecstatic symptoms manifest in the external body of a person in ecstatic love are called by learned scholars udbhasvara. Some of these are a slackening of the belt and a dropping of clothes and hair. Others are bodily contortions, yawning, a trembling of the front portion of the nostrils, heavy breathing, hiccupping and falling down and rolling on the ground. These are the external manifestations of emotional love. Stambha and other symptoms are described in Madhya-lila (14.167).


                               TEXT 52




               nirveda-harsadi----tetrisa 'vyabhicari'

                 saba mili' 'rasa' haya camatkarakari




   nirveda-harsa-adi--complete despondency, jubilation and so on; tetrisa--thirty-three; vyabhicari--transitory elements; saba mili'--all meeting together; rasa--the mellows; haya--becomes; camatkarakari--a cause of wonder.




   "There are other ingredients beginning with complete despondency and jubilation. Altogether there are thirty-three varieties, and when these combine, the mellow becomes very wonderful.

   Nirveda, harsa, and other symptoms are explained in Madhya-lila (14.167). The transitory elements (vyabhicari) are described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu as follows:


                      athocyante trayas trimsad-

                        bhava ye vyabhicarinah


                       caranti sthayinam prati

                       vag-anga-sattva-sucya ye

                       jneyas te vyabhicarinah


                        sancarayanti bhavasya

                        gatim sancarino 'pi te

                        unmajjanti nimajjanti


                       urmivad vardhayanty enam

                       yanti tad-rupatam ca te


   There are thirty-three transitory elements known as vyabhicari-ecstatic emotions. They especially wander about the permanent sentiments as assistants. They are to be known by words, by different symptoms seen in the limbs and in other parts of the body, and by the peculiar conditions of the heart. Because they set in motion the progress of the permanent sentiments, they are specifically called sancari, or impelling principles. These impelling principles rise up and fall back in the permanent sentiments of ecstatic love like waves in an ocean of ecstasy. Consequently they are called vyabhicari.


                               TEXT 53




          panca-vidha rasa----santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya

             madhura-nama srngara-rasa----sabate prabalya




   panca-vidha rasa--five kinds of mellows; santa--neutrality; dasya--servitorship; sakhya--friendship; vatsalya--paternal affection; madhura--sweet; nama--named; srngara-rasa--the conjugal mellow; sabate--among all of them; prabalya--predominant.




   "There are five transcendental mellows-neutrality, servitorship, friendship, paternal affection and conjugal love, which is also known as the mellow of sweetness. Conjugal love excels all others.


                               TEXT 54




             santa-rase santi-rati 'prema' paryanta haya

              dasya-rati 'raga' paryanta krameta badaya




   santa-rase--in the mellow of neutrality; santi-rati--spiritual attachment in peacefulness; prema paryanta--up to love of Godhead; haya--is; dasya-rati--attachment in servitude; raga--spontaneous love; paryanta--up to; krameta--gradually; badaya--increases.




   "The position of neutrality increases up to the point where one can appreciate love of Godhead. The mellow of servitorship gradually increases to the point of spontaneous love of Godhead.


                               TEXT 55




               sakhya-vatsalya-rati paya 'anuraga'-sima

             subaladyera 'bhava' paryanta premera mahima




   sakhya--in friendship; vatsalya--in paternal affection; rati--affection; paya--obtains; anuraga-sima--up to the limit of subordinate spontaneous love; subala-adyera--of friends like Subala and others; bhava--ecstatic love; paryanta--up to; premera mahima--the glory of the love of Godhead.




   "After the mellow of servitorship, there are the mellows of friendship and paternal love, which increase to subordinate spontaneous love. The greatness of the love found in friends like Subala extends to the standard of ecstatic love of Godhead.




   Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura says that the mellow of neutrality increases to simple love of Godhead. In the mellow of servitorship, love of Godhead increases beyond that to affection, counter-love (anger based on love), love and attachment. Similarly, the mellow of friendship increases to affection, counter-love, love, attachment and subattachment. It is the same with the mellow of paternal affection. The special feature of the mellow of friendship exhibited by personalities like Subala is that it increases from fraternal affection to counter-love, to spontaneous attachment, to subordinate attachment, and finally to the ecstasy where all the ecstatic symptoms continuously exist.


                               TEXT 56




            santa-adi rasera 'yoga', 'viyoga'----dui bheda

                sakhya-vatsalye yogadira aneka vibheda




   santa-adi rasera--of the mellows beginning from neutrality; yoga--connection; viyoga--separation; dui bheda--two divisions; sakhya--in the mellow of friendship; vatsalye--in paternal affection; yoga-adira--of connection and separation; aneka vibheda--many varieties.




   "There are two divisions of each of the five mellows--yoga [connection] and viyoga [separation]. Among the mellows of friendship and parental affection, there are many divisions of connection and separation.




   In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, these divisions are described:



                       prabhedau kathitav ubhau


   In the mellows of bhakti-yoga, there are two stages--ayoga and yoga. Ayoga is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu:


                       sangabhavo harer dhirair

                          ayoga iti kathyate

                        ayoge tvan-manaskatvam



                       sarvesam kathitah kriyah


   Learned scholars in the science of bhakti-yoga say that when there is an absence of association with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, separation takes place. In the stage of ayoga (separation), the mind is filled with Krsna consciousness and is fully absorbed in thoughts of Krsna. In that stage, the devotee searches out the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is said that in that stage of separation, all the devotees in the different mellows are always active in thinking of ways to attain Krsna's association.

   The word yoga (connection) is thus described:


                        krsnena sangamo yas tu

                         sa yoga iti kirtyate


   "When one meets Krsna directly, that is called yoga."

   In the transcendental mellows of neutrality and servitorship, there are similar divisions of yoga and viyoga, but they are not variegated. The divisions of yoga and viyoga are always existing in the five mellows. However, in the transcendental mellows of friendship and paternal affection, there are many varieties of yoga and viyoga. The varieties of yoga are thus described:


                      yogo 'pi kathitah siddhis

                      tustih sthitir iti tridha


   Yoga (connection) is of three types-success, satisfaction and permanence. The divisions of ayoga (separation) are thus described:


                       utkanthitam viyogas cety

                        ayogo 'pi dvidhocyate


   Thus ayoga has two divisions-longing and separation.


                               TEXT 57




            'rudha', 'adhirudha' bhava----kevala 'madhure'

           mahisi-ganera 'rudha', 'adhirudha' gopika-nikare




   rudha--advanced; adhirudha--highly advanced; bhava--ecstasy; kevala--only; madhure--in the transcendental mellow of conjugal love; mahisi-ganera--of the queens of Dvaraka; rudha--advanced; adhirudha--highly advanced; gopika-nikare--among the gopis.




   "Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called rudha [advanced] and adhirudha [highly advanced]. The advanced ecstasy is found among the queens of Dvaraka, and the highly advanced ecstasies are found among the gopis.




   The adhirudha ecstasies are explained in the Ujjvala-nilamani:


                      rudhoktebhyo 'nubhavebhyah

                       kam apy apta visistatam

                        yatranubhava drsyante

                        so 'dhirudho nigadyate


   The very sweet attraction of conjugal love increases through affection, counter-love, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and highly advanced ecstasy (mahabhava). The platform of mahabhava includes rudha and adhirudha. These platforms are possible only in conjugal love. Advanced ecstasy is found in Dvaraka, whereas highly advanced ecstasy is found among the gopis.


                               TEXT 58




                adhirudha-mahabhava----dui ta' prakara

             sambhoge 'madana', virahe 'mohana' nama tara




   adhirudha-mahabhava--highly advanced ecstasy; dui ta' prakara--two varieties; sambhoge--in actually meeting; madana--madana; virahe--in separation; mohana--mohana; nama--the names; tara--of them.




   "Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories-madana and mohana. Meeting together is called madana, and separation is called mohana.


                               TEXT 59




                'madane' cumbanadi haya ananta vibheda

             'udghurna', 'citra-jalpa' 'mohane' dui bheda




   madane--in the stage of madana; cumbana-adi--kissing and similar activities; haya--are; ananta vibheda--unlimited divisions; udghurna--unsteadiness; citra-jalpa--various mad talks; mohane--the stage of mohana, dui bheda--two divisions.




   "On the madana platform there are kissing and many other symptoms, which are unlimited. In the mohana stage, there are two divisions-udghurna [unsteadiness] and citra-jalpa [varieties of mad emotional talks].




