Departure of Lord Krsna for Dvaraka
hatva svariktha-sprdha atatayino
yudhisthiro dharma-bhrtam varisthah
katham pravrttah kim akarasit tatah
saunakah uvaca--Saunaka inquired; hatva--after killing; svariktha--the legal inheritance; sprdhah--desiring to usurp; atatayinah--the aggressor; yudhisthirah--King Yudhisthira; dharma-bhrtam--of those who strictly follow religious principles; varisthah--greatest; saha-anujaih--with his younger brothers; pratyavaruddha--restricted; bhojanah--acceptance of necessities; katham--how; pravrttah--engaged; kim--what; akarasit--executed; tatah--thereafter.
Saunaka Muni asked: After killing his enemies who desired to usurp his rightful inheritance, how did the greatest of all religious men, Maharaja Yudhisthira, assisted by his brothers, rule his subjects? Surely he could not freely enjoy his kingdom with unrestricted consciousness.
Maharaja Yudhisthira was the greatest of all men of religion. Thus he was not at all inclined to fight with his cousins for the sake of enjoying the kingdom: he fought for the right cause because the kingdom of Hastinapura was his rightful inheritance and his cousins wanted to usurp it for themselves. He fought, therefore, for the right cause under the guidance of Lord Sri Krsna, but he could not enjoy the results of his victory because his cousins were all killed in the fight. He therefore ruled over the kingdom as a matter of duty, assisted by his younger brothers. The inquiry was important for Saunaka Rsi, who wanted to know about the behavior of Maharaja Yudhisthira when he was at ease to enjoy the kingdom.
vamsam kuror vamsa-davagni-nirhrtam
samrohayitva bhava-bhavano harih
nivesayitva nija-rajya isvaro
yudhisthiram prita-mana babhuva ha
sutah uvaca--Suta Gosvami replied; vamsam--dynasty; kuroh--of King Kuru; vamsa-dava-agni--a forest fire set by the bamboos; nirhrtam--exhausted; samrohayitva--seedling of the dynasty; bhava-bhavanah--the maintainer of creation; harih--the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna; nivesayitva--having reestablished; nija-rajye--in his own kingdom; isvarah--the Supreme Lord; yudhisthiram--unto Maharaja Yudhisthira; prita-manah--pleased in His mind; babhuva ha--became.
Suta Gosvami said: Lord Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the maintainer of the world, became pleased after reestablishing Maharaja Yudhisthira in his own kingdom and after restoring the Kuru dynasty, which had been exhausted by the bamboo fire of anger.
This world is compared to a forest fire caused by the cohesion of bamboo bushes. Such a forest fire takes place automatically, for bamboo cohesion occurs without external cause. Similarly, in the material world the wrath of those who want to lord it over material nature interacts, and the fire of war takes place, exhausting the unwanted population. Such fires or wars take place, and the Lord has nothing to do with them. But because He wants to maintain the creation, He desires the mass of people to follow the right path of self-realization, which enables the living beings to enter into the kingdom of God. The Lord wants the suffering human beings to come back home, back to Him, and cease to suffer the threefold material pangs. The whole plan of creation is made in that way, and one who does not come to his senses suffers in the material world by pangs inflicted by the illusory energy of the Lord. The Lord therefore wants His bona fide representative to rule the world. Lord Sri Krsna descended to establish this sort of regime and to kill the unwanted persons who have nothing to do with His plan. The Battle of Kuruksetra was fought according to the plan of the Lord so that undesirable persons could get out of the world and a peaceful kingdom under His devotee could be established. The Lord was therefore fully satisfied when King Yudhisthira was on the throne and the seedling of the dynasty of Kuru, in the person of Maharaja Pariksit, was saved.
nisamya bhismoktam athacyutoktam
sasasa gam indra ivajitasrayah
nisamya--after listening; bhisma-uktam--what was spoken by Bhismadeva; atha--as also; acyuta-uktam--what was spoken by the infallible Lord Krsna; pravrtta--being engaged in; vijnana--perfect knowledge; vidhuta--completely washed; vibhramah--all misgivings; sasasa--ruled over; gam--the earth; indra--the king of the heavenly planet; iva--like; ajita-asrayah--protected by the invincible Lord; paridhi-upantam--including the seas; anuja--the younger brothers; anuvartitah--being followed by them.
Maharaja Yudhisthira, after being enlightened by what was spoken by Bhismadeva and Lord Sri Krsna, the infallible, engaged himself in matters of perfect knowledge because all his misgivings were eradicated. Thus he ruled over the earth and seas and was followed by his younger brothers.
The modern English law of primogeniture, or the law of inheritance by the firstborn, was also prevalent in those days when Maharaja Yudhisthira ruled the earth and seas. In those days the King of Hastinapura (now part of New Delhi) was the emperor of the world, including the seas, up to the time of Maharaja Pariksit, the grandson of Maharaja Yudhisthira. Maharaja Yudhisthira's younger brothers were acting as his ministers and commanders of state, and there was full cooperation between the perfectly religious brothers of the King. Maharaja Yudhisthira was the ideal king or representative of Lord Sri Krsna to rule over the kingdom of earth and was comparable to King Indra, the representative ruler of the heavenly planets. The demigods like Indra, Candra, Surya, Varuna and Vayu are representative kings of different planets of the universe, and similarly Maharaja Yudhisthira was also one of them, ruling over the kingdom of the earth. Maharaja Yudhisthira was not a typically unenlightened political leader of modern democracy. Maharaja Yudhisthira was instructed by Bhismadeva and the infallible Lord also, and therefore he had full knowledge of everything in perfection.
The modern elected executive head of a state is just like a puppet because he has no kingly power. Even if he is enlightened like Maharaja Yudhisthira, he cannot do anything out of his own good will due to his constitutional position. Therefore, there are so many states over the earth quarreling because of ideological differences or other selfish motives. But a king like Maharaja Yudhisthira had no ideology of his own. He had but to follow the instructions of the infallible Lord and the Lord's representative and the authorized agent, Bhismadeva. It is instructed in the sastras that one should follow the great authority and the infallible Lord without any personal motive and manufactured ideology. Therefore, it was possible for Maharaja Yudhisthira to rule the whole world, including the seas, because the principles were infallible and universally applicable to everyone. The conception of one world state can only be fulfilled if we can follow the infallible authority. An imperfect human being cannot create an ideology acceptable to everyone. Only the perfect and the infallible can create a program which is applicable at every place and can be followed by all in the world. It is the person who rules, and not the impersonal government. If the person is perfect, the government is perfect. If the person is a fool, the government is a fool's paradise. That is the law of nature. There are so many stories of imperfect kings or executive heads. Therefore, the executive head must be a trained person like Maharaja Yudhisthira, and he must have the full autocratic power to rule over the world. The conception of a world state can take shape only under the regime of a perfect king like Maharaja Yudhisthira. The world was happy in those days because there were kings like Maharaja Yudhisthira to rule over the world.
kamam vavarsa parjanyah
sisicuh sma vrajan gavah
kamam--everything needed; vavarsa--was showered; parjanyah--rains; sarva--everything; kama--necessities; dugha--producer; mahi--the land; sisicuh sma--moisten; vrajan--pasturing grounds; gavah--the cow; payasa udhasvatih--due to swollen milk bags; muda--because of a joyful attitude.
During the reign of Maharaja Yudhisthira, the clouds showered all the water that people needed, and the earth produced all the necessities of man in profusion. Due to its fatty milk bag and cheerful attitude, the cow used to moisten the grazing ground with milk.
The basic principle of economic development is centered on land and cows. The necessities of human society are food grains, fruits, milk, minerals, clothing, wood, etc. One requires all these items to fulfill the material needs of the body. Certainly one does not require flesh and fish or iron tools and machinery. During the regime of Maharaja Yudhisthira, all over the world there were regulated rainfalls. Rainfalls are not in the control of the human being. The heavenly King Indradeva is the controller of rains, and he is the servant of the Lord. When the Lord is obeyed by the king and the people under the king's administration, there are regulated rains from the horizon, and these rains are the causes of all varieties of production on the land. Not only do regulated rains help ample production of grains and fruits, but when they combine with astronomical influences there is ample production of valuable stones and pearls. Grains and vegetables can sumptuously feed a man and animals, and a fatty cow delivers enough milk to supply a man sumptuously with vigor and vitality. If there is enough milk, enough grains, enough fruit, enough cotton, enough silk and enough jewels, then why do the people need cinemas, houses of prostitution, slaughterhouses, etc.? What is the need of an artificial luxurious life of cinema, cars, radio, flesh and hotels? Has this civilization produced anything but quarreling individually and nationally? Has this civilization enhanced the cause of equality and fraternity by sending thousands of men into a hellish factory and the war fields at the whims of a particular man?
