Canto 4: " The Creation of the Fourth Order"
Table of Contents
Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu
manos tu satarupayam
tisrah kanyas ca jajnire
akutir devahutis ca
prasutir iti visrutah
maitreyah uvaca--the great sage Maitreya said; manoh tu--of Svayambhuva Manu; satarupayam--in his wife Satarupa; tisrah--three; kanyah ca--daughters also; jajnire--gave birth; akutih--named Akuti; devahutih--named Devahuti; ca--also; prasutih--named Prasuti; iti--thus; visrutah--well known.
Sri Maitreya said: Svayambhuva Manu begot three daughters in his wife Satarupa, and their names were Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti.
First of all let us offer our respectful obeisances unto our spiritual master, Om Visnupada Sri Srimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada, by whose order I am engaged in this herculean task of writing commentary on the Srimad-Bhagavatam as the Bhaktivedanta purports. By his grace we have finished three cantos already, and we are just trying to begin the Fourth Canto. By his divine grace let us offer our respectful obeisances unto Lord Caitanya, who began this Krsna consciousness movement of Bhagavata-dharma five hundred years ago, and through His grace let us offer our obeisances to the six Gosvamis, and then let us offer our obeisances to Radha and Krsna, the spiritual couple who enjoy eternally in Vrndavana with Their cowherd boys and damsels in Vrajabhumi. Let us also offer our respectful obeisances to all the devotees and eternal servitors of the Supreme Lord.
In this Fourth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam there are thirty-one chapters, and all these chapters describe the secondary creation by Brahma and the Manus. The Supreme Lord Himself does the real creation by agitating His material energy, and then, by His order, Brahma-, the first living creature in the universe, attempts to create the different planetary systems and their inhabitants, expanding the population through his progeny, like Manu and other progenitors of living entities, who work perpetually under the order of the Supreme Lord. ln the First Chapter of this Fourth Canto there are descriptions of the three daughters of Svayambhuva Manu and their descendants. The next six chapters describe the sacrifice performed by King Daksa and how it was spoiled. Thereafter the activities of Maharaja Dhruva are described in five chapters. Then, in eleven chapters, the activities of King Prthu are described, and the next eight chapters are devoted to the activities of the Praceta kings.
As described in the first verse of this chapter, Svayambhuva Manu had three daughters, named Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti. Of these three daughters, one daughter, Devahuti, has already been described, along with her husband, Kardama Muni, and her son, Kapila Muni. In this chapter the descendants of the first daughter, Akuti, will specifically be described. Svayambhuva Manu was the son of Brahma. Brahma had many other sons, but Manu's name is specifically mentioned first because he was a great devotee of the Lord. In this verse there is also the word ca, indicating that besides the three daughters mentioned, Svayambhuva Manu also had two sons.
akutim rucaye pradad
api bhratrmatim nrpah
akutim--Akuti; rucaye--unto the great sage Ruci; pradat--handed over; api--although; bhratr-matim--daughter having a brother; nrpah--the King; putrika--get the resultant son; dharmam--religious rites; asritya--taking shelter; satarupa--by the wife of Svayambhuva Manu; anumoditah--being sanctioned.
Akuti had two brothers, but in spite of her brothers, King Svayambhuva Manu handed her over to Prajapati Ruci on the condition that the son born of her be returned to Manu as his son. This he did in consultation with his wife, Satarupa.
Sometimes a sonless person offers his daughter to a husband on the condition that his grandson be returned to him to be adopted as his son and inherit his property. This is called putrika-dharma, which means that by execution of religious rituals one gets a son, although one is sonless by one's own wife. But here we see extraordinary behavior in Manu, for in spite of his having two sons, he handed over his first daughter to Prajapati Ruci on the condition that the son born of his daughter be returned to him as his son. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments in this connection that King Manu knew that the Supreme Personality of Godhead would take birth in the womb of Akuti; therefore, in spite of having two sons, he wanted the particular son born of Akuti because he was ambitious to have the Supreme Personality of Godhead appear as his son and grandson. Manu is the lawgiver of mankind, and since he personally executed the putrika-dharma, we may accept that such a system may be adopted by mankind also. Thus, even though one has a son, if one wants to have a particular son from one's daughter, one may give one's daughter in charity on that condition. That is the opinion of Srila Jiva Gosvami.
prajapatih sa bhagavan
rucis tasyam ajijanat
prajapatih--one who is entrusted with begetting children; sah--he; bhagavan--the most opulent; rucih--the great sage Ruci; tasyam--in her; ajijanat--gave birth; mithunam--couple; brahma-varcasvi--spiritually very much powerful; paramena--with great strength; samadhina--in trance.
Ruci, who was very powerful in his brahminical qualifications and was appointed one of the progenitors of the living entities, begot one son and one daughter by his wife, Akuti.
The word brahma-varcasvi is very significant. Ruci was a brahmana, and he executed the brahminical duties very rigidly. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, the brahminical qualifications are control of the senses, control of the mind, cleanliness within and without, development of spiritual and material knowledge, simplicity, truthfulness, faith in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, etc. There are many qualities which indicate a brahminical personality, and it is understood that Ruci followed all the brahminical principles rigidly. Therefore he is specifically mentioned as brahma-varcasvi. One who is born of a brahmana father but does not act as a brahmana is called, in Vedic language, a brahma-bandhu, and is calculated to be on the level of sudras and women. Thus in the Bhagavatam we find that Mahabharata was specifically compiled by Vyasadeva for stri-sudra-brahma-bandhu. Stri means women, sudra means the lower class of civilized human society, and brahma-bandhu means persons who are born in the families of brahmanas but do not follow the rules and regulations carefully. All of these three classes are called less intelligent; they have no access to the study of the Vedas, which are specifically meant for persons who have acquired the brahminical qualifications. This restriction is based not upon any sectarian distinction but upon qualification. The Vedic literatures cannot be understood unless one has developed the brahminical qualifications. It is regrettable, therefore, that persons who have no brahminical qualifications and have never been trained under a bona fide spiritual master nevertheless comment on Vedic literatures like the Srimad-Bhagavatam and other puranas, for such persons cannot deliver their real message. Ruci was considered a first-class brahmana; therefore he is mentioned here as brahma-varcasvi, one who had full prowess in brahminical strength.
yas tayoh purusah saksad
ya stri sa daksina bhuter
yah--one who; tayoh--out of them; purusah--male; saksat--directly; visnuh--the Supreme Lord; yajna--Yajna; svarupa-dhrk--accepting the form; ya--the other; stri--female; sa--she; daksina--Daksina; bhuteh--of the goddess of fortune; amsa-bhuta--being a plenary expansion; anapayini--never to be separated.
Of the two children born of Akuti, the male child was directly an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His name was Yajna, which is another name of Lord Visnu. The female child was a partial incarnation of Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, the eternal consort of Lord Visnu.
Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, is the eternal consort of Lord Visnu. Here it is stated that both the Lord and Laksmi, who are eternal consorts, appeared from Akuti simultaneously. Both the Lord and His consort are beyond this material creation, as confirmed by many authorities (narayanah paro 'vyaktat); therefore their eternal relationship cannot be changed, and Yajna, the boy born of Akuti, later married the goddess of fortune.
aninye sva-grham putryah
svayambhuvo muda yukto
rucir jagraha daksinam
aninye--brought to; sva-grham--home; putryah--born of the daughter; putram--the son; vitata-rocisam--very powerful; svayambhuvah--the Manu named Svayambhuva; muda--being very pleased; yuktah--with; rucih--the great sage Ruci; jagraha--kept; daksinam--the daughter named Daksina.
