Divisions of the Creation
prajah sasarja katidha
daihikir manasir vibhuh
vidurah uvaca--Sri Vidura said; antarhite--after the disappearance; bhagavati--of the Personality of Godhead; brahma--the first created living being; loka-pitamahah--the grandfather of all planetary inhabitants; prajah--generations; sasarja--created; katidhah--how many; daihikih--from his body; manasih--from his mind; vibhuh--the great.
Sri Vidura said: O great sage, please let me know how Brahma, the grandfather of the planetary inhabitants, created the bodies of the living entities from his own body and mind after the disappearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ye ca me bhagavan prstas
tvayy artha bahuvittama
chindhi nah sarva-samsayan
ye--all those; ca--also; me--by me; bhagavan--O powerful one; prstah--inquired; tvayi--unto you; arthah--purpose; bahu-vit-tama--O greatly learned one; tan--all of them; vadasva--kindly describe; anupurvyena--from beginning to end; chindhi--kindly eradicate; nah--my; sarva--all; samsayan--doubts.
O greatly learned one, kindly eradicate all my doubts, and let me know of all that I have inquired from you from the beginning to the end.
Vidura asked all relevant questions of Maitreya because he knew well that Maitreya was the right person to reply to all the points of his inquiries. One must be confident about the qualifications of his teacher; one should not approach a layman for replies to specific spiritual inquiries. Such inquiries, when replied to with imaginative answers by the teacher, are a program for wasting time.
evam sancoditas tena
ksattra kausaravir munih
pritah pratyaha tan prasnan
hrdi-sthan atha bhargava
sutah uvaca--Sri Suta Gosvami said; evam--thus; sancoditah--being enlivened; tena--by him; ksattra--by Vidura; kausaravih--the son of Kusara; munih--great sage; pritah--being pleased; pratyaha--replied; tan--those; prasnan--questions; hrdi-sthan--from the core of his heart; atha--thus; bhargava--O son of Bhrgu.
Suta Gosvami said: O son of Bhrgu, the great sage Maitreya Muni, thus hearing from Vidura, felt very much enlivened. Everything was in his heart, and thus he began to reply to the questions one after another.
The phrase suta uvaca ("Suta Gosvami said") appears to indicate a break in the discourse between Maharaja Pariksit and Sukadeva Gosvami. While Sukadeva Gosvami was speaking to Maharaja Pariksit, Suta Gosvami was only one member of a large audience. But Suta Gosvami was speaking to the sages of Naimisaranya, headed by the sage Saunaka, a descendant of Sukadeva Gosvami. This, however, does not make any substantial difference in the topics under discussion.
virinco 'pi tatha cakre
divyam varsa-satam tapah
atmany atmanam avesya
yathaha bhagavan ajah
maitreyah uvaca--the great sage Maitreya said; virincah--Brahma; api--also; tatha--in that manner; cakre--performed; divyam--celestial; varsa-satam--one hundred years; tapah--penances; atmani--unto the Lord; atmanam--his own self; avesya--engaging; yatha aha--as it was spoken; bhagavan--the Personality of Godhead; ajah--the unborn.
The greatly learned sage Maitreya said: O Vidura, Brahma thus engaged himself in penances for one hundred celestial years, as advised by the Personality of Godhead, and applied himself in devotional service to the Lord.
That Brahma engaged himself for the Personality of Godhead, Narayana, means that he engaged himself in the service of the Lord; that is the highest penance one can perform for any number of years. There is no retirement from such service, which is eternal and ever encouraging.
padmam ambhas ca tat-kala-
tat vilokya--looking into that; abja-sambhutah--whose source of birth was a lotus; vayuna--by the air; yat--that; adhisthitah--on which he was situated; padmam--lotus; ambhah--water; ca--also; tat-kala-krta--which was effected by eternal time; viryena--by its inherent force; kampitam--trembling.
Thereafter Brahma saw that both the lotus on which he was situated and the water on which the lotus was growing were trembling due to a strong, violent wind.