It is said here that the cows used to moisten the pasturing land with milk because their milk bags were fatty and the animals were joyful. Do they not require, therefore, proper protection for a joyful life by being fed with a sufficient quantity of grass in the field? Why should men kill cows for their selfish purposes? Why should man not be satisfied with grains, fruits and milk, which, combined together, can produce hundreds and thousands of palatable dishes. Why are there slaughterhouses all over the world to kill innocent animals? Maharaja Pariksit, grandson of Maharaja Yudhisthira, while touring his vast kingdom, saw a black man attempting to kill a cow. The King at once arrested the butcher and chastised him sufficiently. Should not a king or executive head protect the lives of the poor animals who are unable to defend themselves? Is this humanity? Are not the animals of a country citizens also? Then why are they allowed to be butchered in organized slaughterhouses? Are these the signs of equality, fraternity and nonviolence?
Therefore, in contrast with the modern, advanced, civilized form of government, an autocracy like Maharaja Yudhisthira's is by far superior to a so-called democracy in which animals are killed and a man less than an animal is allowed to cast votes for another less-than-animal man.
We are all creatures of material nature. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that the Lord Himself is the seed-giving father and material nature is the mother of all living beings in all shapes. Thus mother material nature has enough foodstuff both for animals and for men, by the grace of the Father Almighty, Sri Krsna. The human being is the elder brother of all other living beings. He is endowed with intelligence more powerful than animals for realizing the course of nature and the indications of the Almighty Father. Human civilizations should depend on the production of material nature without artificially attempting economic development to turn the world into a chaos of artificial greed and power only for the purpose of artificial luxuries and sense gratification. This is but the life of dogs and hogs.
nadyah samudra girayah
phalanty osadhayah sarvah
kamam anvrtu tasya vai
nadyah--rivers; samudrah--oceans; girayah--hills and mountains; savanaspati--vegetables; virudhah--creepers; phalanti--active; osadhayah--drugs; sarvah--all; kamam--necessities; anvrtu--seasonal; tasya--for the King; vai--certainly.
The rivers, oceans, hills, mountains, forests, creepers and active drugs, in every season, paid their tax quota to the King in profusion.
Since Maharaja Yudhisthira was under the protection of the ajita, the infallible Lord, as above mentioned, the properties of the Lord, namely the rivers, oceans, hills, forests, etc., were all pleased, and they used to supply their respective quota of taxes to the King. The secret to success is to take refuge under the protection of the Supreme Lord. Without His sanction, nothing can be possible. To make economic development by our own endeavors on the strength of tools and machinery is not all. The sanction of the Supreme Lord must be there, otherwise despite all instrumental arrangements everything will be unsuccessful. The ultimate cause of success is the daiva, the Supreme. Kings like Maharaja Yudhisthira knew perfectly well that the king is the agent of the Supreme Lord to look after the welfare of the mass of people. Actually the state belongs to the Supreme Lord. The rivers, oceans, forests, hills, drugs, etc., are not creations of man. They are all creations of the Supreme Lord, and the living being is allowed to make use of the property of the Lord for the service of the Lord. Today's slogan is that everything is for the people, and therefore the government is for the people and by the people. But to produce a new species of humanity at the present moment on the basis of God consciousness and perfection of human life, the ideology of godly communism, the world has to again follow in the footsteps of kings like Maharaja Yudhisthira or Pariksit. There is enough of everything by the will of the Lord, and we can make proper use of things to live comfortably without enmity between men, or animal and man or nature. The control of the Lord is everywhere, and if the Lord is pleased, every part of nature will be pleased. The river will flow profusely to fertilize the land; the oceans will supply sufficient quantities of minerals, pearls and jewels; the forest will supply sufficient wood, drugs and vegetables, and the seasonal changes will effectively help produce fruits and flowers in profuse quantity. The artificial way of living depending on factories and tools can render so-called happiness only to a limited number at the cost of millions. Since the energy of the mass of people is engaged in factory production, the natural products are being hampered, and for this the mass is unhappy. Without being educated properly, the mass of people are following in the footsteps of the vested interests by exploiting natural reserves, and therefore there is acute competition between individual and individual and nation and nation. There is no control by the trained agent of the Lord. We must look into the defects of modern civilization by comparison here, and should follow in the footsteps of Maharaja Yudhisthira to cleanse man and wipe out anachronisms.
nadhayo vyadhayah klesa
jantunam rajni karhicit
na--never; adhayah--anxieties; vyadhayah--diseases; klesah--trouble due to excessive heat and cold; daiva-bhuta-atma--all due to the body, supernatural power and other living beings; hetavah--due to the cause of; ajata-satrau--unto one who has no enemy; abhavan--happened; jantunam--of the living beings; rajni--unto the King; karhicit--at any time.
Because of the King's having no enemy, the living beings were not at any time disturbed by mental agonies, diseases, or excessive heat or cold.
To be nonviolent to human beings and to be a killer or enemy of the poor animals is Satan's philosophy. In this age there is enmity toward poor animals, and therefore the poor creatures are always anxious. The reaction of the poor animals is being forced on human society, and therefore there is always the strain of cold or hot war between men, individually, collectively or nationally. At the time of Maharaja Yudhisthira, there were no different nations, although there were different subordinate states. The whole world was united, and the supreme head, being a trained king like Yudhisthira, kept all the inhabitants free from anxiety, diseases and excessive heat and cold. They were not only economically well-to-do, but also physically fit and undisturbed by supernatural power, by enmity from other living beings and by disturbance of bodily and mental agonies. There is a proverb in Bengali that a bad king spoils the kingdom and a bad housewife spoils the family. This truth is applicable here also. Because the King was pious and obedient to the Lord and sages, because he was no one's enemy and because he was a recognized agent of the Lord and therefore protected by Him, all the citizens under the King's protection were, so to speak, directly protected by the Lord and His authorized agents. Unless one is pious and recognized by the Lord, he cannot make others happy who are under his care. There is full cooperation between man and God and man and nature, and this conscious cooperation between man and God and man and nature, as exemplified by King Yudhisthira, can bring about happiness, peace and prosperity in the world. The attitude of exploiting one another, the custom of the day, will only bring misery.
masan katipayan harih
suhrdam ca visokaya
svasus ca priya-kamyaya
usitva--staying; hastinapure--in the city of Hastinapura; masan--months; katipayan--a few; harih--Lord Sri Krsna; suhrdam--relatives; ca--also; visokaya--for pacifying them; svasuh--the sister; ca--and; priya-kamyaya--for pleasing.
Sri Hari, Lord Sri Krsna, resided at Hastinapura for a few months to pacify His relatives and please His own sister [Subhadra].
Krsna was to start for Dvaraka, His own kingdom, after the Battle of Kuruksetra and Yudhisthira's being enthroned, but to oblige the request of Maharaja Yudhisthira and to show special mercy to Bhismadeva, Lord Krsna stopped at Hastinapura, the capital of the Pandavas. The Lord decided to stay especially to pacify the aggrieved King as well as to please Subhadra, sister of Lord Sri Krsna. Subhadra was especially to be pacified because she lost her only son, Abhimanyu, who was just married. The boy left his wife, Uttara, mother of Maharaja Pariksit. The Lord is always pleased to satisfy His devotees in any capacity. Only His devotees can play the parts of His relatives. The Lord is absolute.
aruroha ratham kaiscit
amantrya--taking permission; ca--and; abhyanujnatah--being permitted; parisvajya--embracing; abhivadya--bowing down at the feet; tam--unto Maharaja Yudhisthira; aruroha--ascended; ratham--the chariot; kaiscit--by someone; parisvaktah--being embraced; abhivaditah--being offered obeisances.
Afterwards, when the Lord asked permission to depart and the King gave it, the Lord offered His respects to Maharaja Yudhisthira by bowing down at his feet, and the King embraced Him. After this the Lord, being embraced by others and receiving their obeisances, got into His chariot.