Svayambhuva Manu very gladly brought home the beautiful boy named Yajna, and Ruci, his son-in-law, kept with him the daughter, Daksina.
Svayambhuva Manu was very glad to see that his daughter Akuti had given birth to both a boy and girl. He was afraid that he would take one son and that because of this his son-in-law Ruci might be sorry. Thus when he heard that a daughter was born along with the boy, he was very glad. Ruci, according to his promise, returned his male child to Svayambhuva Manu and decided to keep the daughter, whose name was Daksina. One of Lord Visnu's names is Yajna because He is the master of the Vedas. The name Yajna comes from yajusam patih, which means "Lord of all sacrifices." In the Yajur Veda there are different ritualistic prescriptions for performing yajnas, and the beneficiary of all such yajnas is the Supreme Lord, Visnu. Therefore it is stated in Bhagavad-gita (3.9), yajnarthat karmanah: one should act, but one should perform one's prescribed duties only for the sake of Yajna, or Visnu. lf one does not act for the satisfaction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or if one does not perform devotional service, then there will be reactions to all one's activities. It does not matter if the reaction is good or bad; if our activities are not dovetailed with the desire of the Supreme Lord, or if we do not act in Krsna consciousness, then we shall be responsible for the results of all our activities. There is always a reaction to every kind of action, but if actions are performed for Yajna, there is no reaction. Thus if one acts for Yajna, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one is not entangled in the material condition, for it is mentioned in the Vedas and also in Bhagavad-gita that the Vedas and the Vedic rituals are all meant for understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. From the very beginning one should try to act in Krsna consciousness; that will free one from the reactions of material activities.
tam kamayanam bhagavan
uvaha yajusam patih
tustayam tosam apanno
tam--her; kamayanam--desiring; bhagavan--the Lord; uvaha--married; yajusam--of all sacrifices; patih--master; tustayam--in His wife, who was very much pleased; tosam--great pleasure; apannah--having obtained; ajanayat--gave birth; dvadasa--twelve; atmajan--sons.
The Lord of the ritualistic performance of yajna later married Daksina, who was anxious to have the Personality of Godhead as her husband, and in this wife the Lord was also very much pleased to beget twelve children.
An ideal husband and wife are generally called Laksmi-Narayana to compare them to the Lord and the goddess of fortune, for it is significant that Laksmi-Narayana are forever happy as husband and wife. A wife should always remain satisfied with her husband, and a husband should always remain satisfied with his wife. In the Canakya-sloka, the moral instructions of Canakya Pandita, it is said that if a husband and wife are always satisfied with one another, then the goddess of fortune automatically comes. In other words, where there is no disagreement between husband and wife, all material opulence is present, and good children are born. Generally, according to Vedic civilization, the wife is trained to be satisfied in all conditions, and the husband, according to Vedic instruction, is required to please the wife with sufficient food, ornaments and clothing. Then, if they are satisfied with their mutual dealings, good children are born. In this way the entire world can become peaceful, but unfortunately in this age of Kali there are no ideal husbands and wives; therefore unwanted children are produced, and there is no peace and prosperity in the present-day world.
tosah pratosah santoso
bhadrah santir idaspatih
idhmah kavir vibhuh svahnah
sudevo rocano dvi-sat
tosah--Tosa; pratosah--Pratosa; santosah--Santosa; bhadrah--Bhadra; santih--Santi; idaspatih--Idaspati; idhmah--Idhma; kavih--Kavi; vibhuh--Vibhu; svahnah--Svahna; sudevah--Sudeva; rocanah--Rocana; dvi-sat--twelve.
The twelve boys born of Yajna and Daksina were named Tosa, Pratosa, Santosa, Bhadra, Santi, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Svahna, Sudeva and Rocana.
tusita nama te deva
tusitah--the category of the Tusitas; nama--of the name; te--all of them; devah--demigods; asan--became; svayambhuva--the name of the Manu; antare--at that period; marici-misrah--headed by Marici; rsayah--great sages; yajnah--the incarnation of Lord Visnu; sura-gana-isvarah--the king of the demigods.
During the time of Svayambhuva Manu, these sons all became the demigods collectively named the Tusitas. Marici became the head of the seven rsis, and Yajna became the king of the demigods, Indra.
During the life of Svayambhuva Manu, six kinds of living entities were generated from the demigods known as the Tusitas, from the sages headed by Marici, and from descendants of Yajna, king of the demigods, and all of them expanded their progeny to observe the order of the Lord to fill the universe with living entities. These six kinds of living entities are known as manus, devas, manu-putras, amsavataras, suresvaras and rsis. Yajna, being the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, became the leader of the demigods, Indra.
priyavrata--Priyavrata; uttanapadau--Uttanapada; manu-putrau--sons of Manu; maha-ojasau--very great, powerful; tat--their; putra--sons; pautra--grandsons; naptrnam--grandsons from the daughter; anuvrttam--following; tat-antaram--in that Manu's period.
Svayambhuva Manu's two sons, Priyavrata and Uttanapada, became very powerful kings, and their sons and grandsons spread all over the three worlds during that period.
devahutim adat tata
bhavata gadato mama
devahutim--Devahuti; adat--handed over; tata--my dear son; kardamaya--unto the great sage Kardama; atmajam--daughter; manuh--Lord Svayambhuva Manu; tat-sambandhi--in that connection; sruta-prayam--heard almost in full; bhavata--by you; gadatah--spoken; mama--by me.
My dear son, Svayambhuva Manu handed over his very dear daughter Devahuti to Kardama Muni. I have already spoken to you about them, and you have heard about them almost in full.
prasutim bhagavan manuh
prayacchad yat-krtah sargas
tri-lokyam vitato mahan
daksaya--unto Prajapati Daksa; brahma-putraya--the son of Lord Brahma; prasutim--Prasuti; bhagavan--the great personality; manuh--Svayambhuva Manu; prayacchat--handed over; yat-krtah--done by whom; sargah--creation; tri-lokyam--in the three worlds; vitatah--expanded; mahan--greatly.
Svayambhuva Manu handed over his daughter Prasuti to the son of Brahma named Daksa, who was also one of the progenitors of the living entities. The descendants of Daksa are spread throughout the three worlds.
yah kardama-sutah prokta
procyamanam nibodha me
yah--those who; kardama-sutah--the daughters of Kardama; proktah--were mentioned; nava--nine; brahma-rsi--great sages of spiritual knowledge; patnayah--wives; tasam--their; prasuti-prasavam--generations of sons and grandsons; procyamanam--describing; nibodha--try to understand; me--from me.
You have already been informed about the nine daughters of Kardama Muni, who were handed over to nine different sages. I shall now describe the descendants of those nine daughters. Please hear from me.
The Third Canto has already described how Kardama Muni begot nine daughters in Devahuti and how all the daughters were later handed over to great sages like Marici, Atri and Vasistha.
patni marices tu kala
kasyapam purnimanam ca
yayor apuritam jagat
patni--wife; mariceh--of the sage named Marici; tu--also; kala--named Kala; susuve--gave birth; kardama-atmaja--daughter of Kardama Muni; kasyapam--of the name Kasyapa; purnimanam ca--and of the name Purnima; yayoh--by whom; apuritam--spread all over; jagat--the world.