   For further information, see Madhya-lila (1.87).


                               TEXT 60




              citra-jalpera dasa anga----prajalpadi-nama

             'bhramara-gita'ra dasa sloka tahate pramana




   citra-jalpera--of the mad talks; dasa--ten; anga--parts; prajalpa-adi-nama--named prajalpa and so on; bhramara-gitara--of Radharani's talks with the bumblebee (Srimad-Bhagavatam, Canto Ten, Chapter Forty-seven); dasa sloka--ten verses; tahate--in that matter; pramana--the evidence.




   "Mad emotional talks include ten divisions, called prajalpa and other names. An example of this is the ten verses spoken by Srimati Radharani called 'song to the bumblebee.'




   Imaginative mad talks known as citra-jalpa can be divided into ten categories-prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, sanjalpa, avajalpa, abhijalpa, ajalpa, pratijalpa and sujalpa. There are no English equivalents for these different features of jalpa (imaginative talk).


                               TEXT 61




              udghurna, vivasa-cesta----divyonmada-nama

             virahe krsna-sphurti, apanake 'krsna'-jnana




   udghurna--unsteadiness; vivasa-cesta--boastful activities; divya-unmada-nama--named transcendental madness; virahe--in separation; krsna-sphurti--manifestation of Krsna; apanake--oneself; krsna-jnana--thinking as Krsna.




   "Udghurna [unsteadiness] and vivasa-cesta [boastful activities] are aspects of transcendental madness. In separation from Krsna, one experiences the manifestation of Krsna, and one thinks oneself to be Krsna.


                               TEXT 62




           'sambhoga'-'vipralambha'-bhede dvividha srngara

                sambhogera ananta anga, nahi anta tara




   sambhoga--of meeting (enjoyment together); vipralambha--of separation; bhede--in two divisions; dvi-vidha srngara--two kinds of conjugal love; sambhogera--of the stage of sambhoga, or meeting; ananta anga--unlimited parts; nahi--not; anta--an end; tara--of that.




   "In conjugal love [srngara] there are two departments-meeting and separation. On the platform of meeting, there are unlimited varieties that are beyond description.




   Vipralambha is described in the Ujjvala-nilamani:


                        yunor ayuktayor bhavo

                       yuktayor vatha yo mithah


                         anavaptau prakrsyate

                       sa vipralambho vijneyah



                        na vina vipralambhena

                       sambhogah pustim asnute


   When the lover and the beloved meet, they are called yukta (connected). Previous to their meeting, they are called ayukta (not connected). Whether connected or not connected, the ecstatic emotion arising due to not being able to embrace and kiss each other as desired is called vipralambha. This vipralambha helps nourish emotions at the time of meeting. Similarly, sambhoga is thus described:



                          anukulyan nisevaya

                         yunor ullasam arohan

                        bhavah sambhoga iryate


   "Meeting each other and embracing each other are aimed at bringing about the happiness of both the lover and the beloved. When this stage becomes increasingly jubilant, the resultant ecstatic emotion is called sambhoga." When awakened, sambhoga is divided into four categories:

   (1)      purva-raga-anantara-after purva-raga (attachment prior to meeting), sambhoga is called brief (sanksipta);

   (2)      mana-anantara-after mana (anger based on love), sambhoga is called encroached (sankirna);

   (3)      kincid-dura-pravasa-anantara-after being a little distance away for some time, sambhoga is called accomplished (sampanna);

   (4)      sudura-pravasa-anantara-after being far away, sambhoga is called perfection (samrddhiman).

   The meetings of the lovers that take place in dreams also have these four divisions.


                               TEXT 63




            'vipralambha' catur-vidha----purva-raga, mana

               pravasakhya, ara prema-vaicittya-akhyana




   vipralambha--separation; catuh-vidha--four divisions; purva-raga-- purva-raga; mana--mana; pravasakhya--known as pravasa; ara--and; prema-vaicittya--prema-vaicittya; akhyana--calling.




   "Vipralambha has four divisions-purva-raga, mana, pravasa, and prema-vaicittya.




   Purva-raga is described in Ujjvala-nilamani:


                       ratir ya sangamat purvam


                       tayor unmilati prajnaih

                        purva-ragah sa ucyate


   When attachment produced in both the lover and beloved before their meeting by seeing, hearing and so on becomes very palatable by the mixture of four ingredients, such as vibhava and anubhava, this is called purva-raga.

   The word mana is also described:


                        dampatyor bhava ekatra

                        sator apy anuraktayoh


                         nirodhi mana ucyate


   Mana is a word used to indicate the mood of the lover and the beloved experienced whether they are in one place or in different places. This mood obstructs their looking at one another and embracing one another, despite the fact that they are attached to one another.

   Pravasa is also explained as follows:


                       purva-sanga-tayor yunor

                        bhaved desantaradibhih

                     vyavadhanam tu yat prajnaih

                         sa pravasa itiryate


   Pravasa is a word used to indicate the separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated. This separation is due to their being in different places.

   Similarly, prema-vaicittya is explained:


                       priyasya sannikarse 'pi


                       ya visesa-dhiyartis tat

                       prema-vaicittyam ucyate


   Prema-vaicittya is a word used to indicate an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation, although the lover is present.


                               TEXT 64




         radhikadye 'purva-raga' prasiddha 'pravasa', 'mane'

               'prema-vaicittya' sri-dasame mahisi-gane




   radhikadye--in Srimati Radharani and the other gopis; purva-raga--feelings before union; prasiddha--celebrated; pravasa mane--also pravasa and mana; prema-vaicittya--feelings of fear of separation; sri-dasame--in the Tenth Canto; mahisi-gane--among the queens.




   "Of the four kinds of separation, three [purva-raga, pravasa and mana] are celebrated in Srimati Radharani and the gopis. In Dvaraka, among the queens, feelings of prema-vaicittya are very prominent.


                               TEXT 65




               kurari vilapasi tvam vita-nidra na sese

              svapiti jagati ratryam isvaro gupta-bodhah

             vayam iva sakhi kaccid gadha-nirviddha-ceta





   kurari--O female osprey; vilapasi--are lamenting; tvam--you; vita-nidra--without sleep; na--not; sese--rest; svapiti--sleeps; jagati--in the world; ratryam--at night; isvarah--Lord Krsna; gupta-bodhah--whose consciousness is hidden; vayam--we; iva--like; sakhi--O dear friend; kaccid--whether; gadha--deeply; nirviddha-ceta--pierced in the heart; nalina-nayana--of the lotus-eyed Lord; hasa--smiling; udara--liberal; lila-iksitena--by the playful glancing.




   " 'My dear friend kurari, it is now night, and Lord Sri Krsna is sleeping. You yourself are not asleep or resting but are lamenting. Should I presume that you, like us, are affected by the smiling, liberal, playful glances of the lotus eyed Krsna? If so, your heart is deeply pierced. Is that why you are showing these signs of sleepless lamentation?'




   This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.90.15). Although the queens were with Krsna, they were still thinking of losing His company.


                               TEXT 66




              vrajendra-nandana krsna----nayaka-siromani

                 nayikara siromani----radha-thakurani




   vrajendra-nandana krsna--Lord Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda; nayaka-siromani--best of all heroes; nayikara siromani--the best of all heroines; radha-thakurani--Srimati Radharani.




   "Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who appeared as the son of Nanda Maharaja, is the supreme hero in all dealings. Similarly, Srimati Radharani is the topmost heroine in all dealings.


                               TEXT 67




                         nayakanam siroratnam

                      krsnas tu bhagavan svayam

                        yatra nityataya sarve

                         virajante maha-gunah




   nayakanam--of all heroes; siroratnam--the crown jewel; krsnah--Lord Krsna; tu--but; bhagavan svayam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself; yatra--in whom; nityataya--with permanence; sarve--all; virajante--exist; maha-gunah--transcendental qualities.




   " 'Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, and He is the crown jewel of all heroes. In Krsna, all transcendental good qualities are permanently situated.'




   This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.17).


                               TEXT 68




                        devi krsnamayi prokta

                         radhika para-devata

                       sarva-laksmimayi sarva-

                        kantih sammohini para




   devi--who shines brilliantly; krsna-mayi--nondifferent from Lord Krsna; prokta--called; radhika--Srimati Radharani; para-devata--;most worshipable; sarva-laksmi-mayi--presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; sarva-kantih--in whom all splendor exists; sammohini--whose character completely bewilders Lord Krsna; para--the superior energy.