Maharaja Yudhisthira was the elder cousin of Lord Krsna, and therefore while departing from him the Lord bowed down at the King's feet. The King embraced Him as a younger brother, although the King knew perfectly well that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord takes pleasure when some of His devotees accept Him as less important in terms of love. No one is greater than or equal to the Lord, but He takes pleasure in being treated as younger than His devotees. These are all transcendental pastimes of the Lord. The impersonalist cannot enter into the supernatural roles played by the devotee of the Lord. Thereafter Bhima and Arjuna embraced the Lord because they were of the same age, but Nakula and Sahadeva bowed down before the Lord because they were younger than He.
subhadra draupadi kunti
gandhari dhrtarastras ca
yuyutsur gautamo yamau
vrkodaras ca dhaumyas ca
na sehire vimuhyanto
subhadra--the sister of Krsna; draupadi--the wife of the Pandavas; kunti--the mother of the Pandavas; virata-tanaya--the daughter of Virata (Uttara); tatha--also; gandhari--the mother of Duryodhana; dhrtarastrah--the father of Duryodhana; ca--and; yuyutsuh--the son of Dhrtarastra by his vaisya wife; gautamah--Krpacarya; yamau--the twin brothers Nakula and Sahadeva; vrkodarah--Bhima; ca--and; dhaumyah--Dhaumya; ca--and; striyah--also other ladies of the palace; matsya-suta-adayah--the daughter of a fisherman (Satyavati, Bhisma's stepmother); na--could not; sehire--tolerate; vimuhyantah--almost fainting; viraham--separation; sarnga-dhanvanah--of Sri Krsna, who bears a conch in His hand.
At that time Subhadra, Draupadi, Kunti, Uttara, Gandhari, Dhrtarastra, Yuyutsu, Krpacarya, Nakula, Sahadeva, Bhimasena, Dhaumya and Satyavati all nearly fainted because it was impossible for them to bear separation from Lord Krsna.
Lord Sri Krsna is so attractive for the living beings, especially for the devotees, that it is impossible for them to tolerate separation. The conditioned soul under the spell of illusory energy forgets the Lord, otherwise he cannot. The feeling of such separation cannot be described, but it can simply be imagined by devotees only. After His separation from Vrndavana and the innocent rural cowherd boys, girls, ladies and others, they all felt shock throughout their lives, and the separation of Radharani, the most beloved cowherd girl, is beyond expression. Once they met at Kuruksetra during a solar eclipse, and the feeling which was expressed by them is heartrending. There is, of course, a difference in the qualities of the transcendental devotees of the Lord, but none of them who have ever contacted the Lord by direct communion or otherwise can leave Him for a moment. That is the attitude of the pure devotee.
hatum notsahate budhah
kirtyamanam yaso yasya
sakrd akarnya rocanam
tasmin nyasta-dhiyah parthah
saheran viraham katham
sat-sangat--by the association of pure devotees; mukta-duhsangah--freed from bad materialistic association; hatum--to give up; na utsahate--never attempts; budhah--one who has understood the Lord; kirtyamanam--glorifying; yasah--fame; yasya--whose; sakrt--once only; akarnya--hearing only; rocanam--pleasing; tasmin--unto Him; nyasta-dhiyah--one who has given his mind unto Him; parthah--the sons of Prtha; saheran--can tolerate; viraham--separation; katham--how; darsana--seeing face to face; sparsa--touching; samlapa--conversing; sayana--sleeping; asana--sitting; bhojanaih--dining together.
The intelligent, who have understood the Supreme Lord in association with pure devotees and have become freed from bad materialistic association, can never avoid hearing the glories of the Lord, even though they have heard them only once. How, then, could the Pandavas tolerate His separation, for they had been intimately associated with His person, seeing Him face to face, touching Him, conversing with Him, and sleeping, sitting and dining with Him?
The living being's constitutional position is one of serving a superior. He is obliged to serve by force the dictates of illusory material energy in different phases of sense gratification. And in serving the senses he is never tired. Even though he may be tired, the illusory energy perpetually forces him to do so without being satisfied. There is no end to such sense gratificatory business, and the conditioned soul becomes entangled in such servitude without hope of release. The release is only effected by association with pure devotees. By such association one is gradually promoted to his transcendental consciousness. Thus he can know that his eternal position is to render service unto the Lord and not to the perverted senses in the capacity of lust, anger, desire to lord it over, etc. Material society, friendship and love are all different phases of lust. Home, country, family, society, wealth and all sorts of corollaries are all causes of bondage in the material world, where the threefold miseries of life are concomitant factors. By associating with pure devotees and by hearing them submissively, attachment for material enjoyment becomes slackened, and attraction for hearing about the transcendental activities of the Lord becomes prominent. Once they are, they will go on progressively without stoppage, like fire in gunpowder. It is said that Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is so transcendentally attractive that even those who are self-satisfied by self-realization and are factually liberated from all material bondage also become devotees of the Lord. Under the circumstances it is easily understood what must have been the position of the Pandavas, who were constant companions of the Lord. They could not even think of separation from Sri Krsna, since the attraction was more intense for them because of continuous personal contact. His remembrance by His form, quality, name, fame, pastimes, etc., is also attractive for the pure devotee, so much so that he forgets all forms, quality, name, fame and activities of the mundane world, and due to his mature association with pure devotees he is not out of contact with the Lord for a moment.
sarve te 'nimisair aksais
tam anu druta-cetasah
vicelus tatra tatra ha
sarve--all; te--they; animisaih--without twinkling of the eyes; aksaih--by the eye; tam anu--after Him; druta-cetasah--melted heart; viksantah--looking upon Him; sneha-sambaddhah--bound by pure affection; viceluh--began to move; tatra tatra--here and there; ha--so they did.
All their hearts were melting for Him on the pot of attraction. They looked at Him without blinking their eyes, and they moved hither and thither in perplexity.
Krsna is naturally attractive for all living beings because He is the chief eternal amongst all eternals. He alone is the maintainer of the many eternals. This is stated in the Katha Upanisad, and thus one can obtain permanent peace and prosperity by revival of one's eternal relation with Him, now forgotten under the spell of maya, the illusory energy of the Lord. Once this relation is slightly revived, the conditioned soul at once becomes freed from the illusion of material energy and becomes mad after the association of the Lord. This association is made possible not only by personal contact with the Lord, but also by association with His name, fame, form and quality. Srimad-Bhagavatam trains the conditioned soul to this stage of perfection by submissive hearing from the pure devotee.
nyarundhann udgalad baspam
niryaty agaran no 'bhadram
iti syad bandhava-striyah
nyarundhan--checking with great difficulty; udgalat--overflowing; baspam--tears; autkanthyat--because of great anxiety; devaki-sute--unto the son of Devaki; niryati--having come out; agarat--from the palace; nah--not; abhadram--inauspiciousness; iti--thus; syat--may happen; bandhava--relative; striyah--ladies.
The female relatives, whose eyes were flooded with tears out of anxiety for Krsna, came out of the palace. They could stop their tears only with great difficulty. They feared that tears would cause misfortune at the time of departure.
There were hundreds of ladies in the palace of Hastinapura. All of them were affectionate to Krsna. All of them were relatives also. When they saw that Krsna was going away from the palace for His native place, they were very anxious for Him, and as usual tears began to roll down their cheeks. They thought, at the same time, that tears at that moment might be a cause of misfortune for Krsna; therefore they wanted to check them. This was very difficult for them because the tears could not be checked. Therefore, they smeared their tears in their eyes, and their hearts throbbed. Therefore ladies who were the wives and daughters-in-law of those who died in the battlefield never came in direct contact with Krsna. But all of them heard of Him and His great activities, and thus they thought of Him, talked of Him, His name, fame, etc., and became affectionate also, like those who were in direct contact. Therefore directly or indirectly anyone who thinks of Krsna, talks of Krsna or worships Krsna becomes attached to Him. Because Krsna is absolute, there is no difference between His name, form, quality, etc. Our intimate relation with Krsna can be confidentially revived by our talking of, hearing of, or remembering Him. It is so done due to spiritual potency.
nedur dundubhayas tatha
mrdanga--sweet sounding drum; sankha--conchshell; bheryah--brass band; ca--and; vina--string band; panava--a kind of flute; gomukhah--another flute; dhundhuri--another drum; anaka--kettle; ghanta--bell; adyah--others; neduh--sounded; dundubhayah--other different types of drums; tatha--at that time.
While the Lord was departing from the palace of Hastinapura, different types of drums --like the mrdanga, dhola, nagra, dhundhuri and dundubhi--and flutes of different types, the vina, gomukha and bheri, all sounded together to show Him honor.
vavrsuh kusumaih krsnam
prasada--palace; sikhara--the roof; arudhah--ascending; kuru-naryah--the ladies of the Kuru royalty; didrksaya--seeing; vavrsuh--showered; kusumaih--by flowers; krsnam--upon Lord Krsna; prema--out of affection and love; vrida-smita-iksanah--glancing with shy smiles.