Kardama Muni's daughter Kala, who was married to Marici, gave birth to two children, whose names were Kasyapa and Purnima. Their descendants are spread all over the world.
visvagam ca parantapa
devakulyam hareh pada-
saucad yabhut sarid divah
purnima--Purnima; asuta--begot; virajam--a son named Viraja; visvagam ca--and named Visvaga; param-tapa--O annihilator of enemies; devakulyam--a daughter named Devakulya; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pada-saucat--by the water which washed His lotus feet; ya--she; abhut--became; sarit divah--the transcendental water within the banks of the Ganges.
My dear Vidura, of the two sons, Kasyapa and Purnima, Purnima begot three children, namely Viraja, Visvaga and Devakulya. Of these three, Devakulya was the water which washed the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead and which later on transformed into the Ganges of the heavenly planets.
Of the two sons Kasyapa and Purnima, herein Purnima's descendants are described. An elaborate description of these descendants will be given in the Sixth Canto. lt is also understood herein that Devakulya is the presiding deity of the River Ganges, which comes down from the heavenly planets to this planet and is accepted to be sanctified because it touched the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari.
atreh patny anasuya trin
jajne suyasasah sutan
dattam durvasasam somam
atreh--of Atri Muni; patni--wife; anasuya--named Anasuya; trin--three; jajne--bore; su-yasasah--very famous; sutan--sons; dattam--Dattatreya; durvasasam--Durvasa; somam--Soma (the moon-god); atma--the Supersoul; isa--Lord Siva; brahma--Lord Brahma; sambhavan--incarnations of.
Anasuya, the wife of Atri Muni, gave birth to three very famous sons--Soma, Dattatreya and Durvasa--who were partial representations of Lord Visnu, Lord Siva and Lord Brahma. Soma was a partial representation of Lord Brahma, Dattatreya was a partial representation of Lord Visnu, and Durvasa was a partial representation of Lord Siva.
In this verse we find the words atma-isa-brahma-sambhavan. Atma means the Supersoul, or Visnu, isa means Lord Siva, and brahma means the four-headed Lord Brahma. The three sons born of Anasuya--Dattatreya, Durvasa and Soma--were born as partial representations of these three demigods. Atma is not in the category of the demigods or living entities because He is Visnu; therefore He is described as vibhinnamsa-bhutanam. The Supersoul, Visnu, is the seed-giving father of all living entities, including Brahma and Lord Siva. Another meaning of the word atma may be accepted in this way: the principle who is the Supersoul in every atma, or, one may say, the soul of everyone, became manifested as Dattatreya, because the word amsa, part and parcel, is used here.
In Bhagavad-gita the individual souls are also described as parts of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or Supersoul, so why not accept that Dattatreya was one of those parts? Lord Siva and Lord Brahma are also described here as parts, so why not accept all of them as ordinary individual souls? The answer is that the manifestations of Visnu and those of the ordinary living entities are certainly all parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, and no one is equal to Him, but among the parts and parcels there are different categories. In the Varaha purana it is nicely explained that some of the parts are svamsa and some are vibhinnamsa. Vibhinnamsa parts are called jivas, and svamsa parts are in the Visnu category. In the jiva category, the vibhinnamsa parts and parcels, there are also gradations. That is explained in the Visnu purana, where it is clearly stated that the individual parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord are subject to being covered by the external energy, called illusion, or maya. Such individual parts and parcels, who can travel to any part of the Lord's creation, are called sarva-gata and are suffering the pangs of material existence. They are proportionately freed from the coverings of ignorance under material existence according to different levels of work and under different influences of the modes of material nature. For example, the sufferings of jivas situated in the mode of goodness are less than those of jivas situated in the mode of ignorance. Pure Krsna consciousness, however, is the birthright of all living entities because every living entity is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. The consciousness of the Lord is also in the part and parcel, and according to the proportion to which that consciousness is cleared of material dirt, the living entities are differently situated. ln the Vedanta-sutra, the living entities of different gradations are compared to candles or lamps with different candle power. For example, some electric bulbs have the power of one thousand candles, some have the power of five hundred candles, some the power of one hundred candles, some fifty candles, etc., but all electric bulbs have light. Light is present in every bulb, but the gradations of light are different. Similarly, there are gradations of Brahman. The Visnu svamsa expansions of the Supreme Lord in different Visnu forms are like lamps, Lord Siva is also like a lamp, and the supreme candle power, or the one-hundred-percent light, is Krsna. The visnu-tattva has ninety-four percent, the siva-tattva has eighty-four percent, Lord Brahma has seventy-eight percent, and the living entities are also like Brahma, but in the conditioned state their power is still more dim. There are gradations of Brahman, and no one can deny this fact. Therefore the words atmesa-brahma-sambhavan indicate that Dattatreya was directly part and parcel of Visnu, whereas Durvasa and Soma were parts and parcels of Lord Siva and Lord Brahma.
atrer grhe sura-sresthah
kincic cikirsavo jata
etad akhyahi me guro
vidurah uvaca--Sri Vidura said; atreh grhe--in the house of Atri; sura-sresthah--chief demigods; sthiti--maintenance; utpatti--creation; anta--destruction; hetavah--causes; kincit--something; cikirsavah--desiring to do; jatah--appeared; etat--this; akhyahi--tell; me--to me; guro--my dear spiritual master.
After hearing this, Vidura inquired from Maitreya: My dear master, how is it that the three deities Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who are the creator, maintainer and destroyer of the whole creation, became the offspring of the wife of Atri Muni?
The inquisitiveness of Vidura was quite fitting, for he understood that when the Supersoul, Lord Brahma and Lord Siva all appeared through the person of Anasuya, the wife of Atri Muni, there must have been some great purpose. Otherwise why should they have appeared in such a way?
brahmana coditah srstav
atrir brahma-vidam varah
saha patnya yayav rksam
kuladrim tapasi sthitah
maitreyah uvaca--Sri Maitreya Rsi said; brahmana--by Lord Brahma; coditah--being inspired; srstau--for creation; atrih--Atri; brahma-vidam--of the persons learned in spiritual knowledge; varah--the chief; saha--with; patnya--wife; yayau--went; rksam--to the mountain named Rksa; kula-adrim--great mountain; tapasi--for austerities; sthitah--remained.
Maitreya said: When Lord Brahma ordered Atri Muni to create generations after marrying Anasuya, Atri Muni and his wife went to perform severe austerities in the valley of the mountain known as Rksa.
varbhih sravadbhir udghuste
tasmin--in that; prasuna-stabaka--bunches of flowers; palasa--palasa trees; asoka--asoka trees; kanane--in the forest garden; varbhih--by the waters; sravadbhih--flowing; udghuste--in sound; nirvindhyayah--of the River Nirvindhya; samantatah--everywhere.
In that mountain valley flows a river named Nirvindhya. On the bank of the river are many asoka trees and other plants full of palasa flowers, and there is always the sweet sound of water flowing from a waterfall. The husband and wife reached that beautiful place.
mano varsa-satam munih
pranayamena--by practice of the breathing exercise; samyamya--controlling; manah--mind; varsa-satam--one hundred years; munih--the great sage; atisthat--remained there; eka-padena--standing on one leg; nirdvandvah--without duality; anila--air; bhojanah--eating.
There the great sage concentrated his mind by the yogic breathing exercises, and thereby controlling all attachment, he remained standing on one leg only, eating nothing but air, and stood there on one leg for one hundred years.
saranam tam prapadye 'ham
ya eva jagad-isvarah
prajam atma-samam mahyam
prayacchatv iti cintayan
saranam--taking shelter; tam--unto Him; prapadye--surrender; aham--I; yah--one who; eva--certainly; jagat-isvarah--master of the universe; prajam--son; atma-samam--like Himself; mahyam--unto me; prayacchatu--let Him give; iti--thus; cintayan--thinking.