The material world is called illusory because it is a place of forgetfulness of the transcendental service of the Lord. Thus one engaged in the the Lord's devotional service in the material world may sometimes be very much disturbed by awkward circumstances. There is a declaration of war between the two parties, the illusory energy and the devotee, and sometimes the weak devotees fall victim to the onslaught of the powerful illusory energy. Lord Brahma, however, was sufficiently strong, by the causeless mercy of the Lord, and he could not be victimized by the material energy, although it gave him cause for anxiety when it managed to totter the existence of his position.
tapasa hy edhamanena
nyapad vayum sahambhasa
tapasa--by penance; hi--certainly; edhamanena--increasing; vidyaya--by transcendental knowledge; ca--also; atma--self; samsthaya--situated in the self; vivrddha--matured; vijnana--practical knowledge; balah--power; nyapat--drank; vayum--the wind; saha ambhasa--along with the water.
Long penance and transcendental knowledge of self-realization had matured Brahma in practical knowledge, and thus he drank the wind completely, along with the water.
Lord Brahma's struggle for existence is a personal example of the continued fight between the living entities in the material world and the illusory energy called maya. Beginning from Brahma down to this age, the living entities are struggling with the forces of material nature. By advanced knowledge in science and transcendental realization, one can try to control the material energy, which works against our endeavors, and in the modern age advanced material scientific knowledge and penance have played very wonderful roles in controlling the powers of the material energy. Such control of the material energy, however, can be most successfully carried out if one is a soul surrendered unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead and carries out His order in the spirit of loving transcendental service.
tad vilokya viyad-vyapi
anena lokan prag-linan
tat vilokya--looking into that; viyat-vyapi--extensively widespread; puskaram--the lotus; yat--that which; adhisthitam--he was situated; anena--by this; lokan--all the planets; prak-linan--previously merged in dissolution; kalpita asmi--I shall create; iti--thus; acintayat--he thought.
Thereafter he saw that the lotus on which he was situated was spread throughout the universe, and he contemplated how to create all the planets, which were previously merged in that very same lotus.
The seeds of all the planets in the universe were impregnated in the lotus on which Brahma was situated. All the planets were already generated by the Lord, and all the living entities were also born in Brahma. The material world and the living entities were all already generated in seedling forms by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Brahma was to disseminate the same seedlings all over the universe. The real creation is therefore called sarga, and, later on, the manifestation by Brahma is called visarga.
ekam vyabhanksid urudha
tridha bhavyam dvi-saptadha
padma-kosam--the whorl of the lotus; tada--then; avisya--entering into; bhagavat--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; karma--in activities; coditah--being encouraged by; ekam--one; vyabhanksit--divided into; urudha--great division; tridha--three divisions; bhavyam--capable of further creation; dvi-saptadha--fourteen divisions.
Thus engaged in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Brahma entered into the whorl of the lotus, and as it spread all over the universe he divided it into three divisions of worlds and later into fourteen divisions.
dharmasya hy animittasya
vipakah paramesthy asau
etavan--up to this; jiva-lokasya--of the planets inhabited by the living entities; samstha-bhedah--different situations of habitation; samahrtah--performed completely; dharmasya--of religion; hi--certainly; animittasya--of causelessness; vipakah--mature stage; paramesthi--the highest personality in the universe; asau--that.
Lord Brahma is the most exalted personality in the universe because of his causeless devotional service unto the Lord in mature transcendental knowledge. He therefore created all the fourteen planetary divisions for inhabitation by the different types of living entities.
The Supreme Lord is the reservoir of all the qualities of the living entities. The conditioned souls in the material world reflect only part of those qualities, and therefore they are sometimes called pratibimbas. These pratibimba living entities, as parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, have inherited different proportions of His original qualities, and in terms of their inheritance of these qualities, they appear as different species of life and are accommodated in different planets according to the plan of Brahma. Brahma is the creator of the three worlds, namely the lower planets, called the Patalalokas, the middle planets, called the Bhurlokas, and the upper planets, called the Svarlokas. Still higher planets, such as Maharloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka and Brahmaloka, do not dissolve in the devastating water. This is because of the causeless devotional service rendered unto the Lord by their inhabitants, whose existence continues up to the end of dvi-parardha time, when they are generally liberated from the chain of birth and death in the material world.
kalakhyam laksanam brahman
yatha varnaya nah prabho
vidurah uvaca--Vidura said; yatha--as; attha--you have said; bahu-rupasya--having varieties of forms; hareh--of the Lord; adbhuta--wonderful; karmanah--of the actor; kala--time; akhyam--of the name; laksanam--symptoms; brahman--O learned brahmana; yatha--as it is; varnaya--please describe; nah--unto us; prabho--O lord.