Out of a loving desire to see the Lord, the royal ladies of the Kurus got up on top of the palace, and smiling with affection and shyness, they showered flowers upon the Lord.
Shyness is a particular extra-natural beauty of the fair sex, and it commands respect from the opposite sex. This custom was observed even during the days of the Mahabharata, i.e., more than five thousand years ago. It is only the less intelligent persons not well versed in the history of the world who say that observance of separation of female from male is an introduction of the Mohammedan period in India. This incident from the Mahabharata period proves definitely that the ladies of the palace observed strict parda (restricted association with men), and instead of coming down in the open air where Lord Krsna and others were assembled, the ladies of the palace went up on the top of the palace and from there paid their respects to Lord Krsna by showers of flowers. It is definitely stated here that the ladies were smiling there on the top of the palace, checked by shyness. This shyness is a gift of nature to the fair sex, and it enhances their beauty and prestige, even if they are of a less important family or even if they are less attractive. We have practical experience of this fact. A sweeper woman commanded the respect of many respectable gentlemen simply by manifesting a lady's shyness. Half-naked ladies in the street do not command any respect, but a shy sweeper's wife commands respect from all.
Human civilization, as conceived of by the sages of India, is to help one free himself from the clutches of illusion. The material beauty of a woman is an illusion because actually the body is made of earth, water, fire, air, etc. But because there is the association of the living spark with matter, it appears to be beautiful. No one is attracted by an earthen doll, even if it is most perfectly prepared to attract the attention of others. The dead body has no beauty because no one will accept the dead body of a so-called beautiful woman. Therefore, the conclusion is that the spirit spark is beautiful, and because of the soul's beauty one is attracted by the beauty of the outward body. The Vedic wisdom, therefore, forbids us to be attracted by false beauty. But because we are now in the darkness of ignorance, the Vedic civilization allows very restricted mixing of woman and man. They say that the woman is considered to be the fire, and the man is considered to be the butter. The butter must melt in association with fire, and therefore they may be brought together only when it is necessary. And shyness is a check to the unrestricted mixing. It is nature's gift, and it must be utilized.
priyah priyatamasya ha
sita-atapatram--soothing umbrella; jagraha--took up; mukta-dama--decorated with laces and pearls; vibhusitam--embroidered; ratna-dandam--with a handle of jewels; gudakesah--Arjuna, the expert warrior, or one who has conquered sleep; priyah--most beloved; priyatamasya--of the most beloved; ha--so he did.
At that time Arjuna, the great warrior and conqueror of sleep, who is the intimate friend of the most beloved Supreme Lord, took up an umbrella which had a handle of jewels and was embroidered with lace and pearls.
Gold, jewels, pearls and valuable stones were used in the luxurious royal ceremonies. They are all nature's gifts and are produced by the hills, oceans, etc., by the order of the Lord, when man does not waste his valuable time in producing unwanted things in the name of necessities. By so-called development of industrial enterprises, they are now using pots of gutta-percha instead of metals like gold, silver, brass and copper. They are using margarine instead of purified butter, and one fourth of the city population has no shelter.
uddhavah satyakis caiva
reje madhu-patih pathi
uddhavah--a cousin-brother of Krsna's; satyakih--His driver; ca--and; eva--certainly; vyajane--engaged in fanning; parama-adbhute--decorative; vikiryamanah--seated on scattered; kusumaih--flowers all around; reje--commanded; madhu-patih--the master of Madhu (Krsna); pathi--on the road.
Uddhava and Satyaki began to fan the Lord with decorated fans, and the Lord, as the master of Madhu, seated on scattered flowers, commanded them along the road.
tatra tatra dvijeritah
asruyanta--being heard; asisah--benediction; satyah--all truths; tatra--here; tatra--there; dvija-iritah--sounded by learned brahmanas; na--not; anurupa--befitting; anurupah--fitting; ca--also; nirgunasya--of the Absolute; guna-atmanah--playing the role of a human being.
It was being heard here and there that the benedictions being paid to Krsna were neither befitting nor unbefitting because they were all for the Absolute, who was now playing the part of a human being.
At places there were sounds of Vedic benediction aiming at the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna. The benedictions were fitting in the sense that the Lord was playing the part of a human being, as if a cousin of Maharaja Yudhisthira, but they were also unfitting because the Lord is absolute and has nothing to do with any kind of material relativities. He is nirguna, or there are no material qualities in Him, but He is full of transcendental qualities. In the transcendental world there is nothing contradictory, whereas in the relative world everything has its opposite. In the relative world white is the opposite conception of black, but in the transcendental world there is no distinction between white and black. Therefore the sounds of benedictions uttered by the learned brahmanas here and there appear to be contradictory in relation with the Absolute Person, but when they are applied to the Absolute Person they lose all contradiction and become transcendental. One example may clear this idea. Lord Sri Krsna is sometimes described as a thief. He is very famous amongst His pure devotees as the Makhana-cora. He used to steal butter from the houses of neighbors at Vrndavana in His early age. Since then He is famous as a thief. But in spite of His being famous as a thief, He is worshiped as a thief, whereas in the mundane world a thief is punished and is never praised. Since He is the Absolute Personality of Godhead, everything is applicable to Him, and still in spite of all contradictions He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
anyonyam asit sanjalpa
anyonyam--among each other; asit--there was; sanjalpah--talking; uttama-sloka--the Supreme, who is praised by selected poetry; cetasam--of those whose hearts are absorbed in that way; kaurava-indra--the king of the Kurus; pura--capital; strinam--all the ladies; sarva--all; sruti--the Vedas; manah-harah--attractive to the mind.
Absorbed in the thought of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, who is glorified in select poetry, the ladies on the roofs of all the houses of Hastinapura began to talk of Him. This talk was more attractive than the hymns of the Vedas.
In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that in all the Vedic literatures the goal is the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna. Factually the glories of the Lord are depicted in such literature as the Vedas, Ramayana and Mahabharata. And in the Bhagavatam they are specifically mentioned in respect to the Supreme Lord. Therefore, while the ladies on the tops of the houses in the capital of the kings of the Kuru dynasty were talking about the Lord, their talk was more pleasing than the Vedic hymns. Anything sung in the praise of the Lord is Sruti-mantra. There are songs of Thakura Narottama dasa, one of the acaryas in the Gaudiya-sampradaya, composed in simple Bengali language. But Thakura Visvanatha Cakravarti, another very learned acarya of the same sampradaya, has approved the songs by Thakura Narottama dasa to be as good as Vedic mantras. And this is so because of the subject matter. The language is immaterial, but the subject matter is important. The ladies, who were all absorbed in the thought and actions of the Lord, developed the consciousness of Vedic wisdom by the grace of the Lord. And therefore although such ladies might not have been very learned scholars in Sanskrit or otherwise, still whatever they spoke was more attractive than the Vedic hymns. The Vedic hymns in the Upanisads are sometimes indirectly directed to the Supreme Lord. But the talks of the ladies were directly spoken of the Lord, and thus they were more pleasing to the heart. The ladies' talks appeared to be more valuable than the learned brahmanas' benedictions.
sa vai kilayam purusah puratano
ya eka asid avisesa atmani
agre gunebhyo jagad-atmanisvare
nimilitatman nisi supta-saktisu
sah--He (Krsna); vai--as I remember; kila--definitely; ayam--this; purusah--Personality of Godhead; puratanah--the original; yah--who; ekah--only one; asit--existed; avisesah--materially unmanifested; atmani--own self; agre--before creation; gunebhyah--of the modes of nature; jagat-atmani--unto the Supersoul; isvare--unto the Supreme Lord; nimilita--merged into; atman--the living entity; nisi supta--inactive at night; saktisu--of the energies.
They said: Here He is, the original Personality of Godhead as we definitely remember Him. He alone existed before the manifested creation of the modes of nature, and in Him only, because He is the Supreme Lord, all living beings merge, as if sleeping at night, their energy suspended.
There are two types of dissolution of the manifested cosmos. At the end of every 4,320,000,000 solar years, when Brahma, the lord of one particular universe, goes to sleep, there is one annihilation. And at the end of Lord Brahma's life, which takes place at the end of Brahma's one hundred years of age, in our calculation at the end of 8,640,000,000 x 30 x 12 x 100 solar years, there is complete annihilation of the entire universe, and in both the periods both the material energy called the mahat-tattva and the marginal energy called jiva-tattva merge in the person of the Supreme Lord. The living beings remain asleep within the body of the Lord until there is another creation of the material world, and that is the way of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of the material manifestation.