He was thinking: May the Lord of the universe, of whom I have taken shelter, kindly he pleased to offer me a son exactly like Him.
It appears that the great sage Atri Muni had no specific idea of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Of course, he must have been conversant with the Vedic information that there is a Supreme Personality of Godhead who is the creator of the universe, from whom everything emanated, who maintains this created manifestation, and in whom the entire manifestation is conserved after dissolution. Yato va imani bhutani (Taittiriya Upanisad 3.1.1). The Vedic mantras give us information of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, so Atri Muni concentrated his mind upon that Supreme Personality of Godhead, even without knowing His name, just to beg from Him a child exactly on His level. This kind of devotional service, in which knowledge of God's name is lacking, is also described in Bhagavad-gita where the Lord says that four kinds of men with backgrounds of pious activities come to Him asking for what they need. Atri Muni wanted a son exactly like the Lord, and therefore he is not supposed to have been a pure devotee, because he had a desire to be fulfilled, and that desire was material. Although he wanted a son exactly like the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this desire was material because he did not want the Personality of Godhead Himself, but only a child exactly like Him. If he had desired the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his child, he would have been completely free of material desires because he would have wanted the Supreme Absolute Truth, but because he wanted a similar child, his desire was material. Thus Atri Muni cannot be counted among the pure devotees.
nirgatena muner murdhnah
samiksya prabhavas trayah
tapyamanam--while practicing austerities; tri-bhuvanam--the three worlds; pranayama--practice by breathing exercise; edhasa--fuel; agnina--by the fire; nirgatena--issuing out; muneh--of the great sage; murdhnah--the top of the head; samiksya--looking over; prabhavah trayah--the three great gods (Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara).
While Atri Muni was engaged in these severe austerities, a blazing fire came out of his head by virtue of his breathing exercise, and that fire was seen by the three principal deities of the three worlds.
According to Srila Jiva Gosvami, the fire of pranayama is mental satisfaction. That fire was perceived by the Supersoul, Visnu, and thereby Lord Brahma and Siva also perceived it. Atri Muni, by his breathing exercise, concentrated on the Supersoul, or the Lord of the universe. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita, the Lord of the universe is Vasudeva (vasudevah sarvam iti), and, by the direction of Vasudeva, Lord Brahma and Lord Siva work. Therefore, on the direction of Vasudeva, both Lord Brahma and Lord Siva perceived the severe penance adopted by Atri Muni, and thus they were pleased to come down, as stated in the next verse.
apsarah--heavenly society women; muni--great sages; gandharva--inhabitants of the Gandharva planet; siddha--of Siddhaloka; vidyadhara--other demigods; uragaih--the inhabitants of Nagaloka; vitayamana--being spread; yasasah--fame, reputation; tat--his; asrama-padam--hermitage; yayuh--went.
At that time, the three deities approached the hermitage of Atri Muni, accompanied by the denizens of the heavenly planets, such as the celestial beauties, the Gandharvas, the Siddhas, the Vidyadharas and the Nagas. Thus they entered the asrama of the great sage, who had become famous by his austerities.
It is advised in the Vedic literatures that one should take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the Lord of the universe and the master of creation, maintenance and dissolution. He is known as the Supersoul, and when one worships the Supersoul, all other deities, such as Brahma and Siva, appear with Lord Visnu because they are directed by the Supersoul.
tat--their; pradurbhava--appearance; samyoga--simultaneously; vidyotita--enlightened; manah--in the mind; munih--the great sage; uttisthan--being awakened; eka-padena--even on one leg; dadarsa--saw; vibudha--demigods; rsabhan--the great personalities.
The sage was standing on one leg, but as soon as he saw that the three deities had appeared before him, he was so pleased to see them all together that despite great difficulty he approached them on one leg.
pranamya dandavad bhumav
svaih svais cihnais ca cihnitan
pranamya--offering obeisances; danda-vat--like a rod; bhumau--ground; upatasthe--fell down; arhana--all paraphernalia for worship; anjalih--folded hands; vrsa--bull; hamsa--swan; suparna--the Garuda bird; sthan--situated; svaih--own; svaih--own; cihnaih--by symbols; ca--and; cihnitan--being recognized.
Thereafter he began to offer prayers to the three deities, who were seated on different carriers--a bull, a swan and Garuda--and who held in their hands a drum, kusa grass and a discus. The sage offered them his respects by falling down like a stick.
Danda means "a long rod," and vat means "like." Before a superior, one has to fall down on the ground just like a stick, and this sort of offering of respect is called dandavat. Atri Rsi offered his respect to the three deities in that way. They were identified by their different carriers and different symbolic representations. In that connection it is stated here that Lord Visnu was sitting on Garuda, a big aquiline bird, and was carrying in His hand a disc, Brahma was sitting on a swan and had in his hand kusa grass, and Lord Siva was sitting on a bull and carrying in his hand a small drum called a damaru. Atri Rsi recognized them by their symbolic representations and different carriers, and thus he offered them prayers and respects.
nimilya munir aksini
krpa-avalokena--glancing with mercy; hasat--smiling; vadanena--with faces; upalambhitan--appearing very much satisfied; tat--their; rocisa--by the glaring effulgence; pratihate--being dazzled; nimilya--closing; munih--the sage; aksini--his eyes.
Atri Muni was greatly pleased to see that the three devas were gracious towards him. His eyes were dazzled by the effulgence of their bodies, and therefore he closed his eyes for the time being.
Since the deities were smiling, he could understand that they were pleased with him. Their glaring bodily effulgence was intolerable to his eyes, so he closed them for the time being.
cetas tat-pravanam yunjann
slaksnaya suktaya vaca
maya-gunair anuyugam vigrhita-dehah
te brahma-visnu-girisah pranato 'smy aham vas
tebhyah ka eva bhavatam ma ihopahutah
cetah--heart; tat-pravanam--fixing on them; yunjan--making; astavit--offered prayers; samhata-anjalih--with folded hands; slaksnaya--ecstatic; suktaya--prayers; vaca--words; sarva-loka--all over the world; gariyasah--honorable; atrih uvaca--Atri said; visva--the universe; udbhava--creation; sthiti--maintenance; layesu--in destruction; vibhajyamanaih--being divided; maya-gunaih--by the external modes of nature; anuyugam--according to different millenniums; vigrhita--accepted; dehah--bodies; te--they; brahma--Lord Brahma; visnu--Lord Visnu; girisah--Lord Siva; pranatah--bowed; asmi--am; aham--I; vah--unto you; tebhyah--from them; kah--who; eva--certainly; bhavatam--of you; me--by me; iha--here; upahutah--called for.
But since his heart was already attracted by the deities, somehow or other he gathered his senses, and with folded hands and sweet words he began to offer prayers to the predominating deities of the universe. The great sage Atri said: O Lord Brahma, Lord Visnu and Lord Siva, you have divided yourself into three bodies by accepting the three modes of material nature, as you do in every millennium for the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation. I offer my respectful obeisances unto all of you and beg to inquire whom of you three I have called by my prayer.