   " 'The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krsna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.'




   This text is found in the Brhad-gautamiya-tantra.


                               TEXT 69




              ananta krsnera guna, causatti----pradhana

                eka eka guna suni' judaya bhakta-kana




   ananta--unlimited; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; guna--qualities; causatti--sixty-four; pradhana--chief ones; eka eka--one by one; guna--qualities; suni'--hearing; judaya--satisfies; bhakta-kana--the ears of the devotees.




   "The transcendental qualities of Lord Krsna are unlimited. Out of these, sixty-four are considered prominent. The ears of the devotees are satisfied simply by hearing all these qualities one after the other.


                               TEXT 70




                        ayam neta suramyangah


                         ruciras tejasa yukto

                         baliyan vayasanvitah




   ayam--this (Krsna); neta--supreme hero; suramya-angah--having the most beautiful transcendental body; sarva-sat-laksana--all-auspicious bodily marks; anvitah--endowed with; rucirah--possessing radiance very pleasing to the eyes; tejasa--with all power; yuktah--bestowed; baliyan--very strong; vayasa-anvitah--having a youthful age.




   " 'Krsna, the supreme hero, has the most beautiful transcendental body. This body possesses all good features. It is radiant and very pleasing to the eyes. His body is powerful, strong and youthful.




   This verse and the following six verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.23-29).


                               TEXT 71





                      satya-vakyah priyam vadah

                         vavadukah supandityo

                       buddhiman pratibhanvitah




   vividha--various; adbhuta--wonderful; bhasa-vit--knower of languages; satya-vakyah--whose words are truthful; priyam vadah--who speaks very pleasingly; vavadukah--expert in speaking; su-pandityah--very learned; buddhiman--very wise; pratibha-anvitah--genius.




   " 'Krsna is the linguist of all wonderful languages. He is a truthful and very pleasing speaker. He is expert in speaking, and He is a very wise, learned scholar and a genius.


                               TEXT 72




                       vidagdhas caturo daksah

                       krtajnah sudrdha-vratah


                       sastra-caksuh sucir vasi




   vidagdhah--expert in artistic enjoyment; caturah--cunning; daksah--expert; krta-jnah--grateful; sudrdha-vratah--firmly determined; desa--of country; kala--time; supatra--of fitness; jnah--a knower; sastra-caksuh--expert in the authoritative scriptures; sucih--very clean and neat; vasi--serf-controlled.




   " 'Krsna is very expert in artistic enjoyment. He is highly cunning, expert, grateful and firmly determined in His vows. He knows how to deal according to time, person and country, and He sees through the scriptures and authoritative books. He is very clean and self-controlled.


                               TEXT 73




                       sthiro dantah ksama-silo

                       gambhiro dhrtiman samah

                       vadanyo dharmikah surah

                         karuno manya-manakrt




   sthirah--steady; dantah--having controlled senses; ksama-silah--forgiving; gambhirah--grave; dhrtiman--calm, never bereft of intelligence; samah--equal; vadanyah--magnanimous; dharmikah--religious; surah--chivalrous; karunah--kind; manya-manakrt--respectful to the respectable.




   " 'Lord Krsna is steady, His senses are controlled, and He is forgiving, grave and calm. He is also equal to all. Moreover, He is magnanimous, religious, chivalrous and kind. He is always respectful to respectable people.


                               TEXT 74




                        daksino vinayi hriman


                      sukhi bhakta-suhrt prema-

                       vasyah sarva-subhankarah




   daksinah--simple and liberal; vinayi--humble; hriman--bashful when glorified; saranagata-palakah--protector of the surrendered soul; sukhi--always happy; bhakta-suhrt--well-wisher of the devotees; prema-vasyah--submissive to love; sarva-subhankarah--all-auspicious.




   " 'Krsna is very simple and liberal, He is humble and bashful, and He is the protector of the surrendered soul. He is very happy, and He is always the well-wisher of His devotee. He is all-auspicious, and He is submissive to love.


                               TEXT 75




                       pratapi kirtiman rakta-

                        lokah sadhu-samasrayah


                       sarvaradhyah samrddhiman




   pratapi--very influential; kirtiman--famous for good works; rakta-lokah--who is the object of the attachment of all people; sadhu-sama-asrayah--the shelter of the good and virtuous; nari-gana--to women; manohari--attractive; sarva-aradhyah--worshipable by everyone; samrddhiman--very rich.




   " 'Krsna is very influential and famous, and He is the object of attachment for everyone. He is the shelter of the good and the virtuous. He is attractive to the minds of women, and He is worshiped by everyone. He is very, very rich.


                               TEXT 76




                         variyan isvaras ceti

                        gunas tasyanukirtitah

                         samudra iva pancasad

                         durvigaha harer ami




   variyan--the best; isvarah--the supreme controller; ca--and; iti--thus; gunah--the transcendental qualities; tasya--of Him; anukirtitah--described; samudrah--oceans; iva--like; pancasat--fifty; durvigahah--difficult to penetrate fully; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ami--all these.




   " 'Krsna is the Supreme, and He is always glorified as the Supreme Lord and controller. Thus all the previously mentioned transcendental qualities are in Him. The fifty qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead above mentioned are as deep as an ocean. In other words, they are difficult to fully comprehend.


                               TEXT 77




                        jivesu ete vasanto 'pi

                        bindu-bindutaya kvacit

                         paripurnataya bhanti

                         tatraiva purusottame




   jivesu--in the living entities; ete--these; vasantah--are residing; api--though; bindu-bindutaya--with a very minute quantity; kvacit--sometimes; paripurnataya--with fullness; bhanti--are manifest; tatra--in Him; eva--certainly; purusa-uttame--in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   " 'These qualities are sometimes very minutely exhibited in living beings, but they are fully manifest in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'




   This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.30). Living entities are parts and parcels of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhagavad-gita:


                         mamaivamso jiva-loke

                        jiva-bhutah sanatanah

                        manah sasthanindriyani

                        prakrti-sthani karsati


   "The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." (Bg. 15.7)

   The qualities of Krsna are present in the living entity in minute, atomic quantities. A small portion of gold is certainly gold, but it cannot be equal to a gold mine. Similarly, the living entities have all the characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in minute quantity, but the living entity is never equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. God is therefore described as the Supreme Being, and the living entity is described as a jiva. God is the Supreme Being, the chief of all living beings-eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman. The Mayavadis maintain that everyone is God, but even if this philosophy is accepted, no one can maintain that everyone is equal to the Supreme Godhead. Only unintelligent men maintain that everyone is equal to God or that everyone is God.


                               TEXT 78




                       atha panca-guna ye syur

                          amsena girisadisu




   atha--now(over and above these); panca-gunah--five qualities; ye--which; syuh--may exist; amsena--by part; girisa-adisu--in demigods like Lord Siva.




   " 'Apart from these fifty qualities, there are five other qualities found in the Supreme Personality of Godhead that are partially present in demigods like Siva.




   This verse and the following seven verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.37-44).


                             TEXTS 79-81




                       sada svarupa-sampraptah

                        sarva-jno nity-nutanah




                        athocyante gunah panca

                        ye laksmisadi-vartinah







                        ami krsne kiladbhutah




   sada--always; svarupa-sampraptah--situated in one's eternal nature; sarva-jnah--omniscient; nitya-nutanah--ever-fresh; sat-cit-ananda-sandra-angah--the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge, bliss; sarva-siddhi-nisevitah--attended by all mystic perfections; atha--now; ucyante--are said; gunah--qualities; panca--five; ye--which; laksmi-isa--in the proprietor of the goddess of fortune; adi--etc.; vartinah--represented; avicintya--inconceivable; maha-saktih--possessing supreme energy; koti-brahmanda--consisting of innumerable universes; vigrahah--having a body; avatara--of incarnations; avali--of groups; bijam--the source; hata-ari--to enemies killed by Him; gati-dayakah--giving liberation; atmarama-gana--of those fully satisfied in themselves; akarsi--attracting; iti--thus; ami--these; krsne--in Krsna; kila--certainly; adbhutah--very wonderful.