The material creation is effected by the interaction of the three modes of material nature set in action by the Lord, and therefore it is said here that the Lord existed before the modes of material nature were set in motion. In the Sruti-mantra it is said that only Visnu, the Supreme Lord, existed before the creation, and there was no Brahma, Siva or other demigods. Visnu means the Maha-Visnu, who is lying on the Causal Ocean. By His breathing only all the universes are generated in seeds and gradually develop into gigantic forms with innumerable planets within each and every universe. The seeds of universes develop into gigantic forms in the way seeds of a banyan tree develop into numberless banyan trees.
This Maha-Visnu is the plenary portion of the Lord Sri Krsna, who is mentioned in the Brahma-samhita as follows:
"Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the original Personality of Godhead, Govinda, whose plenary portion is the Maha-Visnu. All the Brahmas, the heads of the universes, live only for the period of His exhaling, after the universes are generated from the pores of His transcendental body." (Brahma-samhita 5.58)
Thus Govinda, or Lord Krsna, is the cause of Maha-Visnu also. The ladies talking about this Vedic truth must have heard it from authoritative sources. An authoritative source is the only means of knowing about transcendental subject matter definitely. There is no alternative.
The merging of the living beings into the body of Maha-Visnu takes place automatically at the end of Brahma's one hundred years. But that does not mean that the individual living being loses his identity. The identity is there, and as soon as there is another creation by the supreme will of the Lord, all the sleeping, inactive living beings are again let loose to begin their activities in the continuation of past different spheres of life. It is called suptotthita naya, or awakening from sleep and again engaging in one's respective continuous duty. When a man is asleep at night, he forgets himself, what he is, what his duty is and everything of his waking state. But as soon as he awakens from slumber, he remembers all that he has to do and thus engages himself again in his prescribed activities. The living beings also remain merged in the body of Maha-Visnu during the period of annihilation, but as soon as there is another creation they arise to take up their unfinished work. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (8.18-20).
The Lord existed before the creative energy was set in action. The Lord is not a product of the material energy. His body is completely spiritual, and there is no difference between His body and Himself. Before creation the Lord remained in His abode, which is absolute and one.
sa eva bhuyo nija-virya-coditam
sva-jiva-mayam prakrtim sisrksatim
vidhitsamano 'nusasara sastra-krt
sah--He; eva--thus; bhuyah--again; nija--own personal; virya--potency; coditam--performance of; sva--own; jiva--living being; mayam--external energy; prakrtim--unto material nature; sisrksatim--while re-creating; anama--without mundane designation; rupa-atmani--forms of the soul; rupa-namani--forms and names; vidhitsamanah--desiring to award; anusasara--entrusted; sastra-krt--the compiler of revealed scripture.
The Personality of Godhead, again desiring to give names and forms to His parts and parcels, the living entities, placed them under the guidance of material nature. By His own potency, material nature is empowered to re-create.
The living entities are parts and parcels of the Lord. They are of two varieties, namely nitya-mukta and nitya-baddha. The nitya-muktas are eternally liberated souls, and they are eternally engaged in the reciprocation of transcendental loving service with the Lord in His eternal abode beyond the manifested mundane creations. But the nitya-baddha, or eternally conditioned souls, are entrusted to His external energy, maya, for rectification of their rebellious attitude toward the Supreme Father. Nitya-baddhas are eternally forgetful of their relation with the Lord as parts and parcels. They are bewildered by the illusory energy as products of matter, and thus they are very busy in making plans in the material world for becoming happy. They go on merrily with plans, but by the will of the Lord both the planmakers and the plans are annihilated at the end of a certain period, as above mentioned. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita as follows: "O son of Kunti, at the end of the millennium all the living entities merge into My nature, and again when the time of creation is ripe, I begin creation by the agency of My external energy." (Bg. 9.7)
The word bhuyah indicates again and again, that is to say the process of creation, maintenance and annihilation is going on perpetually by the external energy of the Lord. He is the cause of everything. But the living beings, who are constitutionally the parts and parcels of the Lord and are forgetful of the sweet relation, are given a chance again to get rid of the clutches of the external energy. And to revive his (the living being's) consciousness, the revealed scriptures are also created by the Lord. Vedic literatures are the guiding directions for the conditioned souls so they can get free from the repetition of creation and annihilation of the material world and the material body.
The Lord says in the Bhagavad-gita, "This created world and material energy are under My control. Under the influence of prakrti, automatically they are created again and again, and this is done by Me through the agency of My external energy."
Actually the spiritual spark living entities have no material names or forms. But in order to fulfill their desire to lord it over the material energy of material forms and names, they are given a chance for such false enjoyment, and at the same time they are given a chance to understand the real position through the revealed scriptures. The foolish and forgetful living being is always busy with false forms and false names. Modern nationalism is the culmination of such false names and false forms. Men are mad after false name and form. The form of body obtained under certain conditions is taken up as factual, and the name also taken bewilders the conditioned soul into misusing the energy in the name of so many "isms." The scriptures, however, supply the clue for understanding the real position, but men are reluctant to take lessons from the scriptures created by the Lord for different places and times. For example, the Bhagavad-gita is the guiding principle for every human being, but by the spell of material energy they do not take care to carry out the programs of life in terms of the Bhagavad-gita. Srimad-Bhagavatam is the post-graduate study of knowledge for one who has thoroughly understood the principles of the Bhagavad-gita. Unfortunately people have no taste for them, and therefore they are under the clutches of maya for repetition of birth and death.
sa va ayam yat padam atra surayo
nanv esa sattvam parimarstum arhati
sah--He; vai--by providence; ayam--this; yat--that which; padam atra--here is the same Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna; surayah--great devotees; jita-indriyah--who have overcome the influence of the senses; nirjita--thoroughly controlled; matarisvanah--life; pasyanti--can see; bhakti--by dint of devotional service; utkalita--developed; amala-atmana--those whose minds are thoroughly cleansed; nanu esah--certainly by this only; sattvam--existence; parimarstum--for purifying the mind completely; arhati--deserve.
Here is the same Supreme Personality of Godhead whose transcendental form is experienced by the great devotees who are completely cleansed of material consciousness by dint of rigid devotional service and full control of life and the senses. And that is the only way to purify existence.
As it is stated in Bhagavad-gita, the Lord can be known in His real nature by dint of pure devotional service only. So it is stated here that only the great devotees of the Lord who are able to clear the mind of all material dust by rigid devotional service can experience the Lord as He is. Jitendriya means one who has full control over the senses. The senses are active parts of the body, and their activities cannot be stopped. The artificial means of the yogic processes to make the senses inactive has proved to be abject failure, even in the case of great yogis like Visvamitra Muni. Visvamitra Muni controlled the senses by yogic trance, but when he happened to meet Menaka (a heavenly society woman), he became a victim of sex, and the artificial way of controlling the senses failed. But in the case of a pure devotee, the senses are not at all artificially stopped from doing anything, but they are given different good engagements. When the senses are engaged in more attractive activities, there is no chance of their being attracted by any inferior engagements. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that the senses can be controlled only by better engagements. Devotional service necessitates purifying the senses or engaging them in the activities of devotional service. Devotional service is not inaction. Anything done in the service of the Lord becomes at once purified of its material nature. The material conception is due to ignorance only. There is nothing beyond Vasudeva. The Vasudeva conception gradually develops in the heart of the learned after a prolonged acceleration of the receptive organs. But the process ends in the knowledge of accepting Vasudeva as all in all. In the case of devotional service, this very same method is accepted from the very beginning, and by the grace of the Lord all factual knowledge becomes revealed in the heart of a devotee due to dictation by the Lord from within. Therefore controlling the senses by devotional service is the only and easiest means.
sa va ayam sakhy anugita-sat-katho
vedesu guhyesu ca guhya-vadibhih
ya eka iso jagad-atma-lilaya
srjaty avaty atti na tatra sajjate
sah--He; vai--also; ayam--this; sakhi--O my friend; anugita--described; sat-kathah--the excellent pastimes; vedesu--in the Vedic literatures; guhyesu--confidentially; ca--as also; guhya-vadibhih--by the confidential devotees; yah--one who; ekah--one only; isah--the supreme controller; jagat--of the complete creation; atma--Supersoul; lilaya--by manifestation of pastimes; srjati--creates; avati atti--also maintains and annihilates; na--never; tatra--there; sajjate--becomes attached to it.
O dear friends, here is that very Personality of Godhead whose attractive and confidential pastimes are described in the confidential parts of Vedic literature by His great devotees. It is He only who creates, maintains and annihilates the material world and yet remains unaffected.