Atri Rsi called for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, jagad-isvara, the Lord of the universe. The Lord must exist before the creation, otherwise how could He be its Lord? If someone constructs a big building, this indicates that he must have existed before the building was constructed. Therefore the Supreme Lord, the creator of the universe, must be transcendental to the material modes of nature. But it is known that Visnu takes charge of the mode of goodness, Brahma takes charge of the mode of passion, and Lord Siva takes charge of the mode of ignorance. Therefore Atri Muni said, "That jagad-isvara, the Lord of the universe, must be one of you, but since three of you have appeared, I cannot recognize whom I have called. You are all so kind. Please let me know who is actually jagad-isvara, the Lord of the universe." In fact, Atri Rsi was doubtful about the constitutional position of the Supreme Lord, Visnu, but he was quite certain that the Lord of the universe cannot be one of the creatures created by maya. His very inquiry about whom he had called indicates that he was in doubt about the constitutional position of the Lord. Therefore he prayed to all three, "Kindly let me know who is the transcendental Lord of the universe." He was certain, of course, that not all of them could he the Lord, but the Lord of the universe was one of the three.
eko mayeha bhagavan vividha-pradhanais
citti-krtah prajananaya katham nu yuyam
atragatas tanu-bhrtam manaso 'pi durad
bruta prasidata mahan iha vismayo me
ekah--one; maya--by me; iha--here; bhagavan--great personality; vividha--various; pradhanaih--by paraphernalia; citti-krtah--fixed in mind; prajananaya--for begetting a child; katham--why; nu--however; yuyam--all of you; atra--here; agatah--appeared; tanu-bhrtam--of the embodied; manasah--the minds; api--although; durat--from far beyond; bruta--kindly explain; prasidata--being merciful to me; mahan--very great; iha--this; vismayah--doubt; me--of mine.
I called for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, desiring a son like Him, and I thought of Him only. But although He is far beyond the mental speculation of man, all three of you have come here. Kindly let me know how you have come, for I am greatly bewildered about this.
Atri Muni was confidently aware that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Lord of the universe, so he prayed for the one Supreme Lord. He was surprised, therefore, that three of them appeared.
iti tasya vacah srutva
trayas te vibudharsabhah
pratyahuh slaksnaya vaca
prahasya tam rsim prabho
maitreyah uvaca--the sage Maitreya said; iti--thus; tasya--his; vacah--words; srutva--after hearing; trayah te--all three; vibudha--demigods; rsabhah--chiefs; pratyahuh--replied; slaksnaya--gentle; vaca--voices; prahasya--smiling; tam--unto him; rsim--the great sage; prabho--O mighty one.
The great sage Maitreya continued: Upon hearing Atri Muni speak in that way, the three great deities smiled, and they replied in the following sweet words.
yatha krtas te sankalpo
bhavyam tenaiva nanyatha
sat-sankalpasya te brahman
yad vai dhyayati te vayam
devah ucuh--the demigods replied; yatha--as; krtah--done; te--by you; sankalpah--determination; bhavyam--to be done; tena eva--by that; na anyatha--not otherwise; sat-sankalpasya--one whose determination is never lost; te--of you; brahman--O dear brahmana; yat--that which; vai--certainly; dhyayati--meditating; te--all of them; vayam--we are.
The three deities told Atri Muni: Dear brahmana, you are perfect in your determination, and therefore as you have decided, so it will happen; it will not happen otherwise. We are all the same person upon whom you were meditating, and therefore we have all come to you.
Atri Muni unspecifically thought of the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of the universe, although he had no clear idea of the Lord of the universe nor of His specific form. Maha-Visnu, from whose breathing millions of universes emanate and into whom they are again withdrawn, may be accepted as the Lord of the universe. Garbhodakasayi Visnu, from whose abdomen sprouted the lotus flower which is the birthplace of Brahma, may also be considered the Lord of the universe. Similarly, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who is the Supersoul of all living entities, may also be considered the Lord of the universe. Then, under the order of Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the Visnu form within this universe, Lord Brahma and Lord Siva may also be accepted as the Lords of the universe.
Visnu is the Lord of the universe because He is its maintainer. Similarly, Brahma creates the different planetary systems and the population, so he also may be considered the Lord of the universe. Or Lord Siva, who is ultimately the destroyer of the universe, also may be considered its Lord. Therefore, since Atri Muni did not specifically mention whom he wanted, all three--Brahma, Visnu and Lord Siva--came before him. They said, "Since you were thinking of having a son exactly like the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Lord of the universe, your determination will be fulfilled." In other words, one's determination is fulfilled according to the strength of one's devotion. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (9.25): yanti deva-vrata devan pitrn yanti pitr-vratah. If one is attached to a particular demigod, one is promoted to the abode of that demigod; if one is attached to the Pitas, or forefathers, one is promoted to their planet; and similarly if one is attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, one is promoted to the abode of Lord Krsna. Atri Muni had no clear conception of the Lord of the universe; therefore the three presiding deities who are actually the lords of the universe in the three departments of the modes of nature all came before him. Now, according to the strength of his determination for a son, his desire would be fulfilled by the grace of the Lord.
bhavitaro 'nga bhadram te
visrapsyanti ca te yasah
atha--therefore; asmat--our; amsa-bhutah--plenary expansions; te--your; atmajah--sons; loka-visrutah--very famous in the world; bhavitarah--in the future will be born; anga--dear great sage; bhadram--all good fortune; te--unto you; visrapsyanti--will spread; ca--also; te--your; yasah--reputation.
You will have sons who will represent a partial manifestation of our potency, and because we desire all good fortune for you, those sons will glorify your reputation throughout the world.
evam kama-varam dattva
sabhajitas tayoh samyag
dampatyor misatos tatah
evam--thus; kama-varam--desired benediction; dattva--offering; pratijagmuh--returned; sura-isvarah--the chief demigods; sabhajitah--being worshiped; tayoh--while they; samyak--perfectly; dampatyoh--the husband and wife; misatoh--were looking on; tatah--from there.
Thus, while the couple looked on, the three deities Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara disappeared from that place after bestowing upon Atri Muni the benediction.
somo 'bhud brahmano 'msena
datto visnos tu yogavit
somah--the king of the moon planet; abhut--appeared; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; amsena--partial expansion; dattah--Dattatreya; visnoh--of Visnu; tu--but; yoga-vit--very powerful yogi; durvasah--Durvasa; sankarasya amsah--partial expansion of Lord Siva; nibodha--just try to understand; angirasah--of the great sage Angira; prajah--generations.
Thereafter, from the partial representation of Brahma, the moon-god was born of them; from the partial representation of Visnu, the great mystic Dattatreya was born; and from the partial representation of Sankara [Lord Siva], Durvasa was born. Now you may hear from me of the many sons of Angira.
sraddha tv angirasah patni
catasro 'suta kanyakah
sinivali kuhu raka
caturthy anumatis tatha
sraddha--Sraddha; tu--but; angirasah--of Angira Rsi; patni--wife; catasrah--four; asuta--gave birth; kanyakah--daughters; sinivali--Sinivali; kuhuh--Kuhu; raka--Raka; caturthi--the fourth one; anumatih--Anumati; tatha--also.
Angira's wife, Sraddha, gave birth to four daughters, named Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati.
tat-putrav aparav astam
khyatau svarocise 'ntare
utathyo bhagavan saksad
brahmisthas ca brhaspatih
tat--his; putrau--sons; aparau--others; astam--were born; khyatau--very famous; svarocise--in the Svarocisa millennium; antare--of the Manu; utathyah--Utathya; bhagavan--very mighty; saksat--directly; brahmisthah ca--fully spiritually advanced; brhaspatih--Brhaspati.