Vidura inquired from Maitreya: O my lord, O greatly learned sage, kindly describe eternal time, which is another form of the Supreme Lord, the wonderful actor. What are the symptoms of that eternal time? Please describe them to us in detail.
The complete universe is a manifestation of varieties of entities, beginning from the atoms up to the gigantic universe itself, and all is under the control of the Supreme Lord in His form of kala, or eternal time. The controlling time has different dimensions in relation to particular physical embodiments. There is a time for atomic dissolution and a time for the universal dissolution. There is a time for the annihilation of the body of the human being, and there is a time for the annihilation of the universal body. Also, growth, development and resultant actions all depend on the time factor. Vidura wanted to know in detail the different physical manifestations and their times of annihilation.
maitreyah uvaca--Maitreya said; guna-vyatikara--of the interactions of the modes of material nature; akarah--source; nirvisesah--without diversity; apratisthitah--unlimited; purusah--of the Supreme Person; tat--that; upadanam--instrument; atmanam--the material creation; lilaya--by pastimes; asrjat--created.
Maitreya said: Eternal time is the primeval source of the interactions of the three modes of material nature. It is unchangeable and limitless, and it works as the instrument of the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His pastimes in the material creation.
The impersonal time factor is the background of the material manifestation as the instrument of the Supreme Lord. It is the ingredient of assistance offered to material nature. No one knows where time began and where it ends, and it is time only which can keep a record of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material manifestation. This time factor is the material cause of creation and is therefore a self expansion of the Personality of Godhead. Time is considered the impersonal feature of the Lord.
The time factor is also explained by modern men in various ways. Some accept it almost as it is explained in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. For example, in Hebrew literature time is accepted, in the same spirit, as a representation of God. It is stated therein: "God, who at sundry times and in diverse manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets...." Metaphysically, time is distinguished as absolute and real. Absolute time is continuous and is unaffected by the speed or slowness of material things. Time is astronomically and mathematically calculated in relation to the speed, change and life of a particular object. Factually, however, time has nothing to do with the relativities of things; rather, everything is shaped and calculated in terms of the facility offered by time. Time is the basic measurement of the activity of our senses, by which we calculate past, present and future; but in factual calculation, time has no beginning and no end. Canakya Pandita says that even a slight fraction of time cannot be purchased with millions of dollars, and therefore even a moment of time lost without profit must be calculated as the greatest loss in life. Time is not subject to any form of psychology, nor are the moments objective realities in themselves, but they are dependent on particular experiences.
Therefore, Srila Jiva Gosvami concludes that the time factor is intermixed with the activities--actions and reactions--of the external energy of the Lord. The external energy, or material nature, works under the superintendence of the time factor as the Lord Himself, and that is why material nature appears to have produced so many wonderful things in the cosmic manifestation. Bhagavad-gita (9.10) confirms this conclusion as follows:
visvam vai brahma-tan-matram
visvam--the material phenomenon; vai--certainly; brahma--the Supreme; tat-matram--the same as; samsthitam--situated; visnu-mayaya--by the energy of Visnu; isvarena--by the Personality of Godhead; paricchinnam--separated; kalena--by the eternal time; avyakta--unmanifested; murtina--by such a feature.
This cosmic manifestation is separated from the Supreme Lord as material energy by means of kala, which is the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Lord. It is situated as the objective manifestation of the Lord under the influence of the same material energy of Visnu.