As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, all the Vedic literatures are glorifying the greatness of Lord Sri Krsna. Here it is confirmed in the Bhagavatam also. The Vedas are expanded by many branches and subbranches by great devotees and empowered incarnations of the Lord like Vyasa, Narada, Sukadeva Gosvami, the Kumaras, Kapila, Prahlada, Janaka, Bali and Yamaraja, but in the Srimad-Bhagavatam especially, the confidential parts of His activities are described by the confidential devotee Sukadeva Gosvami. In the Vedanta-sutras or Upanisads there is only a hint of the confidential parts of His pastimes. In such Vedic literatures as the Upanisads, the Lord has expressively been distinguished from the mundane conception of His existence. His identity being fully spiritual, His form, name, quality, and paraphernalia, etc., have been elaborately distinguished from matter, and therefore He is sometimes misunderstood by less intelligent persons as impersonal. But factually He is the Supreme Person, Bhagavan, and He is partially represented as Paramatma or impersonal Brahman.
yada hy adharmena tamo-dhiyo nrpa
jivanti tatraisa hi sattvatah kila
dhatte bhagam satyam rtam dayam yaso
bhavaya rupani dadhad yuge yuge
yada--whenever; hi--assuredly; adharmena--against the principles of God's will; tamah-dhiyah--persons in the lowest material modes; nrpah--kings and administrators; jivanti--live like animals; tatra--thereupon; esah--He; hi--only; sattvatah--transcendental; kila--certainly; dhatte--is manifested; bhagam--supreme power; satyam--truth; rtam--positiveness; dayam--mercy; yasah--wonderful activities; bhavaya--for the maintenance; rupani--in various forms; dadhat--manifested; yuge--different periods; yuge--and ages.
Whenever there are kings and administrators living like animals in the lowest modes of existence, the Lord in His transcendental form manifests His supreme power, the Truth Positive, shows special mercy to the faithful, performs wonderful activities and manifests various transcendental forms as is necessary in different periods and ages.
As mentioned above, the cosmic creation is the property of the Supreme Lord. This is the basic philosophy of Isopanisad: everything is the property of the Supreme Being. No one should encroach upon the property of the Supreme Lord. One should accept only what is kindly awarded by Him. Therefore, the earth or any other planet or universe is the absolute property of the Lord. The living beings are certainly His parts and parcels, or sons, and thus every one of them has a right to live at the mercy of the Lord to execute his prescribed work. No one, therefore, can encroach upon the right of another individual man or animal without being so sanctioned by the Lord. The king or the administrator is the representative of the Lord to look after the management of the Lord's will. He must therefore be a recognized person like Maharaja Yudhisthira or Pariksit. Such kings have full responsibility and knowledge from authorities about the administration of the world. But at times, due to the influence of the ignorance mode of material nature (tamo-guna), the lowest of the material modes, kings and administrators come into power without knowledge and responsibility, and such foolish administrators live like animals for the sake of their own personal interest. The result is that the whole atmosphere becomes surcharged with anarchy and vicious elements. Nepotism, bribery, cheating, aggression and, therefore, famine, epidemic, war and similar other disturbing features become prominent in human society. And the devotees of the Lord or the faithful are persecuted by all means. All these symptoms indicate the time of an incarnation of the Lord to reestablish the principles of religion and to vanquish the maladministrators. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita.
The Lord then appears in His transcendental form without any tinge of material qualities. He descends just to keep the state of His creation in a normal condition. The normal condition is that the Lord has provided each and every planet with all the needs of the native living beings. They can happily live and execute their predestined occupations to attain salvation at the end, following the rules and regulations mentioned in the revealed scriptures. The material world is created to satisfy the whims of the nitya-baddha, or everlasting conditioned souls, just as naughty boys are provided with playing cradles. Otherwise, there was no need of the material world. But when they become intoxicated with the power of material science to exploit the resources unlawfully without the sanction of the Lord, and that also only for sense gratification, there is necessity of the Lord's incarnation to chastise the rebellious and to protect the faithful.
When He descends, He exhibits superhuman acts just to prove His supreme right, and materialists like Ravana, Hiranyakasipu and Kamsa are sufficiently punished. He acts in a manner which no one can imitate. For example, the Lord, when He appeared as Rama, bridged the Indian Ocean. When He appeared as Krsna, from His very childhood He showed superhuman activities by killing Putana, Aghasura, Sakatasura, Kaliya, etc., and then His maternal uncle Kamsa. When He was at Dvaraka He married 16,108 queens, and all of them were blessed with a sufficient number of children. The sum total of His personal family members amounted to about 100,000, popularly known as the Yadu-vamsa. And again, during His lifetime, He managed to vanquish them all. He is famous as the Govardhana-dhari Hari because He lifted at the age of only seven the hill known as Govardhana. The Lord killed many undesirable kings in His time, and as a ksatriya He fought chivalrously. He is famous as the asamaurdhva, unparalleled. No one is equal to or greater than Him.
aho alam slaghyatamam yadoh kulam
aho alam punyatamam madhor vanam
yad esa pumsam rsabhah sriyah patih
sva-janmana cankramanena cancati
aho--oh; alam--verily; slaghya-tamam--supremely glorified; yadoh--of King Yadu; kulam--dynasty; aho--oh; alam--verily; punya-tamam--supremely virtuous; madhoh vanam--the land of Mathura; yat--because; esah--this; pumsam--of all the living beings; rsabhah--supreme leader; sriyah--of the goddess of fortune; patih--husband; sva-janmana--by His appearance; cankramanena--by crawling; ca ancati--glories.
Oh, how supremely glorified is the dynasty of King Yadu, and how virtuous is the land of Mathura, where the supreme leader of all living beings, the husband of the goddess of fortune, has taken His birth and wandered in His childhood.
In the Bhagavad-gita the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna has expressively given a description of His transcendental appearance, disappearance and activities. The Lord appears in a particular family or place by His inconceivable potency. He does not take His birth as a conditioned soul quits his body and accepts another body. His birth is like the appearance and disappearance of the sun. The sun arises on the eastern horizon, but that does not mean that the eastern horizon is the parent of the sun. The sun is existent in every part of the solar system, but he becomes visible at a scheduled time and so also becomes invisible at another scheduled time. Similarly, the Lord appears in this universe like the sun and again leaves our sight at another time. He exists at all times and at every place, but by His causeless mercy when He appears before us we take it for granted that He has taken His birth. Anyone who can understand this truth, in terms of the statements of revealed scriptures, certainly becomes liberated just after quitting the present body. Liberation is obtainable after many births and after great endeavor in patience and perseverance, in knowledge and renunciation. But simply by knowing in truth about the Lord's transcendental births and activities, one can get liberation at once. That is the verdict of the Bhagavad-gita. But those who are in the darkness of ignorance conclude that the Lord's birth and activities in the material world are similar to those of the ordinary living being. Such imperfect conclusions cannot give anyone liberation. His birth, therefore, in the family of King Yadu as the son of King Vasudeva and His transfer into the family of Nanda Maharaja in the land of Mathura are all transcendental arrangements made by the internal potency of the Lord. The fortunes of the Yadu dynasty and that of the inhabitants of the land of Mathura cannot be materially estimated. If simply by knowing the transcendental nature of the birth and activities of the Lord one can get liberation easily, we can just imagine what is in store for those who actually enjoyed the company of the Lord in person as a family member or as a neighbor. All those who were fortunate enough to associate with the Lord, the husband of the goddess of fortune, certainly obtained something more than what is known as liberation. Therefore, rightly, the dynasty and the land are both ever glorious by the grace of the Lord.
aho bata svar-yasasas tiraskari
kusasthali punya-yasaskari bhuvah
pasyanti nityam yad anugrahesitam
smitavalokam sva-patim sma yat-prajah
aho bata--how wonderful this is; svah-yasasah--the glories of the heavenly planets; tiraskari--that which defeats; kusasthali--Dvaraka; punya--virtue; yasaskari--famous; bhuvah--the planet earth; pasyanti--see; nityam--constantly; yat--that which; anugraha-isitam--to bestow benediction; smita-avalokam--glance with the favor of sweet smiling; sva-patim--unto the soul of the living being (Krsna); sma--used to; yat-prajah--the inhabitants of the place.
Undoubtedly it is wonderful that Dvaraka has defeated the glories of the heavenly planets and has enhanced the celebrity of the earth. The inhabitants of Dvaraka are always seeing the soul of all living beings [Krsna] in His loving feature. He glances at them and favors them with sweet smiles.
The heavenly planets are inhabited by demigods like Indra, Candra, Varuna and Vayu and the pious souls reach there after performance of many virtuous acts on earth. Modern scientists agree that the timing arrangement in higher planetary systems is different from that of the earth. Thus it is understood from the revealed scriptures that the duration of life there is ten thousand years (by our calculation). Six months on earth is equal to one day on the heavenly planets. Facilities of enjoyment are also similarly enhanced, and the beauty of the inhabitants is legendary. Common men on the earth are very much fond of reaching the heavenly planets because they have heard that comforts of life are far greater there than on the earth. They are now trying to reach the moon by spacecraft. Considering all this, the heavenly planets are more celebrated than the earth. But the celebrity of earth has defeated that of the heavenly planets because of Dvaraka, where Lord Sri Krsna reigned as King. Three places, namely Vrndavana, Mathura and Dvaraka, are more important than the famous planets within the universe. These places are perpetually sanctified because whenever the Lord descends on earth He displays His transcendental activities particularly in these three places. They are perpetually the holy lands of the Lord, and the inhabitants still take advantage of the holy places, even though the Lord is now out of their sight. The Lord is the soul of all living beings, and He desires always to have all the living beings, in their svarupa, in their constitutional position, to participate in transcendental life in His association. His attractive features and sweet smiles go deep into the heart of everyone, and once it is so done the living being is admitted into the kingdom of God, from which no one returns. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita.
The heavenly planets may be very famous for offering better facilities of material enjoyment, but as we learn from the Bhagavad-gita (9.20-21), one has to come back again to the earth planet as soon as the acquired virtue is finished. Dvaraka is certainly more important than the heavenly planets because whoever has been favored with the smiling glance of the Lord shall never come back again to this rotten earth, which is certified by the Lord Himself as a place of misery. Not only this earth but also all the planets of the universes are places of misery because in none of the planets within the universe is there eternal life, eternal bliss and eternal knowledge. Any person engaged in the devotional service of the Lord is recommended to live in one of the above-mentioned three places, namely Dvaraka, Mathura or Vrndavana. Because devotional service in these three places is magnified, those who go there to follow the principles in terms of instructions imparted in the revealed scriptures surely achieve the same result as obtained during the presence of Lord Sri Krsna. His abode and He Himself are identical, and a pure devotee under the guidance of another experienced devotee can obtain all the results, even at present.
samarcito hy asya grhita-panibhih
pibanti yah sakhy adharamrtam muhur
vraja-striyah sammumuhur yad-asayah
nunam--certainly in the previous birth; vrata--vow; snana--bath; huta--sacrifice in the fire; adina--by all these; isvarah--the Personality of Godhead; samarcitah--perfectly worshiped; hi--certainly; asya--His; grhita-panibhih--by the married wives; pibanti--relishes; yah--those who; sakhi--O friend; adhara-amrtam--the nectar from His lips; muhuh--again and again; vraja-striyah--the damsels of Vrajabhumi; sammumuhuh--often fainted; yat-asayah--expecting to be favored in that way.
O friends, just think of His wives, whose hands He has accepted. How they must have undergone vows, baths, fire sacrifices and perfect worship of the Lord of the universe to constantly relish now the nectar from His lips [by kissing]. The damsels of Vrajabhumi would often faint just by expecting such favors.
Religious rites prescribed in the scriptures are meant to purify the mundane qualities of the conditioned souls to enable them to be gradually promoted to the stage of rendering transcendental service unto the Supreme Lord. Attainment of this stage of pure spiritual life is the highest perfection, and this stage is called svarupa, or the factual identity of the living being. Liberation means renovation of this stage of svarupa. In that perfect stage of svarupa, the living being is established in five phases of loving service, one of which is the stage of madhurya-rasa, or the humor of conjugal love. The Lord is always perfect in Himself, and thus He has no hankering for Himself. He, however, becomes a master, a friend, a son or a husband to fulfill the intense love of the devotee concerned. Herein two classes of devotees of the Lord are mentioned in the stage of conjugal love. One is svakiya, and the other is parakiya. Both of them are in conjugal love with the Personality of Godhead Krsna. The queens at Dvaraka were svakiya, or duly married wives, but the damsels of Vraja were young friends of the Lord while He was unmarried. The Lord stayed at Vrndavana till the age of sixteen, and His friendly relations with the neighboring girls were in terms of parakiya. These girls, as well as the queens, underwent severe penances by taking vows, bathing and offering sacrifices in the fire, as prescribed in the scriptures. The rites, as they are, are not an end in themselves, nor are fruitive action, culture of knowledge or perfection in mystic powers ends in themselves. They are all means to attain to the highest stage of svarupa, to render constitutional transcendental service to the Lord. Each and every living being has his individual position in one of the above-mentioned five different kinds of reciprocating means with the Lord, and in one's pure spiritual form of svarupa the relation becomes manifest without mundane affinity. The kissing of the Lord, either by His wives or His young girl friends who aspired to have the Lord as their fiance, is not of any mundane perverted quality. Had such things been mundane, a liberated soul like Sukadeva would not have taken the trouble to relish them, nor would Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu have been inclined to participate in those subjects after renouncing worldly life. The stage is earned after many lives of penance.
ya virya-sulkena hrtah svayamvare
pramathya caidya-pramukhan hi susminah
yas cahrta bhauma-vadhe sahasrasah
ya--the lady; virya--prowess; sulkena--by payment of the price; hrtah--taken away by force; svayamvare--in the open selection of the bridegroom; pramathya--harassing; caidya--King Sisupala; pramukhan--headed by; hi--positively; susminah--all very powerful; pradyumna--Pradyumna (Krsna's son); samba--Samba; amba--Amba; suta-adayah--children; aparah--other ladies; yah--those; ca--also; ahrtah--similarly brought; bhauma-vadhe--after killing kings; sahasrasah--by the thousands.
The children of these ladies are Pradyumna, Samba, Amba, etc: Ladies like Rukmini, Satyabhama and Jambavati were forcibly taken away by Him from their svayamvara ceremonies after He defeated many powerful kings, headed by Sisupala. And other ladies were also forcibly taken away by Him after He killed Bhaumasura and thousands of his assistants. All of these ladies are glorious.
Exceptionally qualified daughters of powerful kings were allowed to make a choice of their own bridegrooms in open competition, and such ceremonies were called svayamvara, or selection of the bridegroom. Because the svayamvara was an open competition between the rival and valiant princes, such princes were invited by the father of the princess, and usually there were regular fights between the invited princely order in a sporting spirit. But it so happened that sometimes the belligerent princes were killed in such marriage-fighting, and the victorious prince was offered the trophy princess for whom so many princes died. Rukmini, the principal queen of Lord Krsna, was the daughter of the King of Vidarbha, who wished that his qualified and beautiful daughter be given away to Lord Krsna. But her eldest brother wanted her to be given away to King Sisupala, who happened to be a cousin of Krsna. So there was open competition, and as usual Lord Krsna emerged successful, after harassing Sisupala and other princes by His unrivalled prowess. Rukmini had ten sons, like Pradyumna. There were other queens also taken away by Lord Krsna in a similar way. Full description of this beautiful booty of Lord Krsna will be given in the Tenth Canto. There were 16,100 beautiful girls who were daughters of many kings and were forcibly stolen by Bhaumasura, who kept them captive for his carnal desire. These girls prayed piteously to Lord Krsna for their deliverance, and the merciful Lord, called by their fervent prayer, released them all by fighting and killing Bhaumasura. All these captive princesses were then accepted by the Lord as His wives, although in the estimation of society they were all fallen girls. The all-powerful Lord Krsna accepted the humble prayers of these girls and married them with the adoration of queens. So altogether Lord Krsna had 16,108 queens at Dvaraka, and in each of them He begot ten children. All these children grew up, and each had as many children as the father. The aggregate of the family numbered 10,000,000.
etah param stritvam apastapesalam
nirasta-saucam bata sadhu kurvate
yasam grhat puskara-locanah patir
na jatv apaity ahrtibhir hrdi sprsan
etah--all these women; param--highest; stritvam--womanhood; apastapesalam--without individuality; nirasta--without; saucam--purity; bata sadhu--auspiciously glorified; kurvate--do they make; yasam--from whose; grhat--homes; puskara-locanah--the lotus-eyed; patih--husband; na jatu--never at any time; apaiti--goes away; ahrtibhih--by presentation; hrdi--in the heart; sprsan--endeared.
All these women auspiciously glorified their lives despite their being without individuality and without purity. Their husband, the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead, never left them alone at home. He always pleased their hearts by making valuable presentations.