Besides these four daughters, she also had another two sons. One of them was known as Utathya, and the other was the learned scholar Brhaspati.
pulastyo 'janayat patnyam
agastyam ca havirbhuvi
so 'nya-janmani dahragnir
visravas ca maha-tapah
pulastyah--the sage Pulastya; ajanayat--begot; patnyam--in his wife; agastyam--the great sage Agastya; ca--also; havirbhuvi--in Havirbhu; sah--he (Agastya); anya-janmani--in the next birth; dahra-agnih--the digesting fire; visravah--Visrava; ca--and; maha-tapah--greatly powerful because of austerity.
Pulastya begot in his wife, Havirbhu, one son of the name Agastya, who in his next birth became Dahragni. Besides him, Pulastya begot another very great and saintly son, whose name was Visrava.
tasya yaksa-patir devah
kuberas tv idavida-sutah
ravanah kumbhakarnas ca
tasya--his; yaksa-patih--the king of the Yaksas; devah--demigod; kuberah--Kuvera; tu--and; idavida--of Idavida; sutah--son; ravanah--Ravana; kumbhakarnah--Kumbhakarna; ca--also; tatha--so; anyasyam--in the other; vibhisanah--Vibhisana.
Visrava had two wives. The first wife was Idavida, from whom Kuvera, the master of all Yaksas, was born, and the next wife was named Kesini, from whom three sons were born--Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana.
pulahasya gatir bharya
trin asuta sati sutan
sahisnum ca maha-mate
pulahasya--of Pulaha; gatih--Gati; bharya--wife; trin--three; asuta--gave birth; sati--chaste; sutan--sons; karma-srestham--very expert in fruitive activities; variyamsam--very respectable; sahisnum--very tolerant; ca--also; maha-mate--O great Vidura.
Gati, the wife of the sage Pulaha, gave birth to three sons, named Karmasrestha, Variyan and Sahisnu, and all of them were great sages.
Gati, the wife of Pulaha, was the fifth daughter of Kardama Muni. She was very faithful to her husband, and all her sons were as good as he.
krator api kriya bharya
kratoh--of the great sage Kratu; api--also; kriya--Kriya; bharya--wife; valakhilyan--just like Valakhilya; asuyata--begot; rsin--sages; sasti--sixty; sahasrani--thousand; jvalatah--very brilliant; brahma-tejasa--by dint of the Brahman effulgence.
Kratu's wife, Kriya, gave birth to sixty thousand great sages, named the Valakhilyas. All these sages were greatly advanced in spiritual knowledge, and their bodies were illuminated by such knowledge.
Kriya was the sixth daughter of Kardama Muni, and she produced sixty thousand sages, who were known as the Valakhilyas because they all retired from family life as vanaprasthas.
urjayam jajnire putra
sapta brahmarsayo 'malah
urjayam--in Urja; jajnire--took birth; putrah--sons; vasisthasya--of the great sage Vasistha; parantapa--O great one; citraketu--Citraketu; pradhanah--headed by; te--all the sons; sapta--seven; brahma-rsayah--great sages with spiritual knowledge; amalah--without contamination.
The great sage Vasistha begot in his wife, Urja, sometimes called Arundhati, seven spotlessly great sages, headed by the sage named Citraketu.
citraketuh surocis ca
viraja mitra eva ca
dyuman sakty-adayo 'pare
citraketuh--Citraketu; surocih ca--and Suroci; virajah--Viraja; mitrah--Mitra; eva--also; ca--and; ulbanah--Ulbana; vasubhrdyanah--Vasubhrdyana; dyuman--Dyuman; sakti-adayah--sons headed by Sakti; apare--from his other wife.
The names of these seven sages are as follows: Citraketu, Suroci, Viraja, Mitra, Ulbana, Vasubhrdyana and Dyuman. Some other very competent sons were born from Vasistha's other wife.
Urja, who is sometimes known as Arundhati and was the wife of Vasistha, was the ninth daughter of Kardama Muni.
cittis tv atharvanah patni
lebhe putram dhrta-vratam
bhrgor vamsam nibodha me
cittih--Citti; tu--also; atharvanah--of Atharva; patni--wife; lebhe--got; putram--son; dhrta-vratam--completely dedicated to a vow; dadhyancam--Dadhyanca; asvasirasam--Asvasira; bhrgoh vamsam--generations of Bhrgu; nibodha--try to understand; me--from me.
Citti, wife of the sage Atharva, gave birth to a son named Asvasira by accepting a great vow called Dadhyanca. Now you may hear from me about the descendants of the sage Bhrgu.
The wife of Atharva known as Citti is also known as Santi. She was the eighth daughter of Kardama Muni.
bhrguh khyatyam maha-bhagah
patnyam putran ajijanat
dhataram ca vidhataram
sriyam ca bhagavat-param
bhrguh--the great sage Bhrgu; khyatyam--in his wife, Khyati; maha-bhagah--greatly fortunate; patnyam--unto the wife; putran--sons; ajijanat--gave birth; dhataram--Dhata; ca--also; vidhataram--Vidhata; sriyam--a daughter named Sri; ca bhagavat-param--and a great devotee of the Lord.
The sage Bhrgu was highly fortunate. In his wife, known as Khyati, he begot two sons, named Dhata and Vidhata, and one daughter, named Sri, who was very much devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ayatim niyatim caiva
sute merus tayor adat
tabhyam tayor abhavatam
mrkandah prana eva ca
ayatim--Ayati; niyatim--Niyati; ca eva--also; sute--daughters; meruh--the sage Meru; tayoh--unto those two; adat--gave in marriage; tabhyam--out of them; tayoh--both of them; abhavatam--appeared; mrkandah--Mrkanda; pranah--Prana; eva--certainly; ca--and.
The sage Meru had two daughters, named Ayati and Niyati, whom he gave in charity to Dhata and Vidhata. Ayati and Niyati gave birth to two sons, Mrkanda and Prana.
pranad vedasira munih
kavis ca bhargavo yasya
bhagavan usana sutah
markandeyah--Markandeya; mrkandasya--of Mrkanda; pranat--from Prana; vedasirah--Vedasira; munih--great sage; kavih ca--of the name Kavi; bhargavah--of the name Bhargava; yasya--whose; bhagavan--greatly powerful; usana--Sukracarya; sutah--son.
From Mrkanda, Markandeya Muni was born, and from Prana the sage Vedasira, whose son was Usana [Sukracarya], also known as Kavi. Thus Kavi also belonged to the descendants of the Bhrgu dynasty.
ta ete munayah ksattar
lokan sargair abhavayan
santanah kathitas tava
sadyah papa-harah parah
prasutim manavim daksa
upayeme hy ajatmajah
te--they; ete--all; munayah--great sages; ksattah--O Vidura; lokan--the three worlds; sargaih--with their descendants; abhavayan--filled; esah--this; kardama--of the sage Kardama; dauhitra--grandsons; santanah--offspring; kathitah--already spoken; tava--unto you; srnvatah--hearing; sraddadhanasya--of the faithful; sadyah--immediately; papa-harah--reducing all sinful activities; parah--great; prasutim--Prasuti; manavim--daughter of Manu; daksah--King Daksa; upayeme--married; hi--certainly; aja-atmajah--son of Brahma.