As stated previously by Narada before Vyasadeva (Bhag. 1.5.20), idam hi visvam bhagavan ivetarah: this unmanifested world is the self-same Personality of Godhead, but it appears to be something else beyond or besides the Lord. It appears so because of its being separated from the Lord by means of kala. It is something like the tape-recorded voice of a person who is now separated from the voice. As the tape recording is situated on the tape, so the whole cosmic manifestation is situated on the material energy and appears separate by means of kala. The material manifestation is therefore the objective manifestation of the Supreme Lord and exhibits His impersonal feature so much adored by impersonalist philosophers.
yathedanim tathagre ca
pascad apy etad idrsam
yatha--as it is; idanim--at present; tatha--so it was; agre--in the beginning; ca--and; pascat--at the end; api--also; etat idrsam--it continues to be the same.
This cosmic manifestation is as it is now, it was the same in the past, and it will continue in the same way in the future.
There is a systematic schedule for the perpetual manifestation, maintenance and annihilation of the material world, as stated in Bhagavad-gita (9.8): bhuta-gramam imam krtsnam avasam prakrter vasat. As it is created now and as it will be destroyed later on, so also it existed in the past and again will be created, maintained and destroyed in due course of time. Therefore, the systematic activities of the time factor are perpetual and eternal and cannot be stated to be false. The manifestation is temporary and occasional, but it is not false as claimed by the Mayavadi philosophers.
sargo nava-vidhas tasya
prakrto vaikrtas tu yah
sargah--creation; nava-vidhah--of nine different kinds; tasya--its; prakrtah--material; vaikrtah--by the modes of material nature; tu--but; yah--that which; kala--eternal time; dravya--matter; gunaih--qualities; asya--its; tri-vidhah--three kinds; pratisankramah--annihilation.
There are nine different kinds of creations besides the one which naturally occurs due to the interactions of the modes. There are three kinds of annihilations due to eternal time, the material elements and the quality of one's work.
The scheduled creations and annihilations take place in terms of the supreme will. There are other creations due to interactions of material elements which take place by the intelligence of Brahma. Later these will be more explicitly explained. At present, only preliminary information is given. The three kinds of annihilations are (1) due to the scheduled time of the annihilation of the entire universe, (2) due to a fire which emanates from the mouth of Ananta, and (3) due to one's qualitative actions and reactions.
adyas tu mahatah sargo
dvitiyas tv ahamo yatra
adyah--the first; tu--but; mahatah--of the total emanation from the Lord; sargah--creation; guna-vaisamyam--interaction of the material modes; atmanah--of the Supreme; dvitiyah--the second; tu--but; ahamah--false ego; yatra--wherein; dravya--material ingredients; jnana--material knowledge; kriya-udayah--awakening of activities (work).
Of the nine creations, the first one is the creation of the mahat-tattva, or the sum total of the material ingredients, wherein the modes interact due to the presence of the Supreme Lord. In the second, the false ego is generated in which the material ingredients, material knowledge and material activities arise.
The first emanation from the Supreme Lord for material creation is called the mahat-tattva. The interaction of the material modes is the cause of false identification, or the sense that a living being is made of material elements. This false ego is the cause of identifying the body and mind with the soul proper. Material resources and the capacity and knowledge to work are all generated in the second term of creation, after the mahat-tattva. Jnana indicates the senses which are sources of knowledge, and their controlling deities. Work entails the working organs and their controlling deities. All these are generated in the second creation.
bhuta-sargas trtiyas tu
caturtha aindriyah sargo
yas tu jnana-kriyatmakah
bhuta-sargah--creation of matter; trtiyah--is the third; tu--but; tat-matrah--sense perception; dravya--of the elements; saktiman--generator; caturthah--the fourth; aindriyah--in the matter of the senses; sargah--creation; yah--that which; tu--but; jnana--knowledge-acquiring; kriya--working; atmakah--basically.
The sense perceptions are created in the third creation, and from these the elements are generated. The fourth creation is the creation of knowledge and of working capacity.
pancamo yan-mayam manah
sasthas tu tamasah sargo
yas tv abuddhi-krtah prabhoh
vaikarikah--interaction of the mode of goodness; deva--the demigods, or controlling deities; sargah--creation; pancamah--fifth; yat--that which; mayam--sum total; manah--mind; sasthah--sixth; tu--but; tamasah--of darkness; sargah--creation; yah--that which; tu--expletive; abuddhi-krtah--made foolish; prabhoh--of the master.
The fifth creation is that of the controlling deities by the interaction of the mode of goodness, of which the mind is the sum total. The sixth creation is the ignorant darkness of the living entity, by which the master acts as a fool.
The demigods in the higher planets are called devas because they are all devotees of Lord Visnu. Visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva asuras tad-viparyayah: all the devotees of Lord Visnu are devas, or demigods, whereas all others are asuras. That is the division of the devas and the asuras. Devas are situated in the mode of goodness of material nature, whereas the asuras are situated in the modes of passion or ignorance. The demigods, or controlling deities, are entrusted with departmental management of all the different functions of the material world. For example, one of our sense organs, the eye, is controlled by light, light is distributed by the sun rays, and their controlling deity is the sun. Similarly, mind is controlled by the moon. All other senses, both for working and for acquiring knowledge, are controlled by the different demigods. The demigods are assistants of the Lord in the management of material affairs.
After the creation of the demigods, all entities are covered by the darkness of ignorance. Each and every living being in the material world is conditioned by his mentality of lording it over the resources of material nature. Although a living entity is the master of the material world, he is conditioned by ignorance, by the false impression of being the proprietor of material things.
The energy of the Lord called avidya is the bewildering factor of the conditioned souls. The material nature is called avidya, or ignorance, but to the devotees of the Lord engaged in pure devotional service, this energy becomes vidya, or pure knowledge. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita. The energy of the Lord transforms from mahamaya to yogamaya and appears to pure devotees in her real feature. The material nature therefore appears to function in three phases: as the creative principle of the material world, as ignorance and as knowledge. As disclosed in the previous verse, in the fourth creation the power of knowledge is also created. The conditioned souls are not originally fools, but by the influence of the avidya function of material nature they are made fools, and thus they are unable to utilize knowledge in the proper channel.
By the influence of darkness, the conditioned soul forgets his relationship with the Supreme Lord and is overwhelmed by attachment, hatred, pride, ignorance and false identification, the five kinds of illusion that cause material bondage.
sad ime prakrtah sarga
vaikrtan api me srnu
sat--six; ime--all these; prakrtah--of the material energy; sargah--creations; vaikrtan--secondary creations by Brahma; api--also; me--from me; srnu--just hear; rajah-bhajah--of the incarnation of the mode of passion (Brahma); bhagavatah--of the greatly powerful; lila--pastime; iyam--this; hari--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; medhasah--of one who has such a brain.
All the above are natural creations by the external energy of the Lord. Now hear from me about the creations by Brahma, who is an incarnation of the mode of passion and who, in the matter of creation, has a brain like that of the Personality of Godhead.
saptamo mukhya-sargas tu
sad-vidhas tasthusam ca yah
tvaksara virudho drumah
saptamah--the seventh; mukhya--principle; sargah--creation; tu--indeed; sat-vidhah--six kinds of; tasthusam--of those who do not move; ca--also; yah--those; vanaspati--fruit trees without flowers; osadhi--trees and plants existing until the fruit is ripe; lata--creepers; tvaksarah--pipe plants; virudhah--creepers without support; drumah--trees with flowers and fruits.
The seventh creation is that of the immovable entities, which are of six kinds: the fruit trees without flowers, trees and plants which exist until the fruit is ripe, creepers, pipe plants, creepers which have no support, and trees with flowers and fruits.
utsrotasah--they seek their subsistence upwards; tamah-prayah--almost unconscious; antah-sparsah--slightly feeling within; visesinah--with varieties of manifestation.
All the immovable trees and plants seek their subsistence upwards. They are almost unconscious but have feelings of pain within. They are manifested in variegatedness.
tirascam astamah sargah
so 'stavimsad-vidho matah
ghrana-jna hrdy avedinah
tirascam--species of lower animals; astamah--the eighth; sargah--creation; sah--they are; astavimsat--twenty-eight; vidhah--varieties; matah--considered; avidah--without knowledge of tomorrow; bhuri--extensively; tamasah--ignorant; ghrana-jnah--can know desirables by smell; hrdi avedinah--can remember very little in the heart.
The eighth creation is that of the lower species of life, and they are of different varieties, numbering twenty-eight. They are all extensively foolish and ignorant. They know their desirables by smell, but are unable to remember anything within the heart.
In the Vedas the symptoms of the lower animals are described as follows: athetaresam pasunah asanapipase evabhivijnanam na vijnatam vadanti na vijnatam pasyanti na viduh svastanam na lokalokav iti; yad va, bhuri-tamaso bahu-rusah ghranenaiva jananti hrdyam prati svapriyam vastv eva vindanti bhojana-sayanady-artham grhnanti. "Lower animals have knowledge only of their hunger and thirst. They have no acquired knowledge, no vision. Their behavior exhibits no dependence on formalities. Extensively ignorant, they can know their desirables only by smell, and by such intelligence only can they understand what is favorable and unfavorable. Their knowledge is concerned only with eating and sleeping." Therefore, even the most ferocious lower animals, such as tigers, can be tamed simply by regularly supplying meals and accommodations for sleeping. Only snakes cannot be tamed by such an arrangement.
gaur ajo mahisah krsnah
sukaro gavayo ruruh
dvi-saphah pasavas ceme
avir ustras ca sattama
gauh--the cow; ajah--the goat; mahisah--the buffalo; krsnah--a kind of stag; sukarah--hog; gavayah--a species of animal; ruruh--deer; dvi-saphah--having two hooves; pasavah--animals; ca--also; ime--all these; avih--lamb; ustrah--camel; ca--and; sattama--O purest.
O purest Vidura, of the lower animals the cow, goat, buffalo, krsna stag, hog, gavaya animal, deer, lamb and camel all have two hooves.
kharo 'svo 'svataro gaurah
sarabhas camari tatha
ete caika-saphah ksattah
srnu panca-nakhan pasun
kharah--ass; asvah--horse; asvatarah--mule; gaurah--white deer; sarabhah--bison; camari--wild cow; tatha--thus; ete--all these; ca--and; eka--only one; saphah--hoof; ksattah--O Vidura; srnu--just hear now; panca--five; nakhan--nails; pasun--animals.
The horse, mule, ass, gaura, sarabha bison and wild cow all have only one hoof. Now you may hear from me about the animals who have five nails.
sva srgalo vrko vyaghro
simhah kapir gajah kurmo
godha ca makaradayah
sva--dog; srgalah--jackal; vrkah--fox; vyaghrah--tiger; marjarah--cat; sasa--rabbit; sallakau--sajaru (with thorns on the body); simhah--lion; kapih--monkey; gajah--elephant; kurmah--tortoise; godha--gosapa (snake with four legs); ca--also; makara-adayah--the alligator and others.
The dog, jackal, tiger, fox, cat, rabbit, sajaru, lion, monkey, elephant, tortoise, alligator, gosapa, etc., all have five nails in their claws. They are known as panca-nakhas, or animals having five nails.
kanka--heron; grdhra--vulture; baka--crane; syena--hawk; bhasa--the bhasa; bhalluka--the bhalluka; barhinah--the peacock; hamsa--swan; sarasa--the sarasa; cakrahva--the cakravaka; kaka--crow; uluka--owl; adayah--and others; khagah--the birds.
The heron, vulture, crane, hawk, bhasa, bhalluka, peacock, swan, sarasa, cakravaka, crow, owl and others are the birds.
arvak-srotas tu navamah
ksattar eka-vidho nrnam
rajo 'dhikah karma-para
duhkhe ca sukha-maninah
arvak--downwards; srotah--passage of food; tu--but; navamah--the ninth; ksattah--O Vidura; eka-vidhah--one species; nrnam--of human beings; rajah--the mode of passion; adhikah--very prominent; karma-parah--interested in working; duhkhe--in misery; ca--but; sukha--happiness; maninah--thinking.
The creation of the human beings, who are of one species only and who stock their eatables in the belly, is the ninth in the rotation. In the human race, the mode of passion is very prominent. Humans are always busy in the midst of miserable life, but they think themselves happy in all respects.
The human being is more passionate than the animals, and thus the sex life of the human being is more irregular. The animals have their due time for sexual intercourse, but the human being has no regular time for such activities. The human being is endowed with a higher, advanced stage of consciousness for getting relief from the existence of material miseries, but due to his ignorance he thinks that his higher consciousness is meant for advancing in the material comforts of life. Thus his intelligence is misused in the animal propensities--eating, sleeping, defending and mating--instead of spiritual realization. By advancing in material comforts the human being puts himself into a more miserable condition, but, illusioned by the material energy, he always thinks himself happy, even while in the midst of misery. Such misery of human life is distinct from the natural comfortable life enjoyed even by the animals.
vaikrtas traya evaite
deva-sargas ca sattama
vaikarikas tu yah proktah
vaikrtah--creations of Brahma; trayah--three kinds; eva--certainly; ete--all these; deva-sargah--appearance of the demigods; ca--also; sattama--O good Vidura; vaikarikah--creation of demigods by nature; tu--but; yah--which; proktah--described before; kaumarah--the four Kumaras; tu--but; ubhaya-atmakah--both ways (namely vaikrta and prakrta).
O good Vidura, these last three creations and the creation of demigods (the tenth creation) are vaikrta creations, which are different from the previously described prakrta (natural) creations. The appearance of the Kumaras is both.
vibudhah pitaro 'surah
sargas te visva-srk-krtah
deva-sargah--creation of the demigods; ca--also; asta-vidhah--eight kinds; vibudhah--the demigods; pitarah--the forefathers; asurah--the demons; gandharva--the expert artisans in the higher planets; apsarasah--the angels; siddhah--persons who are perfect in mystic powers; yaksa--the superprotectors; raksamsi--giants; caranah--the celestial singers; bhuta--jinn; preta--evil spirits; pisacah--attendant spirits; ca--also; vidyadhrah--the celestial denizens named Vidyadharas; kinnara--superhuman beings; adayah--and others; dasa ete--all these ten (creations); vidura--O Vidura; akhyatah--described; sargah--creations; te--unto you; visva-srk--the creator of the universe (Brahma); krtah--done by him.
The creation of the demigods is of eight varieties: (1) the demigods, (2) the forefathers, (3) the asuras, or demons, (4) the Gandharvas and Apsaras, or angels, (5) the Yaksas and Raksasas, (6) the Siddhas, Caranas and Vidyadharas, (7) the Bhutas, Pretas and Pisacas, and (8) the superhuman beings, celestial singers, etc. All are created by Brahma, the creator of the universe.
As explained in the Second Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Siddhas are inhabitants of Siddhaloka, where the residents travel in space without vehicles. At their mere will they can pass from one planet to another without difficulty. Therefore, in the upper planets the inhabitants are far superior to the inhabitants of this planet in all matters of art, culture and science, since they possess brains superior to those of human beings. The spirits and jinn mentioned in this connection are also counted among the demigods because they are able to perform uncommon functions not possible for men.
atah param pravaksyami
vamsan manvantarani ca
evam rajah-plutah srasta
kalpadisv atmabhur harih
atah--here; param--after; pravaksyami--I shall explain; vamsan--descendants; manvantarani--different advents of Manus; ca--and; evam--thus; rajah-plutah--infused with the mode of passion; srasta--the creator; kalpa-adisu--in different millenniums; atma-bhuh--self-advent; harih--the Personality of Godhead; srjati--creates; amogha--unfailing; sankalpah--determination; atma eva--He Himself; atmanam--Himself; atmana--by His own energy.
Now I shall describe the descendants of the Manus. The creator, Brahma, as the incarnation of the passion mode of the Personality of Godhead, creates the universal affairs with unfailing desires in every millennium by the force of the Lord's energy.
The cosmic manifestation is an expansion of one of the many energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the creator and the created are both emanations of the same Supreme Truth, as stated in the beginning of the Bhagavatam: janmady asya yatah.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Third Canto, Tenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Divisions of the Creation."