The devotees of the Lord are purified souls. As soon as the devotees surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord sincerely, the Lord accepts them, and thus the devotees at once become free from all material contaminations. Such devotees are above the three modes of material nature. There is no bodily disqualification of a devotee, just as there is no qualitative difference between the Ganges water and the filthy drain water when they are amalgamated. Women, merchants and laborers are not very intelligent, and thus it is very difficult for them to understand the science of God or to be engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. They are more materialistic, and less than them are the Kiratas, Hunas, Andhras, Pulindas, Pulkasas, Abhiras, Kankas, Yavanas, Khasas, etc., but all of them can be delivered if they are properly engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. By engagement in the service of the Lord, the designative disqualifications are removed, and as pure souls they become eligible to enter into the kingdom of God.
The fallen girls under the clutches of Bhaumasura sincerely prayed to Lord Sri Krsna for their deliverance, and their sincerity of purpose made them at once pure by virtue of devotion. The Lord therefore accepted them as His wives, and thus their lives became glorified. Such auspicious glorification was still more glorified when the Lord played with them as the most devoted husband.
The Lord used to live with His 16,108 wives constantly. He expanded Himself into 16,108 plenary portions, and each and every one of them was the Lord Himself without deviation from the Original Personality. The Sruti-mantra affirms that the Lord can expand Himself into many. As husband of so many wives, He pleased them all with presentations, even at a costly endeavor. He brought the parijata plant from heaven and implanted it at the palace of Satyabhama, one of the principal queens. If, therefore, anyone desires the Lord to become one's husband, the Lord fulfills such desires in full.
sa girah pura-yositam
sasmitena yayau harih
evamvidhah--in this way; gadantinam--thus praying and talking about Him; sah--He (the Lord); girah--of words; pura-yositam--of the ladies of the capital; niriksanena--by His grace of glancing over them; abhinandan--and greeting them; sa-smitena--with a smiling face; yayau--departed; harih--the Personality of Godhead.
While the ladies of the capital of Hastinapura were greeting Him and talking in this way, the Lord, smiling, accepted their good greetings, and casting the grace of His glance over them, He departed from the city.
parebhyah sankitah snehat
ajata-satruh--Maharaja Yudhisthira, who was no one's enemy; prtanam--defensive forces; gopithaya--for giving protection; madhu-dvisah--of the enemy of Madhu (Sri Krsna); parebhyah--from others (enemies); sankitah--being afraid of; snehat--out of affection; prayunkta--engaged; catuh-anginim--four defensive divisions.
Maharaja Yudhisthira, although no one's enemy, engaged four divisions of defense [horse, elephant, chariot and army] to accompany Lord Krsna, the enemy of the asuras [demons]. The Maharaja did this because of the enemy, and also out of affection for the Lord.
Natural defensive measures are horses and elephants combined with chariots and men. Horses and elephants are trained to move to any part of the hills or forests and plains. The charioteers could fight with many horses and elephants by the strength of powerful arrows, even up to the standard of the brahmastra (similar to modern atomic weapons). Maharaja Yudhisthira knew well that Krsna is everyone's friend and well-wisher, and yet there were asuras who were by nature envious of the Lord. So out of fear of attack from others and out of affection also, he engaged all varieties of defensive forces as bodyguards of Lord Krsna. If required, Lord Krsna Himself was sufficient to defend Himself from the attack of others who counted the Lord as their enemy, but still He accepted all the arrangements made by Maharaja Yudhisthira because He could not disobey the King, who was His elder cousin. The Lord plays the part of a subordinate in His transcendental sporting, and thus sometimes He puts Himself in the care of Yasodamata for His protection in His so-called helplessness of childhood. That is the transcendental lila, or pastime of the Lord. The basic principle for all transcendental exchanges between the Lord and His devotees is exhibited to enjoy a transcendental bliss for which there is no comparison, even up to the level of brahmananda.
atha duragatan saurih
sannivartya drdham snigdhan
prayat sva-nagarim priyaih
atha--thus; duragatan--having accompanied Him for a long distance; saurih--Lord Krsna; kauravan--the Pandavas; virahaturan--overwhelmed by a sense of separation; sannivartya--politely persuaded; drdham--determined; snigdhan--full of affection; prayat--proceeded; sva-nagarim--towards His own city (Dvaraka); priyaih--with dear companions.
Out of profound affection for Lord Krsna, the Pandavas, who were of the Kuru dynasty, accompanied Him a considerable distance to see Him off. They were overwhelmed with the thought of future separation. The Lord, however, persuaded them to return home, and He proceeded towards Dvaraka with His dear companions.
matsyan sarasvatan atha
chrantavaho manag vibhuh
kuru-jangala--the province of Delhi; pancalan--part of the province Punjab; surasenan--part of the province of Uttar Pradesh; sa--with; yamunan--the districts on the bank of the Yamuna; brahmavartam--part of northern Uttar Pradesh; kuruksetram--the place where the battle was fought; matsyan--the province Matsya; sarasvatan--part of Punjab; atha--and so on; maru--Rajasthan, the land of deserts; dhanvam--Madhya Pradesh, where water is very scanty; ati-kramya--after passing; sauvira--Saurastra; abhirayoh--part of Gujarat; paran--western side; anartan--the province of Dvaraka; bhargava--O Saunaka; upagat--overtaken by; sranta--fatigue; vahah--the horses; manak vibhuh--slightly, because of the long journey.
O Saunaka, the Lord then proceeded towards Kurujangala, Pancala, Surasena, the land on the bank of the River Yamuna, Brahmavarta, Kuruksetra, Matsya, Sarasvata, the province of the desert and the land of scanty water. After crossing these provinces He gradually reached the Sauvira and Abhira provinces, then west of these, reached Dvaraka at last.
The provinces passed over by the Lord in those days were differently named, but the direction given is sufficient to indicate that He traveled through Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Saurastra and Gujarat and at last reached His home province at Dvaraka. We do not gain any profit simply by researching the analogous provinces of those days up to now, but it appears that the desert of Rajasthan and the provinces of scanty water like Madhya Pradesh were present even five thousand years ago. The theory of soil experts that the desert developed in recent years is not supported by the statements of Bhagavatam. We may leave the matter for expert geologists to research because the changing universe has different phases of geological development. We are satisfied that the Lord has now reached His own province, Dvarakadhama, from the Kuru provinces. Kuruksetra continues to exist since the Vedic age, and it is sheer foolishness when interpreters ignore or deny the existence of Kuruksetra.
tatra tatra ha tatratyair
sayam bheje disam pascad
gavistho gam gatas tada
tatra tatra--at different places; ha--it so happened; tatratyaih--by local inhabitants; harih--the Personality of Godhead; pratyudyata-arhanah--being offered presentations and worshipful regards; sayam--the evening; bheje--having overtaken; disam--direction; pascat--eastern; gavisthah--the sun in the sky; gam--to the ocean; gatah--having gone; tada--at that time.
On His journey through these provinces He was welcomed, worshiped and given various presentations. In the evening, in all places, the Lord suspended His journey to perform evening rites. This was regularly observed after sunset.
It is said here that the Lord observed the religious principles regularly while He was on the journey. There are certain philosophical speculations that even the Lord is under the obligations of fruitive action. But actually this is not the case. He does not depend on the action of any good or bad work. Since the Lord is absolute, everything done by Him is good for everyone. But when He descends on earth, He acts for the protection of the devotees and for the annihilation of the impious nondevotees. Although He has no obligatory duty, still He does everything so that others may follow. That is the way of factual teaching; one must act properly himself and teach the same to others, otherwise no one will accept one's blind teaching. He is Himself the awarder of fruitive results. He is self-sufficient, and yet He acts according to the rulings of the revealed scripture in order to teach us the process. If He does not do so, the common man may go wrong. But in the advanced stage, when one can understand the transcendental nature of the Lord, one does not try to imitate Him. This is not possible.
The Lord in human society does what is the duty of everyone, but sometimes He does something extraordinary and not to be imitated by the living being. His acts of evening prayer as stated herein must be followed by the living being, but it is not possible to follow His mountain-lifting or dancing with the gopis. One cannot imitate the sun, which can exhaust water even from a filthy place; the most powerful can do something which is all-good, but our imitation of such acts will put us into endless difficulty. Therefore, in all actions, the experienced guide, the spiritual master, who is the manifested mercy of the Lord, should always be consulted, and the path of progress will be assured.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the First Canto, Tenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Departure of Lord Krsna for Dvaraka."