My dear Vidura, the population of the universe was thus increased by the descendants of these sages and the daughters of Kardama. Anyone who hears the descriptions of this dynasty with faith will be relieved from all sinful reactions. Another of Manu's daughters, known as Prasuti, married the son of Brahma named Daksa.
tasyam sasarja duhitrh
tathaikam agnaye vibhuh
tasyam--unto her; sasarja--created; duhitrh--daughters; sodasa--sixteen; amala-locanah--with lotuslike eyes; trayodasa--thirteen; adat--gave; dharmaya--to Dharma; tatha--so; ekam--one daughter; agnaye--to Agni; vibhuh--Daksa.
Daksa begot sixteen very beautiful daughters with lotuslike eyes in his wife Prasuti. Of these sixteen daughters, thirteen were given in marriage to Dharma, and one daughter was given to Agni.
pitrbhya ekam yuktebhyo
sraddha maitri daya santis
tustih pustih kriyonnatih
buddhir medha titiksa hrir
murtir dharmasya patnayah
sraddhasuta subham maitri
prasadam abhayam daya
santih sukham mudam tustih
smayam pustir asuyata
yogam kriyonnatir darpam
artham buddhir asuyata
medha smrtim titiksa tu
ksemam hrih prasrayam sutam
pitrbhyah--to the Pitas; ekam--one daughter; yuktebhyah--the assembled; bhavaya--to Lord Siva; ekam--one daughter; bhava-chide--who delivers from the material entanglement; sraddha, maitri, daya, santih, tustih, pustih, kriya, unnatih, buddhih, medha, titiksa, hrih, murtih--names of thirteen daughters of Daksa; dharmasya--of Dharma; patnayah--the wives; sraddha--Sraddha; asuta--gave birth to; subham--Subha; maitri--Maitri; prasadam--Prasada; abhayam--Abhaya; daya--Daya; santih--Santi; sukham--Sukha; mudam--Muda; tustih--Tusti; smayam--Smaya; pustih--Pusti; asuyata--gave birth to; yogam--Yoga; kriya--Kriya; unnatih--Unnati; darpam--Darpa; artham--Artha; buddhih--Buddhi; asuyata--begot; medha--Medha; smrtim--Smrti; titiksa--Titiksa; tu--also; ksemam--Ksema; hrih--Hri; prasrayam--Prasraya; sutam--son; murtih--Murti; sarva-guna--of all respectable qualities; utpattih--the reservoir; nara-narayanau--both Nara and Narayana; rsi--the two sages.
One of the remaining two daughters was given in charity to the Pitrloka, where she resides very amicably, and the other was given to Lord Siva, who is the deliverer of sinful persons from material entanglement. The names of the thirteen daughters of Daksa who were given to Dharma are Sraddha, Maitri, Daya, Santi, Tusti, Pusti, Kriya, Unnati, Buddhi, Medha, Titiksa, Hri and Murti. These thirteen daughters produced the following sons: Sraddha gave birth to Subha, Maitri produced Prasada, Daya gave birth to Abhaya, Santi gave birth to Sukha, Tusti gave birth to Muda, Pusti gave birth to Smaya, Kriya gave birth to Yoga, Unnati gave birth to Darpa, Buddhi gave birth to Artha, Medha gave birth to Smrti, Titiksa gave birth to Ksema, and Hri gave birth to Prasraya. Murti, a reservoir of all respectable qualities, gave birth to Sri Nara-Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
yayor janmany ado visvam
manamsi kakubho vatah
praseduh sarito 'drayah
yayoh--both of whom (Nara and Narayana); janmani--on the appearance; adah--that; visvam--universe; abhyanandat--became glad; su-nirvrtam--full of joy; manamsi--everyone's mind; kakubhah--the directions; vatah--the air; praseduh--became pleasant; saritah--the rivers; adrayah--the mountains.
On the occasion of the appearance of Nara-Narayana, the entire world was full of joy. Everyone's mind became tranquil, and thus in all directions the air, the rivers and the mountains became pleasant.
divy avadyanta turyani
munayas tustuvus tusta
nrtyanti sma striyo devya
deva brahmadayah sarve
divi--in the heavenly planets; avadyanta--vibrated; turyani--a band of instruments; petuh--they showered; kusuma--of flowers; vrstayah--showers; munayah--the sages; tustuvuh--chanted Vedic prayers; tustah--pacified; jaguh--began to sing; gandharva--the Gandharvas; kinnarah--the Kinnaras; nrtyanti sma--danced; striyah--the beautiful damsels; devyah--of the heavenly planets; asit--were visible; parama-mangalam--the highest good fortune; devah--the demigods; brahma-adayah--Brahma and others; sarve--all; upatasthuh--worshiped; abhistavaih--with respectful prayers.
In the heavenly planets, hands began to play, and they showered flowers from the sky. The pacified sages chanted Vedic prayers, the denizens of heaven known as the Gandharvas and Kinnaras sang, the beautiful damsels of the heavenly planets danced, and in this way, at the time of the appearance of Nara-Narayana, all signs of good fortune were visible. Just at that time, great demigods like Brahma also offered their respectful prayers.
yo mayaya viracitam nijayatmanidam
khe rupa-bhedam iva tat-praticaksanaya
etena dharma-sadane rsi-murtinadya
praduscakara purusaya namah parasmai
devah--the demigods; ucuh--said; yah--who; mayaya--by the external energy; viracitam--was created; nijaya--by His own; atmani--being situated in Him; idam--this; khe--in the sky; rupa-bhedam--bunches of clouds; iva--as if; tat--of Himself; praticaksanaya--for manifesting; etena--with this; dharma-sadane--in the house of Dharma; rsi-murtina--with the form of a sage; adya--today; praduscakara--appeared; purusaya--unto the Personality of Godhead; namah--respectful obeisances; parasmai--the Supreme.
The demigods said: Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto the transcendental Personality of Godhead, who created as His external energy this cosmic manifestation, which is situated in Him as the air and clouds are situated in space, and who has now appeared in the form of Nara-Narayana Rsi in the house of Dharma.
The universal form of the Lord is the cosmic manifestation, which is an exhibition of the external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In space there are innumerable varieties of planets and also the air, and in the air there are variously colored clouds, and sometimes we see airplanes running from one place to another. Thus the entire cosmic manifestation is full of variety, but actually that variety is a manifestation of the external energy of the Supreme Lord, and that energy is situated in Him. Now the Lord Himself, after manifesting His energy, appeared within the creation of His energy, which is simultaneously one with and different from Himself, and therefore the demigods offered their respects to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who manifests Himself in such varieties. There are some philosophers, called nondualists, who because of their impersonal conception think that varieties are false. ln this verse it is specifically stated, yo mayaya viracitam. This indicates that the varieties are a manifestation of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus because the energy is nondifferent from the Godhead, the varieties are also factual. The material varieties may be temporary, but they are not false. They are a reflection of the spiritual varieties. Here the word praticaksanaya, "there are varieties," announces the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared as Nara-Narayana Rsi and who is the origin of all varieties of material nature.
so 'yam sthiti-vyatikaropasamaya srstan
sattvena nah sura-ganan anumeya-tattvah
drsyad adabhra-karunena vilokanena
yac chri-niketam amalam ksipataravindam
sah--that; ayam--He; sthiti--of the created world; vyatikara--calamities; upasamaya--for destroying; srstan--created; sattvena--by the mode of goodness; nah--us; sura-ganan--the demigods; anumeya-tattvah--understood by the Vedas; drsyat--glance over; adabhra-karunena--merciful; vilokanena--glance; yat--which; sri-niketam--the home of the goddess of fortune; amalam--spotless; ksipata--supersedes; aravindam--lotus.