   " 'These qualities are (1) the Lord is always situated in His original position, (2) He is omniscient, (3) He is always fresh and youthful, (4) He is the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, and (5) He is the possessor of all mystic perfection. There are another five qualities, which exist in the Vaikuntha planets in Narayana, the Lord of Laksmi. These qualities are also present in Krsna, but they are not present in demigods like Lord Siva or in other living entities. These are (1) inconceivable supreme power, (2) generating innumerable universes from the body, (3) being the original source of all incarnations, (4) bestowing salvation upon enemies killed, and (5) the ability to attract exalted persons who are satisfied in themselves. Although these qualities are present in Narayana, the dominating Deity of the Vaikuntha planets, they are even more wonderfully present in Krsna.


                             TEXTS 82-83
















   sarva-adbhuta-camatkara--bringing wonder to all; lila--of pastimes; kallola--full of waves; varidhih--an ocean; atulya-madhura-prema--with incomparable conjugal love; mandita--decorated; priya-mandalah--with a circle of favorite personalities; tri-jagat--of three worlds; manasa-akarsi--attracting the minds; murali--of the flute; kala-kujitah--the melodious vibration; asamana-urdhva--unequaled and unsurpassed; rupa--by beauty; sri--and opulence; vismapita-cara-acarah--astonishing the moving and nonmoving living entities.




   " 'Apart from these sixty transcendental qualities, Krsna has an additional four transcendental qualities, which are not manifest even in the personality of Narayana. These are: (1) Krsna is like an ocean filled with waves of pastimes that evoke wonder within everyone in the three worlds. (2) In His activities of conjugal love, He is always surrounded by His dear devotees who possess unequaled love for Him. (3) He attracts the minds of all three worlds by the melodious vibration of His flute. (4) His personal beauty and opulence are beyond compare. No one is equal to Him, and no one is greater than Him. Thus the Personality of Godhead astonishes all living entities, both moving and nonmoving, within the three worlds. He is so beautiful that He is called Krsna.




   Mayavadi philosophers, who have a poor fund of knowledge, simply dismiss the subject by explaining that Krsna means black. Not understanding the qualities of Krsna, these atheistic rascals do not accept Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although the Lord is described and accepted by great personalities, acaryas and sages, the Mayavadis still do not appreciate Him. Unfortunately at the present moment human society is so degraded that people cannot even provide themselves with life's daily necessities, yet they are captivated by Mayavadi philosophers and are being misled. According to Bhagavad-gita, simply by understanding Krsna one can get free from the cycle of birth and death. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so 'rjuna. Unfortunately this great science of Krsna consciousness has been impeded by Mayavadi philosophers who are opposed to the personality of Krsna. Those who are preaching this Krsna consciousness movement must try to understand Krsna from the statements given in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (The Nectar of Devotion).


                             TEXTS 84-85




                       lila premna priyadhikyam

                        madhuryam venu-rupayoh

                       ity asadharanam proktam

                        govindasya catustayam


                       evam gunas catur-bhedas

                        catuh-sastir udahrtah




   lila--pastimes; premna--with transcendental love; priya-adhikyam--an abundance of highly elevated devotees; madhuryam--sweetness; venu-rupayoh--of the flute and the beauty of Krsna; iti--thus; asadharanam--uncommon; proktam--said; govindasya--of Lord Krsna; catustayam--four special features; evam--thus; gunah--transcendental qualities; catuh-bhedah--having four divisions; catuh-sastih--sixty-four; udahrtah--declared.




   " 'Above Narayana, Krsna has four specific transcendental qualities-His wonderful pastimes, an abundance of wonderful associates who are very dear to Him [like the gopis], His wonderful beauty and the wonderful vibration of His flute. Lord Krsna is more exalted than ordinary living beings and demigods like Lord Siva. He is even more exalted than His personal expansion Narayana. In all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has sixty-four transcendental qualities in full.'


                               TEXT 86




            ananta guna sri-radhikara, pancisa----pradhana

                yei gunera 'vasa' haya krsna bhagavan




   ananta guna--unlimited qualities; sri-radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; pancisa--twenty-five; pradhana--chief; yei gunera--of those qualities; vasa--under the control; haya--is; krsna--Lord Krsna; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   "Similarly, Srimati Radharani has unlimited transcendental qualities, of which twenty-five qualities are principal. Sri Krsna is controlled by these transcendental qualities of Srimati Radharani.


                             TEXTS 87-91




                        atha vrndavanesvaryah

                       kirtyante pravara gunah

                        madhureyam nava-vayas






                       ramya-van narma-pandita


                         vinita karuna-purna

                         vidagdha patavanvita

                         lajja-sila sumaryada



                         suvilasa mahabhava-









                       bahuna kim gunas tasyah

                        sankhyatita harer iva




   atha--now; vrndavana-isvaryah--of the Queen of Vrndavana (Sri Radhika); kirtyante--are glorified; pravarah--chief; gunah--qualities; madhura--sweet; iyam--this one (Radhika); nava-vayah--youthful; cala-apanga--having restless eyes; ujjvala-smita--having a bright smile; caru-saubhagya-rekhadhya--possessing beautiful, auspicious lines on the body; gandha--by the wonderful fragrance of Her the body; unmadita-madhava--exciting Krsna; sangita--of songs; prasara-abhijna--knowledgeable in the expansion; ramya-vak--having charming speech; narma-pandita--learned in joking; vinita--humble; karuna-purna--full of mercy; vidagdha--cunning; patava-anvita--expert in performing Her duties; lajja-sila--shy; su-maryada--respectful; dhairya--calm; gambhirya-salini--and grave; su-vilasa--playful; maha-bhava--of advanced ecstasy; parama-utkarsa--in the highest excellence; tarsini--desirous; gokula-prema--the love of the residents of Gokula; vasatih--the abode; jagat-sreni--among the surrendered devotees who are the abodes (asraya) of love for Krsna; lasat--shining; yasah--whose fame; guru--to the elders; arpita--offered; guru-sneha--whose great affection; sakhi-pranayita-vasa--controlled by the love of her gopi friends; krsna-priya-avali--among those who are dear to Krsna; mukhya--the chief; santata--always; asrava-kesavah--to whom Lord Kesava is submissive; bahuna kim--in short; gunah--the qualities; tasyah--of Her; sankhyatitah--beyond count; hareh--of Lord Krsna; iva--like.




   " 'Srimati Radharani's twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: (1) She is very sweet. (2) She is always freshly youthful. (3) Her eyes are restless. (4) She smiles brightly. (5) She has beautiful, auspicious lines. (6) She makes Krsna happy with Her bodily aroma. (7) She is very expert in singing. (8) Her speech is charming. (9) She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly. (10) She is very humble and meek. (11) She is always full of mercy. (12) She is cunning. (13) She is expert in executing Her duties. (14) She is shy. (15) She is always respectful. (16) She is always calm. (17) She is always grave. (18) She is expert in enjoying life. (19) She is situated at the topmost level of ecstatic love. (20) She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula. (21) She is the most famous of submissive devotees. (22) She is very affectionate to elderly people. (23) She is very submissive to the love of Her friends. (24) She is the chief gopi. (25) She always keeps Krsna under Her control. In short, She possesses unlimited transcendental qualities, just as Lord Krsna does.'




   These verses are also found in Ujjvala-nilamani, Sri-radha-prakarana (11-15).


                               TEXT 92




               nayaka, nayika,----dui rasera 'alambana'

             sei dui srestha,----radha, vrajendra-nandana




   nayaka--hero; nayika--heroine; dui--two; rasera--of mellows; alambana--the basis; sei--those; dui--two; srestha--chief; radha--Srimati Radharani; vrajendra-nandana--and Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda.




   "The basis of all transcendental mellows is the hero and the heroine, and Srimati Radharani and Lord Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda, are the best.


                               TEXT 93




                ei-mata dasye dasa, sakhye sakha-gana

                   vatsalye mata pita asrayalambana




   ei-mata--in this way; dasye--in the transcendental mellow of servitude; dasa--servants; sakhye--in the transcendental mellow of friendship; sakha-gana--the friends; vatsalye--in the transcendental mellow of paternal affection; mata pita--mother and father; asraya-alambana--the support or shelter of love as the abode or dwelling place of love.




   "Just as Lord Krsna and Srimati Radharani are the object and shelter of the mellow of conjugal love, so, in the mellow of servitorship, Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda, is the object, and servants like Citraka, Raktaka and Patraka are the shelter. Similarly, in the transcendental mellow of friendship, Lord Krsna is the object, and friends like Sridama, Sudama and Subala are the shelter. In the transcendental mellow of paternal affection, Krsna is the object, and mother Yasoda and Maharaja Nanda are the shelter.


                               TEXT 94




                 ei rasa anubhave yaiche bhakta-gana

                yaiche rasa haya, suna tahara laksana




   ei--this; rasa--mellow; anubhave--realize; yaiche--how; bhakta-gana--the devotees; yaiche--how; rasa--the mellow; haya--appears; suna--hear; tahara--of them; laksana--the symptoms.




   "Now hear how the mellows appear and how they are realized by the devotees on different transcendental platforms.


                             TEXTS 95-98












                        krtyany evanutisthatam


                        bhaktanam hrdi rajanti


                         ratir ananda-rupaiva

                         niyamana tu rasyatam


                       krsnadibhir vibhavadyair

                        gatair anubhavadhvani

                       praudhanandas camatkara-

                        kastham apadyate param




   bhakti--by devotional service; nirdhuta-dosanam--whose material contaminations are washed off; prasanna-ujjvala-cetasam--whose hearts are satisfied and clean; sri-bhagavata-raktanam--who are interested in understanding the transcendental meaning of Srimad-Bhagavatam; rasika-asanga-ranginam--who live with the devotees and enjoy their transcendental company; jivani-bhuta--has become the life; govinda-pada--to the lotus feet of Govinda; bhakti-sukha-sriyam--those for whom the opulence of the happiness of devotional service; prema-antaranga-bhutani--which are of a confidential nature in the loving affairs of the devotees and Krsna; krtyani--activities; eva--certainly; anutisthatam--of those performing; bhaktanam--of the devotees; hrdi--in the hearts; rajanti--existing; samskara-yugala--by previous purificatory methods; ujjvala--expanded; ratih--love; ananda-rupa--whose form is transcendental bliss; eva--certainly; niyamana--being brought; tu--but; rasyatam--to tastefulness; krsna-adibhih--by Krsna and others; vibhava-adyaih--by ingredients such as vibhava; gataih--gone; anubhava-adhvani--to the path of perception; praudha-anandah--mature bliss; camatkara-kastham--the platform of wonder; apadyate--arrives at; param--the supreme.




   " 'Those who are completely washed of all material contamination by pure devotional service, who are always satisfied and brightly enlightened in the heart, who are always attached to understanding the transcendental meaning of Srimad-Bhagavatam, who are always eager to associate with advanced devotees, whose happiness in the service of the lotus feet of Govinda is their very life, who always discharge the confidential activities of love-for such advanced devotees, who are by nature situated in bliss, the seed of love [rati] is expanded in the heart by previous and current reformatory processes. Thus the mixture of ecstatic ingredients becomes tasty and, being within the perception of the devotee, reaches the highest platform of wonder and deep bliss.'




   These verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.7-10).


                               TEXT 99




                  ei rasa-asvada nahi abhaktera gane

                 krsna-bhakta-gana kare rasa asvadane




   ei--this; rasa-asvada--tasting of transcendental mellows; nahi--not; abhaktera gane--among nondevotees; krsna-bhakta-gane--the pure devotees of Lord Krsna; kare--do; rasa--these transcendental mellows; asvadane--tasting.




   "The exchange between Krsna and different devotees situated in different transcendental mellows is not to be experienced by nondevotees. Advanced devotees can understand and appreciate the different varieties of devotional service reciprocated with the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 100




                       sarvathaiva duruho 'yam

                       abhaktair bhagavad-rasah

                       tat padambuja-sarvasvair

                        bhaktair evanurasyate




   sarvatha--in all respects; eva--certainly; duruhah--difficult to be understood; ayam--this; abhaktaih--by nondevotees; bhagavat-rasah--the transcendental mellow exchanged with the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat--that; pada-ambuja-sarvasvaih--whose all in all is the lotus feet; bhaktaih--by devotees; eva--certainly; anurasyate--are relished.




   " 'Nondevotees cannot understand the transcendental mellows experienced between the devotee and the Lord. In all respects, this is very difficult, but one who has dedicated everything to the lotus feet of Krsna can taste the transcendental mellows.'




   This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.131).


                               TEXT 101




               sanksepe kahilun ei 'prayojana'-vivarana

             pancama-purusartha----ei 'krsna-prema'-dhana




   sanksepe kahilun--briefly I have spoken; ei--this; prayojana-vivarana--descriptions of the ultimate achievement; pancama-purusa-artha--the fifth and ultimate goal of life; ei--this; krsna-prema-dhana--the treasure of love of Krsna.




   "This brief description is an elaboration of the ultimate goal of life. Indeed, this is the fifth and ultimate goal, which is beyond the platform of liberation. It is called krsna-prema-dhana, the treasure of love for Krsna.


                               TEXT 102




                   purve prayage ami rasera vicare

                tomara bhai rupe kailun sakti-sancare




   purve--previously; prayage--in Prayaga; ami--I; rasera vicare--in consideration of different mellows; tomara bhai--your brother; rupe--unto Rupa Gosvami; kailun--I have done; sakti-sancare--endowment of all power.




   "Previously I empowered your brother Rupa Gosvami to understand these mellows. I did this while instructing him at the Dasasvamedha-ghata in Prayaga.


                               TEXT 103




                tumiha kariha bhakti-sastrera pracara

               mathuraya lupta-tirthera kariha uddhara




   tumiha--you also; kariha--should perform; bhakti-sastrera pracara--propagation of the revealed scriptures of devotional service; mathuraya--in Mathura; lupta-tirthera--of lost places of pilgrimage; kariha--should make; uddhara--recovery.




   "O Sanatana, you should broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and excavate the lost places of pilgrimage in the district of Mathura.


                               TEXT 104




                 vrndavane krsna-seva, vaisnava-acara

               bhakti-smrti-sastra kari' kariha pracara




   vrndavane--in Vrndavana; krsna-seva--the service of Lord Krsna; vaisnava-acara--behavior of Vaisnavas; bhakti-smrti-sastra--the reference books of devotional service; kari'--compiling; kariha--do; pracara--preaching.




   "Establish devotional service to Lord Krsna and Radharani in Vrndavana. You should also compile bhakti scripture and preach the bhakti cult from Vrndavana."




   Sanatana Gosvami was enjoined (1) to broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and establish the conclusions of devotional service, (2) to reestablish lost places of pilgrimage like Vrndavana and Radha-kunda, (3) to establish the Vrndavana method of temple worship and install Deities in temples (Sri Sanatana Gosvami established Madana-mohana temple, and Rupa Gosvami established Govindaji temple.), and (4) to enunciate the behavior of a Vaisnava (as Srila Sanatana Gosvami did in Hari-bhakti-vilasa). In this way Sanatana Gosvami was empowered to establish the cult of Vaisnavism. As stated by Srinivasa Acarya:


       nana-sastra-vicaranaika-nipunau sad-dharma-samsthapakau

         lokanam hita-karinau tribhuvane manyau saranyakarau

          radha-krsna-padaravinda-bhajananandena mattalikau

         vande rupa-sanatanau raghu-yugau sri-jiva-gopalakau


   "I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvamis, namely Sri Sanatana Gosvami, Sri Rupa Gosvami, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami, Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, Sri Jiva Gosvami and Sri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami, who are very expert in scrutinizingly studying all the revealed scriptures with the aim of establishing eternal religious principles for the benefit of all human beings. Thus they are honored all over the three worlds, and they are worth taking shelter of because they are absorbed in the mood of the gopis and are engaged in the transcendental loving service of Radha and Krsna."

   This Krsna consciousness movement continues the tradition of the six Gosvamis, especially Srila Sanatana Gosvami and Srila Rupa Gosvami. Serious students of this Krsna consciousness movement must understand their great responsibility to preach the cult of Vrndavana (devotional service to the Lord) all over the world. We now have a nice temple in Vrndavana, and serious students should take advantage of it. I am very hopeful that some of our students can take up this responsibility and render the best service to humanity by educating people in Krsna consciousness.


                               TEXT 105




                 yukta-vairagya-sthiti saba sikhaila

                 suska-vairagya-jnana saba nisedhila




   yukta-vairagya--of proper renunciation; sthiti--the situation; saba--all; sikhaila--instructed; suska-vairagya--dry renunciation; jnana--speculative knowledge; saba--all; nisedhila--forbade.




   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then told Sanatana Gosvami about proper renunciation according to a particular situation, and the Lord forbade dry renunciation and speculative knowledge in all respects.




   This is the technique for understanding suska-vairagya and yukta-vairagya. In Bhagavad-gita (6.17) it is said:



                        yukta-cestasya karmasu


                        yogo bhavati duhkha-ha


   "He who is temperate in his habits of eating, sleeping, working and recreation can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system." To broadcast the cult of Krsna consciousness, one has to learn the possibility of renunciation in terms of country, time and candidate. A candidate for Krsna consciousness in the Western countries should be taught about the renunciation of material existence, but one would teach candidates from a country like India in a different way. The teacher (acarya) has to consider time, candidate and country. He must avoid the principle of niyamagraha-that is, he should not try to perform the impossible. What is possible in one country may not be possible in another. The acarya's duty is to accept the essence of devotional service. There may be a little change here and there as far as yukta-vairagya (proper renunciation) is concerned. Dry renunciation is forbidden by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and we have also learned this from our spiritual master, His Divine Grace Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Gosvami Maharaja. The essence of devotional service must be taken into consideration, and not the outward paraphernalia.

   Sanatana Gosvami wrote his Vaisnava smrti, Hari-bhakti-vilasa, which was specifically meant for India. In those days, India was more or less following the principle of smarta-vidhi. Srila Sanatana Gosvami had to keep pace with this, and his Hari-bhakti-vilasa was compiled with this in mind. According to smarta-brahmanas, a person not born in a brahmana family could not be elevated to the position of a brahmana. Sanatana Gosvami, however, says in Hari-bhakti-vilasa (2.12) that anyone can be elevated to the position of a brahmana by the process of initiation.


                        yatha kancanatam yati

                       kamsyam rasa-vidhanatah

                        tatha diksa-vidhanena

                        dvijatvam jayate nrnam


   There is a difference between the smarta process and the gosvami process. According to the smarta process, one cannot be accepted as a brahmana unless he is born in a brahmana family. According to the gosvami process, the Hari-bhakti-vilasa and the Narada-pancaratra, anyone can be a brahmana if he is properly initiated by a bona fide spiritual master. This is also the verdict of Sukadeva Gosvami in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.4.18):



                   abhira-sumbha yavanah khasadayah

                  ye 'nye ca papa yad-apasrayasrayah

                 sudhyanti tasmai prabhavisnave namah


   A Vaisnava is immediately purified, provided he follows the rules and regulations of his bona fide spiritual master. It is not necessary that the rules and regulations followed in India be exactly the same as those in Europe, America and other Western countries. Simply imitating without effect is called niyamagraha. Not following the regulative principles but instead living extravagantly is also called niyamagraha. The word niyama means "regulative principles," and agraha means "eagerness." The word agraha means "not to accept." We should not follow regulative principles without an effect, nor should we fail to accept the regulative principles. What is required is a special technique according to country, time and candidate. Without the sanction of the spiritual master, we should not try to imitate. This principle is recommended here: suska-vairagya-jnana saba nisedhila. This is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's liberal demonstration of the bhakti cult. We should not introduce anything whimsically, without the sanction of the bona fide spiritual master. In this connection, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments on these points by quoting two verses by Sri Rupa Gosvami (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.2.255-256).


                         anasaktasya visayan

                        yatharham upayunjatah

                      nirbandhah krsna-sambandhe

                       yuktam vairagyam ucyate


                        prapancikataya buddhya


                        mumuksubhih parityago

                      vairagyam phalgu kathyate


   "When one is not attached to anything but at the same time accepts everything in relation to Krsna, one is rightly situated above possessiveness. On the other hand, one who rejects everything without knowledge of its relationship to Krsna is not as complete in his renunciation." To preach the bhakti cult, one should seriously consider these verses.


                            TEXTS 106-107




                        advesta sarva-bhutanam

                        maitrah karuna eva ca

                         nirmamo nirahankarah

                       sama-duhkha-sukhah ksami


                        santustah satatam yogi

                        yatatma drdha-niscayah

                       mayy arpita-mano-buddhir

                     yo mad-bhaktah sa me priyah




   advesta--not envious or jealous; sarva-bhutanam--to all living entities in all parts of the world; maitrah--friendly; karunah--compassionate; eva--certainly; ca--and; nirmamah--with no sense of proprietorship; nirahankarah--without pride (without considering oneself a great preacher); sama-duhkha-sukhah--equal in distress and happiness (peaceful); ksami--tolerant to offenses created by others; santustah--satisfied; satatam--continuously; yogi--engaged in bhakti-yoga; yata-atma--having controlled the senses and mind; drdha-niscayah--having firm confidence and determination; mayi--unto Me; arpita--dedicated; manah-buddhih--mind and intelligence; yah--who; mat-bhaktah--My devotee; sah--that person; me--My; priyah--dear.




   " 'One who is not envious but who is a kind friend to all living entities, who does not think himself a proprietor, who is free from false ego, equal in both happiness and distress, always satisfied, forgiving and self-controlled, who is engaged in devotional service with determination and whose mind and intelligence are dedicated to Me-he is very dear to Me.




   One should not be jealous of members of other castes or nations. It is not that only Indians or brahmanas can become Vaisnavas. Anyone can become a Vaisnava. Therefore one should recognize that the bhakti cult must be spread all over the world. That is real advesta. Moreover, the word maitrah, friendly, indicates that one who is able to preach the bhakti cult all over the world should be equally friendly to everyone. These two and the following six verses were spoken by Sri Krsna in Bhagavad-gita (12.13-20).


                               TEXT 108




                        yasman nodvijate loko

                        lokan nodvijate tu yah


                      mukto yah sa ca me priyah




   yasmat--from whom; na--not; udvijate--is agitated by fear or lamentation; lokah--the people in general; lokat--from the people; na--not; udvijate--is agitated; tu--but; yah--who; harsa--jubilation; amarsa--anger; bhaya--fear; udvegaih--and from anxiety; muktah--liberated; yah--anyone who; sah--he; ca--also; me priyah--My very dear devotee.




   " 'He for whom no one is put into difficulty and who is not disturbed by anxiety, who is liberated from jubilation, anger, fear and anxiety, is very dear to Me.


                               TEXT 109




                        anapeksah sucir daksa

                         udasino gata-vyathah


                      yo me bhaktah sa me priyah




   anapeksah--indifferent; sucih--clean; daksah--expert in executing devotional service; udasinah--without affection for anything material; gata-vyathah--liberated from all material distress; sarva-arambha--all kinds of endeavor; parityagi--completely rejecting; yah--anyone who; me--My; bhaktah--devotee; sah--he; me priyah--very dear to Me.




   " 'A devotee who is not dependent on others but dependent solely on Me, who is clean inwardly and outwardly, who is expert, indifferent to material things, without cares, free from all pains, and who rejects all pious and impious activities, is very dear to Me.




   The word anapeksah means that one should not be concerned with mundane people and should not depend upon them. One should depend solely on the Supreme Personality of Godhead and be free from material desires. One should also be clean, within and without. To be outwardly clean, one should regularly bathe with soap and oil, and to be inwardly clean one should always be absorbed in thoughts of Krsna. The words sarvarambha-parityagi indicate that one should not be interested in the so-called smarta-vidhi of pious and impious activities.


                               TEXT 110




                       yo na hrsyati na dvesti

                        na socati na kanksati


                      bhaktiman yah sa me priyah




   yah--he who; na hrsyati--is not jubilant (upon getting something favorable); na dvesti--does not hate (being artificially influenced by something unfavorable); na--not; socati--laments; na--not; kanksati--desires; subha-asubha--the materially auspicious and inauspicious; parityagi--completely rejecting; bhakti-man--possessing devotion; yah--anyone who; sah--that person; me priyah--very dear to Me.




   ŤOne who neither rejoices nor hates, who neither laments nor desires, who renounces both auspicious and inauspicious things and who is devoted to Me is very dear to Me.


                            TEXTS 111-112




                       samah satrau ca mitre ca

                         tatha manapamanayoh


                        samah sanga-vivarjitah


                       tulya-ninda-stutir mauni

                        santusto yena kenacit

                        aniketah sthira-matir

                       bhaktiman me priyo narah




   samah--equal; satrau--to the enemy; ca--also; mitre--to the friend; ca--and; tatha--similarly; mana-apamanayoh--in honor and dishonor; sita--in winter; usna--and in scorching heat; sukha--in happiness; duhkhesu--and in distress; samah--equipoised; sanga-vivarjitah--without affection; tulya--equal; ninda--blasphemy; stutih--and praise; mauni--grave; santustah--always satisfied; yena kenacit--by whatever comes; aniketah--without attachment for a residence; sthira--steady; matih--minded; bhaktiman--devotee; me--My; priyah--dear; narah--a person.




   " 'One who is equal to friends and enemies, who is equipoised in honor and dishonor, heat and cold, happiness and distress, fame and infamy, who is always free from contamination, always grave and satisfied with anything, who doesn't care for any residence, and who is fixed in devotional service, is very dear to Me.


                               TEXT 113




                        ye tu dharmamrtam idam

                        yathoktam paryupasate

                        sraddadhana mat-parama

                      bhaktas te 'tiva me priyah




   ye--the devotees who; tu--but; dharma-amrtam--eternal religious principle of Krsna consciousness; idam--this; yatha-uktam--as mentioned above; paryupasate--worship; sraddadhanah--having faith and devotion; mat-paramah--accepting Me as the Supreme or the ultimate goal of life; bhaktah--such devotees; te--they; ativa--very much; me--My; priyah--dear.




   " 'He who thus follows this imperishable religious principle of Krsna consciousness with great faith and devotion, fully accepting Me as the supreme goal, is very, very dear to Me.'


                               TEXT 114




              cirani kim pathi na santi disanti bhiksam

             naivanghri-pah parabhrtah sarito 'py asusyan

               ruddha guhah kim ajito 'vati nopasannan

              kasmad bhajanti kavayo dhana-durmadandhan




   cirani--torn old clothes; kim--whether; pathi--on the path; na--not; santi--are; disanti--give; bhiksam--alms; na--not; eva--certainly; anghri-pah--the trees; parabhrtah--maintainers of others; saritah--rivers; api--also; asusyan--have dried up; ruddhah--closed; guhah--caves; kim--whether; ajitah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is unconquerable; avati--protects; na--not; upasannan--the surrendered; kasmat--for what reason, therefore; bhajanti--flatter; kavayah--the devotees; dhana-durmada-andhan--persons who are puffed up with material possessions.




   " 'Are there no torn clothes lying on the common road? Do the trees, which exist for maintaining others, no longer give alms in charity? Do the rivers, being dried up, no longer supply water to the thirsty? Are the caves of the mountains now closed, or, above all, does the unconquerable Supreme Personality of Godhead not protect the fully surrendered souls? Why then should learned persons like devotees go to flatter those who are intoxicated by hard-earned wealth?' "




   This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.5). In this verse, Sukadeva Gosvami advises Maharaja Pariksit that a devotee should be independent in all circumstances. The body can be maintained with no problem if one follows the instructions given in this verse. To maintain the body, we require shelter, food, water and clothing, and all these necessities can be obtained without approaching puffed-up rich men. One can collect old garments that have been thrown out, one can eat fruits offered by the trees, one can drink water from the rivers, and one can live within the caves of mountains. By nature's arrangements, shelter, clothing and food are supplied to the devotee who is completely surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a devotee does not need a puffed-up materialistic person to maintain him. In other words, devotional service can be discharged in any condition. This is the version of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.6).


                      sa vai pumsam paro dharmo

                        yato bhaktir adhoksaje

                         ahaituky apratihata

                         yayatma suprasidati


   "The supreme occupation [dharma] for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted in order to completely satisfy the self." This verse explains that devotional service cannot be checked by any material condition.


                               TEXT 115




                 tabe sanatana saba siddhanta puchila

               bhagavata-siddhanta gudha sakali kahila




   tabe--thereafter; sanatana--Sanatana Gosvami; saba--all; siddhanta--conclusive statements; puchila--inquired about; bhagavata-siddhanta--the conclusive statements about devotional service mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam; gudha--very confidential; sakali--all; kahila--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu described.




   Thus Sanatana Gosvami inquired from Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu about all the conclusive statements concerning devotional service, and the Lord very vividly explained all the confidential meanings of Srimad-Bhagavatam.


                               TEXT 116




               hari-vamse kahiyache goloke nitya-sthiti

               indra asi' karila yabe sri-krsnere stuti




   hari-vamse--the revealed scripture known as Hari-vamsa; kahiyache--has told of; goloke--on the planet called Goloka; nitya-sthiti--the eternal situation; indra--King Indra of the heavenly planet; asi'--coming; karila--offered; yabe--when; sri-krsnere stuti--prayers to Lord Sri Krsna.




   In the revealed scripture Hari-vamsa, there is a description of Goloka Vrndavana, the planet where Lord Sri Krsna eternally resides. This information was given by King Indra when he surrendered to Krsna and offered prayers after Krsna had raised Govardhana Hill.




   In the Vedic scripture Hari-vamsa (Visnu-parva, Chapter Nineteen), there is the following description of Goloka Vrndavana:


                       manusya-lokad urdhvam tu

                        khaganam gatir ucyate

                          akasasyopari rarir

                      dvaram svargasya bhanuman

                     svargad urdhvam brahma-loko



                        tatra soma-gatis caiva

                        jyotisam ca mahatmanam

                        tasyopari gavam lokah

                       sadhyas tam palayanti hi

                       sa hi sarva-gatah krsnah

                         maha-kasagato mahan


                          uparyupari tatrapi

                         gatis tava tapomayi

                       yam na vidmo vayam sarve

                       prcchanto 'pi pitam aham


                        gatih sama-damatyanam

                       svargah su-krta-karmanam

                       brahmye tapasi yuktanam

                       brahma-lokah para gatih


                         gavam eva tu goloko

                         duraroha hi sa gatih

                       sa tu lokas tvaya krsna

                         sidamanah krtatmana

                         dhrto dhrtimata vira

                        nighnatopadravan gavam


   When the King of heaven, Indra, surrendered to Krsna after Krsna raised Govardhana Hill, Lord Indra stated that above the planetary systems wherein human beings reside is the sky, where birds fly. Above the sky is the sun and its orbit. This is the entrance to the heavenly planets. Above the heavenly planets are other planets, up to Brahmaloka, where those advancing in spiritual knowledge reside. The planets up to Brahmaloka are part of the material world (Devi-dhama). Because the material world is under the control of Devi, Durga, it is called Devi-dhama. Above Devi-dhama is a place where Lord Siva and his wife Uma reside. Those brightened by spiritual knowledge and liberated from material contamination reside in that Sivaloka. Beyond that planetary system is the spiritual world, where there are planets called Vaikuntha-lokas. Goloka Vrndavana is situated above all the Vaikuntha-lokas. Goloka Vrndavana is the kingdom of Srimati Radharani and the parents of Krsna, Maharaja Nanda and mother Yasoda. In this way there are various planetary systems, and they are all creations of the Supreme Lord. As stated in the Brahma-samhita:


                goloka-namni nija-dhamni tale ca tasya

                  devi-mahesa-hari-dhamasu tesu tesu

                te te prabhava-nicaya vihitas ca yena

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   Thus Goloka Vrndavana-dhama is situated above the Vaikuntha planets. The spiritual sky containing all the Vaikuntha planets is very small compared to Goloka Vrndavana-dhama. The space occupied by Goloka Vrndavana-dhama is called mahakasa, or "the greatest sky of all." Lord Indra said, "We asked Lord Brahma about Your eternal planet, but we could not understand it. Those fruitive actors who have controlled their senses and mind with pious activities can be elevated to the heavenly planets. Pure devotees who are always engaged in Lord Narayana's service are promoted to the Vaikunthalokas. However, my Lord Krsna, Your Goloka Vrndavana-dhama is very difficult to attain. Yet both You and that supreme planetary system have descended here upon this earth. Unfortunately, I have disturbed You by my misdeeds, and that was due to my foolishness. I am therefore trying to satisfy You by my prayers."

   Sri Nilakantha confirms the existence of Goloka Vrndavana-dhama by quoting the Rg-samhita (Rg Veda


                    ta vam vastunyusmasi gamadhyai

                    yatra gavo bhuri-srnga ayasah

                     atraha tad urugayasya krsnah

                     paramam padam avabhati bhuri


   "We wish to go to Your [Radha's and Krsna's] beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugaya [Krsna, who is much praised]."


                            TEXTS 117-118




                  mausala-lila, ara krsna-antardhana

               kesavatara, ara yata viruddha vyakhyana


                 mahisi-harana adi, saba----mayamaya

               vyakhya sikhaila yaiche susiddhanta haya




   mausala-lila--the pastimes of destroying the Yadu dynasty; ara--also; krsna-antardhana--the disappearance of Krsna; kesa-avatara--the incarnation of the hairs; ara--also; yata--all; viruddha vyakhyana--statements against the Krsna conscious conclusions; mahisi-harana--kidnapping of the queens; adi--and so on; saba--all; maya-maya--made of the external energy; vyakhya--explanations (countering the attack of the asuras); sikhaila--instructed; yaiche--which; su-siddhanta--proper conclusions; haya--are.




   Illusory stories opposed to the conclusions of Krsna consciousness concern the destruction of the Yadu dynasty, Krsna's disappearance, the story that Krsna and Balarama arise from a black hair and a white hair of Ksirodakasayi Visnu, and the story about the kidnapping of the queens. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu explained to Sanatana Gosvami the proper conclusions of these stories.




   Due to envy, many asuras describe Krsna to be like a black crow or an incarnation of a hair. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu told Sanatana Gosvami how to counteract all these asuric explanations of Krsna. The word kaka means crow, and kesa means hair. The asuras describe Krsna as an incarnation of a crow, an incarnation of a sudra (a blackish tribe) and an incarnation of a hair, not knowing that the word kesa means ka-isa and that ka means Lord Brahma and isa means Lord. Thus Krsna is the Lord of Lord Brahma.

   Some of Lord Krsna's pastimes are mentioned in the Mahabharata as mausala-lila. These include the stories of the destruction of the Yadu dynasty, Krsna's disappearance, His being pierced by a hunter's arrow, the story of Krsna's being an incarnation of a piece of hair (kesa-avatara) as well as mahisi-harana, the kidnapping of Krsna's queens. Actually these are not factual but are related for the bewilderment of the asuras who want to prove that Krsna is an ordinary human being. They are false in the sense that these pastimes are not eternal, nor are they transcendental or spiritual. There are many people who are by nature averse to the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu. Such people are called asuras. They have mistaken ideas about Krsna. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, the asuras are given a chance to forget Krsna more and more, birth after birth. Thus they make their appearance in a family of asuras and continue this process, being kept in bewilderment about Krsna. Asuras in the dress of sannyasis even explain Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam in different ways according to their own imaginations. Thus they continue to remain asuras birth after birth.

   As far as the kesa-avatara (incarnation of hair) is concerned, it is mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.26). The Visnu Purana also states: ujjaharatmanah kesau sita-krsnau maha-bala.

   Similarly, in the Mahabharata:


                    sa capi kesau harir uccakarta

                    ekam suklam aparam capi krsnam

                   tau capi kesavav isatam yadunam

                   kule striyau rohinim devakim ca


                     tayor eko balabhadro babhuva

                  yo 'sau svetas tasya devasya kesah

                  krsno dvitiyah kesavah sambabhuva

                  kesah yo 'sau varnatah krsna uktah


   Thus in Srimad-Bhagavatam, Visnu Purana and Mahabharata there are references to Krsna and Balarama being incarnations of a black hair and a white hair. It is stated that Lord Visnu snatched two hairs-one white and one black-from His head. These two hairs entered the wombs of Rohini and Devaki, members of the Yadu dynasty. Balarama was born from Rohini, and Krsna was born of Devaki. Thus Balarama appeared from the first hair, and Krsna appeared from the second hair. It was also foretold that all the asuras, who are enemies of the demigods, would be cut down by Lord Visnu by His white and black plenary expansions and that the Supreme Personality of Godhead would appear and perform wonderful activities. In this connection, one should see Laghu-bhagavatamrta, the chapter called Krsnamrta, verses 156-164. Srila Rupa Gosvami has refuted this argument about the hair incarnation, and his refutation is supported by Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana's commentaries. This matter is further discussed in the Krsna-sandarbha (29) and in the commentary known as Sarva-samvadini, by Srila Jiva Gosvami.


                               TEXT 119




                tabe sanatana prabhura carane dhariya

                 nivedana kare dante trna-guccha lana




   tabe--at that time; sanatana--Sanatana Gosvami; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; carane dhariya--catching the lotus feet; nivedana kare--submits a petition; dante--in the teeth; trna-guccha--a bunch of straw; lana--taking.




   Sanatana Gosvami then humbly accepted his position as lower than a piece of straw, and, symbolically holding some straw in his mouth, he fell down, clasped the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and submitted the following petition.


                               TEXT 120




               "nica-jati, nica-sevi, muni----supamara

             siddhanta sikhaila,----yei brahmara agocara




   nica-jati--lower class; nica-sevi--servant of lowborn people; muni--I; supamara--very,very fallen; siddhanta sikhaila--You have taught the topmost conclusions in detail; yei--which; brahmara--of Brahma; agocara--beyond the reach.




   Sanatana Gosvami said, "My dear Lord, I am a very lowborn person. Indeed, I am a servant to lowborn people; therefore I am very, very downtrodden. Nonetheless, You have taught me conclusions unknown even to Lord Brahma.


                               TEXT 121




               tumi ye kahila, ei siddhantamrta-sindhu

                mora mana chunite nare ihara eka-bindu




   tumi ye--You; kahila--have spoken; ei--this; siddhanta-amrta-sindhu--the ocean of the ambrosia of conclusive truth; mora mana--my mind; chunite--to touch; nare--is not able; ihara--of it; eka-bindu--even a drop.




   "The conclusions that You have told me are the ocean of the ambrosia of truth. My mind is unable to approach even a drop of that ocean.


                               TEXT 122




                  pangu nacaite yadi haya tomara mana

                 vara deha' mora mathe dhariya carana




   pangu--lame man; nacaite--to make dance; yadi--if; haya--it is; tomara mana--Your mind; vara--a benediction; deha'--kindly give; mora mathe--on my head; dhariya--holding; carana--Your lotus feet.




   "If You want to make a lame man like me dance, kindly bestow Your transcendental blessings by keeping Your lotus feet on my head.


                               TEXT 123




               'muni ye sikhalun tore sphuruka sakala'

                 ei tomara vara haite habe mora bala"




   muni--I; ye--whatever; sikhalun--have instructed; tore--unto you; sphuruka sakala--let it be manifested; ei--this; tomara vara--Your benediction; haite--from; habe--there will be; mora bala--my strength.




   "Now, will You please tell me, 'Let whatever I have instructed all be fully manifest unto you.' By benedicting me in this way, You will give me strength to describe all this."


                               TEXT 124




                tabe mahaprabhu tanra sire dhari' kare

                vara dila'----ei saba sphuruka tomare'




   tabe--after that; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanra--of Sanatana Gosvami; sire--on the head; dhari'--holding; kare--by the hand; vara dila--gave the benediction; ei saba--all this; sphuruka tomare--let it be manifested to you properly.




   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then placed His hand on Sanatana Gosvami's head and benedicted him, saying, "Let all these instructions be manifest to you."


                               TEXT 125




            sanksepe kahilun----'prema'-prayojana-samvada

               vistari' kahana na yaya prabhura prasada




   sanksepe--briefly; kahilun--I have described; prema-prayojana-samvada--the discussion of the ultimate goal of life, love of Godhead; vistari'--expansively; kahana--describing; na yaya--not possible; prabhura prasada--the benediction of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.




   Thus I have briefly described a discussion of the ultimate goal of life, love of Godhead. The mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu cannot be described expansively.


                               TEXT 126




                  prabhura upadesamrta sune yei jana

                acirat milaye tanre krsna-prema-dhana




   prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; upadesa-amrta--the nectar of the instructions; sune--hears; yei jana--anyone who; acirat--without delay; milaye--meets; tanre--him; krsna-prema-dhana--the treasure of love of Krsna.




   Whoever hears these instructions given to Sanatana Gosvami by the Lord comes very soon to realize love of God, Krsna.


                               TEXT 127




                  sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa

                  caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa




   sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha--Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; pade--at the lotus feet; yara--whose; asa--expectation; caitanya-caritamrta--the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe--describes; krsnadasa--Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.




   Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, following in their footsteps.


   Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, Twenty-third Chapter, describing love of Godhead.


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