Let that Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is understood by truly authorized Vedic literature and who has created peace and prosperity to destroy all calamities of the created world, be kind enough to bestow His glance upon the demigods. His merciful glance can supersede the beauty of the spotless lotus flower which is the home of the goddess of fortune.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the origin of the cosmic manifestation, is covered by the wonderful activities of material nature, just as outer space or the illumination of the sun and moon is sometimes covered by clouds or dust. It is very difficult to find the origin of the cosmic manifestation; therefore material scientists conclude that nature is the ultimate cause of all manifestations. But from sastra, or authentic literature like Bhagavad-gita and other Vedic scriptures, we understand that behind this wonderful cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and in order to maintain the regular procedures of the cosmic manifestation and to be visible to the eyes of persons who are in the mode of goodness, the Lord appears. He is the cause of the creation and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation. The demigods therefore prayed for His merciful glance upon them in order to be blessed.
evam sura-ganais tata
evam--thus; sura-ganaih--by the demigods; tata--O Vidura; bhagavantau--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abhistutau--having been praised; labdha--having obtained; avalokaih--the glance (of mercy); yayatuh--departed; arcitau--having been worshiped; gandha-madanam--to the Gandhamadana Hill.
[Maitreya said:] O Vidura, thus the demigods worshiped with prayers the Supreme Personality of Godhead appearing as the sage Nara-Narayana. The Lord glanced upon them with mercy and then departed for Gandhamadana Hill.
tav imau vai bhagavato
harer amsav ihagatau
bhara-vyayaya ca bhuvah
tau--both; imau--these; vai--certainly; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hareh--of Hari; amsau--part and parcel expansion; iha--here (in this universe); agatau--has appeared; bhara-vyayaya--for mitigation of the burden; ca--and; bhuvah--of the world; krsnau--the two Krsnas (Krsna and Arjuna); yadu-kuru-udvahau--who are the best of the Yadu and Kuru dynasties respectively.
That Nara-Narayana Rsi, who is a partial expansion of Krsna, has now appeared in the dynasties of Yadu and Kuru, in the forms of Krsna and Arjuna respectively, to mitigate the burden of the world.
Narayana is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Nara is a part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana. Thus the energy and the energetic together are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Maitreya informed Vidura that Nara, the portion of Narayana, had appeared in the family of the Kurus and that Narayana, the plenary expansion of Krsna, had come as Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, with the purpose of delivering suffering humanity from the pangs of material burdens. In other words, Narayana Rsi was now present in the world in the forms of Krsna and Arjuna.
atmajams trin ajijanat
pavakam pavamanam ca
sucim ca huta-bhojanam
svaha--Svaha, the wife of Agni; abhimaninah--the presiding deity of fire; ca--and; agneh--from Agni; atmajan--sons; trin--three; ajijanat--produced; pavakam--Pavaka; pavamanam ca--and Pavamana; sucim ca--and Suci; huta-bhojanam--eating the oblations of sacrifice.
The predominating deity of fire begot in his wife, Svaha, three children, named Pavaka, Pavamana and Suci, who exist by eating the oblations offered to the fire of sacrifice.
After describing the descendants of the thirteen wives of Dharma, who were all daughters of Daksa, Maitreya now describes the fourteenth daughter of Daksa, Svaha, and her three sons. Oblations offered in the sacrificial fire are meant for the demigods, and on behalf of the demigods the three sons of Agni and Svaha, namely Pavaka, Pavamana and Suci, accept the oblations.
tebhyo 'gnayah samabhavan
catvarimsac ca panca ca
tebhyah--from them; agnayah--fire-gods; samabhavan--were produced; catvarimsat--forty; ca--and; panca--five; ca--and; te--they; eva--certainly; ekona-pancasat--forty-nine; sakam--along with; pitr-pitamahaih--with the fathers and grandfather.
From those three sons another forty-five descendants were generated, who are also fire-gods. The total number of fire-gods is therefore forty-nine, including the fathers and the grandfather.
The grandfather is Agni, and the sons are Pavaka, Pavamana and Suci. Counting these four, plus forty-five grandsons, there are altogether forty-nine different fire-gods.
vaitanike karmani yan-
agneyya istayo yajne
nirupyante 'gnayas tu te
vaitanike--offering of oblations; karmani--the activity; yat--of the fire-gods; namabhih--by the names; brahma-vadibhih--by impersonalist brahmanas; agneyyah--for Agni; istayah--sacrifices; yajne--in the sacrifice; nirupyante--are the objective; agnayah--the forty-nine fire-gods; tu--but; te--those.
These forty-nine fire-gods are the beneficiaries of the oblations offered in the Vedic sacrificial fire by impersonalist brahmanas.
Impersonalists who perform Vedic fruitive sacrifices are attracted to the various fire-gods and offer oblations in their name. The forty-nine fire-gods are described herewith.
saumyah pitara ajyapah
sagnayo 'nagnayas tesam
patni daksayani svadha
agnisvattah--the Agnisvattas; barhisadah--the Barhisadas; saumyah--the Saumyas; pitarah--the forefathers; ajyapah--the Ajyapas; sa-agnayah--those whose means is by fire; anagnayah--those whose means is without fire; tesam--of them; patni--the wife; daksayani--the daughter of Daksa; svadha--Svadha.
The Agnisvattas, the Barhisadas, the Saumyas and the Ajyapas are the Pitas. They are either sagnika or niragnika. The wife of all these Pitas is Svadha, who is the daughter of King Daksa.
tebhyo dadhara kanye dve
vayunam dharinim svadha
ubhe te brahma-vadinyau
tebhyah--from them; dadhara--produced; kanye--daughters; dve--two; vayunam--Vayuna; dharinim--Dharini; svadha--Svadha; ubhe--both of them; te--they; brahma-vadinyau--impersonalists; jnana-vijnana-para-ge--expert in both transcendental and Vedic knowledge.
Svadha, who was offered to the Pitas, begot two daughters named Vayuna and Dharini, both of whom were impersonalists and were expert in transcendental and Vedic knowledge.
bhavasya patni tu sati
bhavam devam anuvrata
atmanah sadrsam putram
na lebhe guna-silatah
bhavasya--of Bhava (Lord Siva); patni--the wife; tu--but; sati--named Sati; bhavam--to Bhava; devam--a demigod; anuvrata--faithfully engaged in service; atmanah--of herself; sadrsam--similar; putram--a son; na lebhe--did not obtain; guna-silatah--by good qualities and by character.
The sixteenth daughter, whose name was Sati, was the wife of Lord Siva. She could not produce a child, although she always faithfully engaged in the service of her husband.
pitary apratirupe sve
pitari--as a father; apratirupe--unfavorable; sve--her own; bhavaya--unto Lord Siva; anagase--faultless; rusa--with anger; apraudha--before attaining maturity; eva--even; atmana--by herself; atmanam--the body; ajahat--gave up; yoga-samyuta--by mystic yoga.
The reason is that Sati's father, Daksa, used to rebuke Lord Siva in spite of Siva's faultlessness. Consequently, before attaining a mature age, Sati gave up her body by dint of yogic mystic power.
Lord Siva, being the head of all mystic yogis, never even constructed a home for his residence. Sati was the daughter of a great king, Daksa, and because his youngest daughter, Sati, selected as her husband Lord Siva, King Daksa was not very much satisfied with her. Therefore whenever she met her father, he unnecessarily criticized her husband, although Lord Siva was faultless. Because of this, before attaining a mature age Sati gave up the body given by her father, Daksa, and therefore she could not produce a child.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fourth Canto, First Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu."