Chapter Twenty-seven

Attack by Candavega on the City of King Puranjana; the Character of Kalakanya


                                TEXT 1




                             narada uvaca

                      ittham puranjanam sadhryag

                        vasamaniya vibhramaih

                          puranjani maharaja

                         reme ramayati patim




   naradah uvaca--Narada said; ittham--thus; puranjanam--King Puranjana; sadhryak--completely; vasamaniya--bringing under her control; vibhramaih--by her charms; puranjani--the wife of King Puranjana; maha-raja--O King; reme--enjoyed; ramayati--giving all satisfaction; patim--to her husband.




   The great sage Narada continued: My dear King, after bewildering her husband in different ways and bringing him under her control, the wife of King Puranjana gave him all satisfaction and enjoyed sex life with him.




   After hunting in the forest, King Puranjana returned home, and after refreshing himself by taking a bath and eating nice food, he searched for his wife. When he saw her lying down on the ground without a bed, as if neglected, and devoid of any proper dress, he became very much aggrieved. He then became attracted to her and began to enjoy her company. A living entity is similarly engaged in the material world in sinful activities. These sinful activities may be compared to King Puranjana's hunting in the forest.

   A sinful life can be counteracted by various processes of religion such as yajna, vrata and dana--that is, the performance of sacrifices, the taking of a vow for some religious ritual, and the giving of charity. In this way one may become free from the reactions of sinful life and at the same time awaken his original Krsna consciousness. By coming home, taking his bath, eating nice foodstuffs, getting refreshed and searching out his wife, King Puranjana came to his good consciousness in his family life. In other words, a systematic family life as enjoined in the Vedas is better than an irresponsible sinful life. If a husband and wife combine together in Krsna consciousness and live together peacefully, that is very nice. However, if a husband becomes too much attracted by his wife and forgets his duty in life, the implications of materialistic life will again resume. Srila Rupa Gosvami has therefore recommended, anasaktasya visayan (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.2.255). Without being attached by sex, the husband and wife may live together for the advancement of spiritual life. The husband should engage in devotional service, and the wife should be faithful and religious according to the Vedic injunctions. Such a combination is very good. However, if the husband becomes too much attracted to the wife due to sex, the position becomes very dangerous. Women in general are very much sexually inclined. Indeed, it is said that a woman's sex desire is nine times stronger than a man's. It is therefore a man's duty to keep a woman under his control by satisfying her, giving her ornaments, nice food and clothes, and engaging her in religious activities. Of course, a woman should have a few children and in this way not be disturbing to the man. Unfortunately, if the man becomes attracted to the woman simply for sex enjoyment, then family life becomes abominable.

   The great politician Canakya Pandita has said: bharya rupavati satruh--a beautiful wife is an enemy. Of course every woman in the eyes of her husband is very beautiful. Others may see her as not very beautiful, but the husband, being very much attracted to her, sees her always as very beautiful. If the husband sees the wife as very beautiful, it is to be assumed that he is too much attracted to her. This attraction is the attraction of sex. The whole world is captivated by the two modes of material nature rajo-guna and tamo-guna, passion and ignorance. Generally women are very much passionate and are less intelligent; therefore somehow or other a man should not be under the control of their passion and ignorance. By performing bhakti-yoga, or devotional service, a man can be raised to the platform of goodness. If a husband situated in the mode of goodness can control his wife, who is in passion and ignorance, the woman is benefited. Forgetting her natural inclination for passion and ignorance, the woman becomes obedient and faithful to her husband, who is situated in goodness. Such a life becomes very welcome. The intelligence of the man and woman may then work very nicely together, and they can make a progressive march toward spiritual realization. Otherwise, the husband, coming under the control of the wife, sacrifices his quality of goodness and becomes subservient to the qualities of passion and ignorance. In this way the whole situation becomes polluted.

   The conclusion is that a household life is better than a sinful life devoid of responsibility, but if in the household life the husband becomes subordinate to the wife, involvement in materialistic life again becomes prominent. In this way a man's material bondage becomes enhanced. Because of this, according to the Vedic system, after a certain age a man is recommended to abandon his family life for the stages of vanaprastha and sannyasa.


                                TEXT 2




                        sa raja mahisim rajan

                         susnatam rucirananam

                       krta-svastyayanam trptam

                         abhyanandad upagatam




   sah--he; raja--the King; mahisim--the Queen; rajan--O King; su-snatam--nicely bathed; rucira-ananam--attractive face; krta-svasti-ayanam--dressed with auspicious garments and ornaments; trptam--satisfied; abhyanandat--he welcomed; upagatam--approached.




   The Queen took her bath and dressed herself nicely with all auspicious garments and ornaments. After taking food and becoming completely satisfied, she returned to the King. Upon seeing her beautifully decorated attractive face, the King welcomed her with all devotion.




   A woman is generally accustomed to dress herself nicely with fine garments and decorative ornaments. She may even sometimes wear flowers in her hair. Women especially dress themselves up in the evening because the husband comes home in the evening after working hard all day.  It is the duty of the wife to dress herself up very nicely so that when her husband returns home he becomes attracted by her dress and cleanliness and thus becomes satisfied. In other words, the wife is the inspiration of all good intelligence. Upon seeing one's wife dressed nicely, one can think very soberly about family business. When a person is too anxious about family affairs, he cannot discharge his family duties nicely. A wife is therefore supposed to be an inspiration and should keep the husband's intelligence in good order so that they can combinedly prosecute the affairs of family life without impediment.


                                TEXT 3




                   tayopagudhah parirabdha-kandharo

                  raho 'numantrair apakrsta-cetanah

                   na kala-ramho bubudhe duratyayam

                    diva niseti pramada-parigrahah




   taya--by the Queen; upagudhah--was embraced; parirabdha--embraced; kandharah--shoulders; rahah--in a solitary place; anumantraih--by joking words; apakrsta-cetanah--having degraded consciousness; na--not; kala-ramhah--the passing of time; bubudhe--was aware of; duratyayam--impossible to overcome; diva--day; nisa--night; iti--thus; pramada--by the woman; parigrahah--captivated.




   Queen Puranjani embraced the King, and the King also responded by embracing her shoulders. In this way, in a solitary place, they enjoyed joking words. Thus King Puranjana became very much captivated by his beautiful wife and deviated from his good sense. He forgot that the passing of days and nights meant that his span of life was being reduced without profit.




   The word pramada in this verse is very significant. A beautiful wife is certainly enlivening to her husband, but at the same time is the cause of degradation. The word pramada means "enlivening" as well as "maddening." Generally a householder does not take the passing of days and nights very seriously. A person in ignorance takes it as the usual course that days come, and after the days, the nights come. This is the law of material nature. But a man in ignorance does not know that when the sun rises early in the morning it begins to take away the balance of his life. Thus day after day the span of one's life is reduced, and forgetting the duty of human life, the foolish man simply remains in the company of his wife and enjoys her in a secluded place. Such a condition is called apakrsta-cetana, or degraded consciousness. Human consciousness should be used for elevation to Krsna consciousness. But when a person is too much attracted to his wife and family affairs, he does not take Krsna consciousness very seriously. He thus becomes degraded, not knowing that he cannot buy back even a second of his life in return for millions of dollars. The greatest loss in life is passing time without understanding Krsna. Every moment of our lives should be utilized properly, and the proper use of life is to increase devotional service to the Lord. Without devotional service to the Lord, the activities of life become simply a waste of time. Srama eva hi kevalam. Simply by becoming "dutiful" we do not make any profit in life. As confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.8):


                     dharmah svanusthitah pumsam

                        visvaksena-kathasu yah

                        notpadayed yadi ratim

                         srama eva hi kevalam


   If, after performing one's occupational duty very perfectly, one does not make progress in Krsna consciousness, it should be understood that he has simply wasted his time in valueless labor.


                                TEXT 4




                    sayana unnaddha-mado maha-mana

                   maharha-talpe mahisi-bhujopadhih

                   tam eva viro manute param yatas

                 tamo-'bhibhuto na nijam param ca yat




   sayanah--lying down; unnaddha-madah--increasingly illusioned; maha-manah--advanced in consciousness; maha-arha-talpe--on a valuable bedstead; mahisi--of the Queen; bhuja--arms; upadhih--pillow; tam--her; eva--certainly; virah--the hero; manute--he considered; param--the goal of life; yatah--from which; tamah--by ignorance; abhibhutah--overwhelmed; na--not; nijam--his actual self; param--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca--and; yat--what.




   In this way, increasingly overwhelmed by illusion, King Puranjana, although advanced in consciousness, remained always lying down with his head on the pillow of his wife's arms. In this way he considered woman to be his ultimate life and soul. Becoming thus overwhelmed by the mode of ignorance, he could not understand the meaning of self-realization, of his self or of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   Human life is meant for self-realization. First of all one has to realize his own self, which is described in this verse as nijam. Then he has to understand or realize the Supersoul, or Paramatma, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. However, when one becomes too much materially attached, he takes a woman to be everything. This is the basic principle of material attachment. In such a condition, one cannot realize his own self or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.5.2) it is therefore said: mahat-sevam dvaram ahur vimuktes tamo-dvaram yositam sangi-sangam. If one associates with mahatmas, or devotees, his path of liberation is opened. But if one becomes too much attached to women or to persons who are also attached to women--that is, attached to women directly or indirectly--he opens the tamo-dvaram, the door to the darkest region of hellish life.

   King Puranjana was a great soul, highly intellectual and possessed of advanced consciousness, but due to his being too much addicted to women, his whole consciousness was covered. In the modern age the consciousness of people is too much covered by wine, women and flesh. Consequently, people are completely unable to make any progress in self-realization. The first step of self-realization is to know oneself as spirit soul apart from the body. In the second stage of self-realization, one comes to know that every soul, every individual living entity, is part and parcel of the Supreme Soul, Paramatma, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (15.7):


                         mamaivamso jiva-loke

                        jiva-bhutah sanatanah


                        prakrti-sthani karsati


   "The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind."

   All living entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Unfortunately, in this present civilization both men and women are allowed to be attracted to one another from the very beginning of life, and because of this they are completely unable to come to the platform of self-realization. They do not know that without self-realization they suffer the greatest loss in the human form of life. Thinking of a woman always within one's heart is tantamount to lying down with a woman on a valuable bedstead. The heart is the bedstead, and it is the most valuable bedstead. When a man thinks of women and money, he lies down and rests on the arms of his beloved woman or wife. In this way he overindulges in sex life and thus becomes unfit for self-realization.


                                TEXT 5




                         tayaivam ramamanasya


                       ksanardham iva rajendra

                       vyatikrantam navam vayah




   taya--with her; evam--in this way; ramamanasya--enjoying; kama--full of lust; kasmala--sinful; cetasah--his heart; ksana-ardham--in half a moment; iva--like; raja-indra--O King; vyatikrantam--expired; navam--new; vayah--life.




   My dear King Pracinabarhisat, in this way King Puranjana, with his heart full of lust and sinful reactions, began to enjoy sex with his wife, and in this way his new life and youth expired in half a moment.




   Srila Govinda dasa Thakura has sung:


                 ei-dhana, yauvana, putra, parijana,

                       ithe ki ache paratiti re

                  kamala-dala-jala, jivana talamala,

                     bhaja hum hari-pada niti re


   In this verse Srila Govinda dasa actually says that there is no bliss in the enjoyment of youthful life. In youth a person becomes very lusty to enjoy all kinds of sense objects. The sense objects are form, taste, smell, touch and sound. The modern scientific method, or advancement of scientific civilization, encourages the enjoyment of these five senses. The younger generation is very pleased to see a beautiful form, to hear radio messages of material news and sense gratificatory songs, to smell nice scents, nice flowers, and to touch the soft body or breasts of a young woman and gradually touch the sex organs. All of this is also very pleasing to the animals; therefore in human society there are restrictions in the enjoyment of the five sense objects. If one does not follow, he becomes exactly like an animal.

   Thus in this verse it is specifically stated, kama-kasmala-cetasah: the consciousness of King Puranjana was polluted by lusty desires and sinful activities. In the previous verse it is stated that Puranjana, although advanced in consciousness, lay down on a very soft bed with his wife. This indicates that he indulged too much in sex. The words navam vayah are also significant in this verse. They indicate the period of youth from age sixteen to thirty. These thirteen or fifteen years of life are years in which one can very strongly enjoy the senses. When one comes to this age he thinks that life will go on and that he will simply continue enjoying his senses, but, "Time and tide wait for no man." The span of youth expires very quickly. One who wastes his life simply by committing sinful activities in youth immediately becomes disappointed and disillusioned when the brief period of youth is over. The material enjoyments of youth are especially pleasing to a person who has no spiritual training. If one is trained only according to the bodily conception of life, he simply leads a disappointed life because bodily sense enjoyment finishes within forty years or so. After forty years, one simply leads a disillusioned life because he has no spiritual knowledge. For such a person, the expiration of youth occurs in half a moment. Thus King Puranjana's pleasure, which he took in lying down with his wife, expired very quickly.

   Kama-kasmala-cetasah also indicates that unrestricted sense enjoyment is not allowed in the human form of life by the laws of nature. If one enjoys his senses unrestrictedly, he leads a sinful life. The animals do not violate the laws of nature. For example, the sex impulse in animals is very strong during certain months of the year. The lion is very powerful. He is a flesh-eater and is very strong, but he enjoys sex only once in a year. Similarly, according to religious injunctions a man is restricted to enjoy sex only once in a month, after the menstrual period of the wife, and if the wife is pregnant, he is not allowed sex life at all. That is the law for human beings. A man is allowed to keep more than one wife because he cannot enjoy sex when the wife is pregnant. If he wants to enjoy sex at such a time, he may go to another wife who is not pregnant. These are laws mentioned in the Manu-samhita and other scriptures.

   These laws and scriptures are meant for human beings. As such, if one violates these laws, he becomes sinful. The conclusion is that unrestricted sense enjoyment means sinful activities. Illicit sex is sex that violates the laws given in the scriptures. When one violates the laws of the scriptures, or the Vedas, he commits sinful activities. One who is engaged in sinful activities cannot change his consciousness. Our real function is to change our consciousness from kasmala, sinful consciousness, to Krsna, the supreme pure. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan), Krsna is the supreme pure, and if we change our consciousness from material enjoyment to Krsna, we become purified. This is the process recommended by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the process of ceto-darpana-marjanam, cleansing the mirror of the heart.


                                TEXT 6




                        tasyam ajanayat putran

                        puranjanyam puranjanah

                         satany ekadasa virad

                       ayuso 'rdham athatyagat




   tasyam--within her; ajanayat--he begot; putran--sons; puranjanyam--in Puranjani; puranjanah--King Puranjana; satani--hundreds; ekadasa--eleven; virat--O King; ayusah--of life; ardham--half; atha--in this way; atyagat--he passed.




   The great sage Narada then addressed King Pracinabarhisat: O one whose life-span is great [virat], in this way King Puranjana begot 1,100 sons within the womb of his wife, Puranjani. However, in this business he passed away half of his life-span.




   In this verse there are several significant words, the first of which are ekadasa satani. Puranjana had begotten 1,100 sons within the womb of his wife, and thus passed away half of his life. Actually every man follows a similar process. If one lives for one hundred years at the utmost, in his family life he simply begets children up to the age of fifty. Unfortunately at the present moment people do not live even a hundred years; nonetheless they beget children up to the age of sixty. Another point is that formerly people used to beget one hundred to two hundred sons and daughters. As will be evident from the next verse, King Puranjana not only begot 1,100 sons but also 110 daughters. At the present moment no one can produce such huge quantities of children. Instead, mankind is very busy checking the increase of population by contraceptive methods.

   We do not find in Vedic literatures that they ever used contraceptive methods, although they were begetting hundreds of children. Checking population by contraceptive method is another sinful activity, but in this age of Kali people have become so sinful that they do not care for the resultant reactions of their sinful lives. King Puranjana lay down with his wife, Puranjani, and begot a large number of children, and there is no mention in these verses that he used contraceptive methods. According to the Vedic scriptures the contraceptive method should be restraint in sex life. It is not that one should indulge in unrestricted sex life and avoid children by using some method to check pregnancy. If a man is in good consciousness, he consults with his religious wife, and as a result of this consultation, with intelligence, one advances in his ability to estimate the value of life. In other words, if one is fortunate enough to have a good, conscientious wife, he can decide by mutual consultation that human life is meant for advancing in Krsna consciousness and not for begetting a large number of children. Children are called parinama, or by-products, and when one consults his good intelligence he can see that his by-products should be the expansion of his Krsna consciousness.


                                TEXT 7




                       duhitrr dasottara-satam



                       pauranjanyah praja-pate




   duhitrh--daughters; dasa-uttara--ten more than; satam--one hundred; pitr--like the father; matr--and mother; yasaskarih--glorified; sila--good behavior; audarya--magnanimity; guna--good qualities; upetah--possessed of; pauranjanyah--daughters of Puranjana; praja-pate--O Prajapati.




   O Prajapati, King Pracinabarhisat, in this way King Puranjana also begot 110 daughters. All of these were equally glorified like the father and mother. Their behavior was gentle, and they possessed magnanimity and other good qualities.




   Children begotten under the rules and regulations of the scriptures generally become as good as the father and mother, but children born illegitimately mainly become varna-sankara. The varna-sankara population is irresponsible to the family, community and even to themselves. Formerly the varna-sankara population was checked by the observation of the reformatory method called garbhadhana-samskara, a child-begetting religious ceremony. In this verse we find that although King Puranjana had begotten so many children, they were not varna-sankara. All of them were good, well-behaved children, and they had good qualities like their father and mother.

   Even though we may produce many good children, our desire for sex that is beyond the prescribed method is to be considered sinful. Too much enjoyment of any of the senses (not only sex) results in sinful activities. Therefore one has to become a svami or gosvami at the end of his life. One may beget children up to the age of fifty, but after fifty, one must stop begetting children and should accept the vanaprastha order. In this way he must leave home and then become a sannyasi. A sannyasi's title is svami or gosvami, which means that he completely refrains from sense enjoyment. One should not accept the sannyasa order whimsically; he must be fully confident that he can restrain his desires for sense gratification. King Puranjana's family life was, of course, very happy. As mentioned in these verses, he begot 1,100 sons and 110 daughters. Everyone desires to have more sons than daughters, and since the number of daughters was less than the number of sons, it appears that King Puranjana's family life was very comfortable and pleasing.


                                TEXT 8




                       sa pancala-patih putran


                        daraih samyojayam asa

                       duhitrh sadrsair varaih




   sah--he; pancala-patih--the King of Pancala; putran--sons; pitr-vamsa--paternal family; vivardhanan--increasing; daraih--with wives; samyojayam asa--married; duhitrh--daughters; sadrsaih--qualified; varaih--with husbands.




   After this, King Puranjana, King of the Pancala country, in order to increase the descendants of his paternal family, married his sons with qualified wives and married his daughters with qualified husbands.




   According to the Vedic system, everyone should marry. One has to accept a wife because a wife will produce children, and the children in their turn will offer foodstuffs and funeral ceremonies so that the forefathers, wherever they may live, will be made happy. The offering of oblations in the name of Lord Visnu is called pindodaka, and it is necessary that the descendants of a family offer pinda to the forefathers.

   Not only was Puranjana, the King of Pancala, satisfied in his own sex life, but he arranged for the sex life of his 1,100 sons and 110 daughters. In this way one can elevate an aristocratic family to the platform of a dynasty. It is significant in this verse that Puranjana got both sons and daughters married. It is the duty of a father and mother to arrange for the marriage of their sons and daughters. That is the obligation in Vedic society. Sons and daughters should not be allowed freedom to intermingle with the opposite sex unless they are married. This Vedic social organization is very good in that it stops the promulgation of illicit sex life, or varna-sankara, which appears under different names in this present day. Unfortunately in this age although the father and mother are anxious to get their children married, the children refuse to get married by the arrangement of the parents. Consequently, the number of varna-sankara has increased throughout the world under different names.


                                TEXT 9




                       putranam cabhavan putra

                        ekaikasya satam satam

                      yair vai pauranjano vamsah

                         pancalesu samedhitah




   putranam--of the sons; ca--also; abhavan--were produced; putrah--sons; eka-ekasya--of each one; satam--hundred; satam--hundred; yaih--by whom; vai--certainly; pauranjanah--of King Puranjana; vamsah--family; pancalesu--in the land of Pancala; samedhitah--greatly increased.




   Of these many sons, each produced hundreds and hundreds of grandsons. In this way the whole city of Pancala became overcrowded by these sons and grandsons of King Puranjana.




   We must remember that Puranjana is the living entity, and the city Pancala is the body. The body is the field of activity for the living entity, as stated in Bhagavad-gita: ksetra-ksetrajna. There are two constituents: one is the living entity (ksetra jna), and the other is the body of the living entity (ksetra). Any living entity can know that he is covered by the body if he only contemplates the body a little bit. Just with a little contemplation he can come to understand that the body is his possession. One can understand this by practical experience and by the authority of the sastras. In Bhagavad-gita (2.13) it is said: dehino'smin yatha dehe. The proprietor of the body, the soul, is within the body. The body is taken as the pancala-desa, or the field of activities wherein the living entity can enjoy the senses in their relationship to the five sense objects, namely gandha, rasa, rupa, sparsa and sabda--that is, sense objects made out of earth, water, fire, air and sky. Within this material world, covered by the material body of subtle and gross matter, every living entity creates actions and reactions, which are herein known allegorically as sons and grandsons. There are two kinds of actions and reactions--namely pious and impious. In this way our material existence becomes coated by different actions and reactions. In this regard, Srila Narottama dasa Thakura states:


         karma-kanda, jnana-kanda,     kevala visera bhanda,

                       amrta baliya yeba khaya

           nana yoni sada phire,     kadarya bhaksana kare,

                      tara janma adhah-pate yaya


   "Fruitive activities and mental speculation are simply cups of poison. Whoever drinks of them, thinking them to be nectar, must struggle very hard life after life, in different types of bodies. Such a person eats all kinds of nonsense and becomes condemned by his activities of so-called sense enjoyment."

   Thus the field of action and reactions, by which one's descendants are increased, begins with sex life. Puranjana increased his whole family by begetting sons who in their turn begot grandsons. Thus the living entity, being inclined toward sexual gratification, becomes involved in many hundreds and thousands of actions and reactions. In this way he remains within the material world simply for the purpose of sense gratification and transmigrates from one body to another. His process of reproducing so many sons and grandsons results in so-called societies, nations, communities and so on. All these communities, societies, dynasties and nations simply expand from sex life. As stated by Prahlada Maharaja: yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham (Bhag. 7.9.45). A grhamedhi is one who wants to remain within this material existence. This means that he wants to remain within this body or society and enjoy friendship, love and community. His only enjoyment is in increasing the number of sex enjoyers. He enjoys sex and produces children, who in their turn marry and produce grandchildren. The grandchildren also marry and in their turn produce great-grandchildren. In this way the entire earth becomes overpopulated, and then suddenly there are reactions provoked by material nature in the form of war, famine, pestilence and earthquakes, etc. Thus the entire population is again extinguished simply to be re-created. This process is explained in Bhagavad-gita (8.19) as repeated creation and annihilation: bhutva bhutva praliyate. Due to a lack of Krsna consciousness, all this creation and annihilation is going on under the name of human civilization. This cycle continues due to man's lack of knowledge of the soul and the Supreme personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 10




                        tesu tad-riktha-haresu


                         nirudhena mamatvena

                        visayesv anvabadhyata




   tesu--to them; tat-riktha-haresu--the plunderers of his money; grha--home; kosa--treasury; anujivisu--to the followers; nirudhena--deep-rooted; mamatvena--by attachment; visayesu--to sense objects; anvabadhyata--became bound.




   These sons and grandsons were virtually plunderers of King Puranjana's riches, including his home, treasury, servants, secretaries and all other paraphernalia. Puranjana's attachment for these things was very deep-rooted.




   In this verse the word riktha-haresu, meaning "plunderers of wealth," is very significant. One's sons, grandsons and other descendants are ultimately plunderers of one's accumulated wealth. There are many celebrated businessmen and industrialists who produce great wealth and are highly praised by the public, but all their money is ultimately plundered by their sons and grandsons. In India we have actually seen one industrialist who, like King Puranjana, was very much sexually inclined and had a half dozen wives. Each of these wives had a separate establishment that necessitated the expenditure of several thousands of rupees. When I was engaged in talking with him, I saw that he was very busy trying to secure money so that all his sons and daughters would get at least five hundred thousand rupees each. Thus such industrialists, businessmen or karmis are called mudhas in the sastras. They work very hard, accumulate money, and are satisfied to see that this money is plundered by their sons and grandsons. Such people do not want to return their wealth to its actual owner. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (5.29), bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram: the real proprietor of all wealth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the actual enjoyer. So-called earners of money are those who simply know tricks by which they can take away God's money under the guise of business and industry. After accumulating this money, they enjoy seeing it plundered by their sons and grandsons. This is the materialistic way of life. In materialistic life one is encaged within the body and deluded by false egoism. Thus one thinks, "I am this body," "I am a human being," "I am an American," "I am an Indian." This bodily conception is due to false ego. Being deluded by false ego, one identifies himself with a certain family, nation or community. In this way one's attachment for the material world grows deeper and deeper. Thus it becomes very difficult for the living entity to extricate himself from his entanglement. Such people are graphically described in the Sixteenth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita (16.13-15) in this way:


                        idam adya maya labdham

                       imam prapsye manoratham

                         idam astidam api me

                       bhavisyati punar dhanam


                        asau maya hatah satrur

                         hanisye caparan api

                        isvaro 'ham aham bhogi

                      siddho 'ham balavan sukhi


                        adhyo 'bhijanavan asmi

                       ko 'nyo 'sti sadrso maya

                        yaksye dasyami modisya

                         ity ajnana-vimohitah


   "The demoniac person thinks: So much wealth do I have today, and I will gain more according to my schemes. So much is mine now, and it will increase in the future, more and more. He is my enemy, and I have killed him; and my other enemy will also be killed. I am the lord of everything, I am the enjoyer, I am perfect, powerful and happy. I am the richest man, surrounded by aristocratic relatives. There is none so powerful and happy as I am. I shall perform sacrifices, I shall give some charity, and thus I shall rejoice.' In this way, such persons are deluded by ignorance."

   In this way people engage in various laborious activities, and their attachment for body, home, family, nation and community becomes more and more deep-rooted.


                               TEXT 11




                       ije ca kratubhir ghorair

                        diksitah pasu-marakaih

                       devan pitrn bhuta-patin

                        nana-kamo yatha bhavan




   ije--he worshiped; ca--also; kratubhih--by sacrifices; ghoraih--ghastly; diksitah--inspired; pasu-marakaih--wherein poor animals are killed; devan--the demigods; pitrn--forefathers; bhuta-patin--great leaders of human society; nana--various; kamah--having desires; yatha--like; bhavan--you.




   The great sage Narada continued: My dear King Pracinabarhisat, like you King Puranjana also became implicated in so many desires. Thus he worshiped demigods, forefathers and social leaders with various sacrifices which were all very ghastly because they were inspired by the desire to kill animals.




   In this verse the great sage Narada discloses that the character of Puranjana was being described to give lessons to King Pracinabarhisat. Actually the entire description was figuratively describing the activities of King Pracinabarhisat. In this verse Narada frankly says "like you" (yatha bhavan), which indicates that King Puranjana is none other than King Pracinabarhisat himself. Being a great Vaisnava, Narada Muni wanted to stop animal-killing in sacrifices. He knew that if he tried to stop the King from performing sacrifices, the King would not hear him. Therefore he is describing the life of Puranjana. But in this verse he first discloses the intention, although not fully, by saying "like you." Generally the karmis, who are attached to increasing descendants, have to perform so many sacrifices and worship so many demigods for future generations, as well as to satisfy so many leaders, politicians, philosophers and scientists to make things go on properly for future generations. The so-called scientists are very eager to see that future generations will live very comfortably, and as such they are trying to find different means of generating energy to drive locomotives, cars, airplanes and so on. Now they are exhausting the petroleum supply. These activities are described in the Bhagavad-gita (2.41):


                        vyavasayatmika buddhir

                          ekeha kuru-nandana

                       bahu-sakha hy anantas ca

                        buddhayo 'vyavasayinam


   "Those who are on the spiritual path are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched."

   Actually, those who are in knowledge of everything are determined to execute Krsna consciousness, but those who are rascals (mudhah), sinners (duskrtinah) and the lowest of mankind (naradhamah), who are bereft of all intelligence (mayayapahrta jnanah) and who take shelter of the demoniac way of life (asuram bhavam asritah), are disinterested in Krsna consciousness. As such they become implicated and take on so many activities. Most of these activities center around the killing of animals. Modern civilization is centered around animal-killing. Karmis are advertising that without eating meat, their vitamin value or vitality will be reduced; so to keep oneself fit to work hard, one must eat meat, and to digest meat, one must drink liquor, and to keep the balance of drinking wine and eating meat, one must have sufficient sexual intercourse to keep fit to work very hard like an ass.

   There are two ways of animal-killing. One way is in the name of religious sacrifices. All the religions of the world--except the Buddhists--have a program for killing animals in places of worship. According to Vedic civilization, the animal-eaters are recommended to sacrifice a goat in the temple of Kali under certain restrictive rules and regulations and eat the flesh. Similarly, they are recommended to drink wine by worshiping the goddess Candika. The purpose is restriction. People have given up all this restriction. Now they are regularly opening wine distilleries and slaughterhouses and indulging in drinking alcohol and eating flesh. A Vaisnava acarya like Narada Muni knows very well that persons engaged in such animal-killing in the name of religion are certainly becoming involved in the cycle of birth and death, forgetting the real aim of life: to go home, back to Godhead.

   Thus the great sage Narada, while instructing Srimad-Bhagavatam to Vyasa Muni, condemned the karma-kanda (fruitive) activities mentioned in the Vedas. Narada told Vyasa:


                  jugupsitam dharma-krte 'nusasatah

                 svabhava-raktasya mahan vyatikramah

                  yad vakyato dharma ititarah sthito

                   na manyate tasya nivaranam janah


   "The people in general are naturally inclined to enjoy, and you have encouraged them in that way in the name of religion. This is verily condemned and is quite unreasonable. Because they are guided under your instructions, they will accept such activities in the name of religion and will hardly care for prohibitions." (Bhag. 1.5.15)

   Srila Narada Muni chastised Vyasadeva for compiling so many Vedic supplementary scriptures, which are all intended for guiding the people in general. Narada Muni condemned these scriptures because they do not mention direct devotional service. Under Narada's instructions, direct worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, was set forth by Vyasadeva. The conclusion is that neither the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, nor His devotee ever sanctions animal-killing in the name of religion. Indeed, Krsna incarnated Himself as Lord Buddha to put an end to animal-killing in the name of religion. Animal sacrifice under the name of religion is conducted by the influence of tamo-guna (the mode of ignorance), as indicated in the Eighteenth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita (18.31-32):


                       yaya dharmam adharmam ca

                        karyam cakaryam eva ca

                         ayathavat prajanati

                       buddhih sa partha rajasi


                       adharmam dharmam iti ya

                          manyate tamasavrta

                       sarvarthan viparitams ca

                       buddhih sa partha tamasi


   "That understanding which cannot distinguish between the religious way of life and the irreligious, between action that should be done and action that should not be done--that imperfect understanding, O son of Prtha, is in the mode of passion. That understanding which considers irreligion to be religion and religion to be irreligion, under the spell of illusion and darkness, and strives always in the wrong direction, O Partha, is in the mode of ignorance."

   Those who are involved in the mode of ignorance manufacture religious systems for killing animals. Actually dharma is transcendental. As Lord Sri Krsna teaches, we must give up all other systems of religion and simply surrender unto Him (sarva-dharman parityajya). Thus the Lord and His devotees and representatives teach the transcendental dharma, which does not allow animal-killing at all. At the present moment it is the greatest misfortune that in India many so-called missionary workers are spreading irreligion in the name of religion. They claim an ordinary human being to be God and recommend meat-eating for everyone, including so-called sannyasis.


                               TEXT 12




                       yuktesv evam pramattasya


                         asasada sa vai kalo

                       yo 'priyah priya-yositam




   yuktesu--to beneficial activities; evam--thus; pramattasya--being inattentive; kutumba--to kith and kin; asakta--attached; cetasah--consciousness; asasada--arrived; sah--that; vai--certainly; kalah--time; yah--which; apriyah--not very pleasing; priya-yositam--for persons attached to women.




   Thus King Puranjana, being attached to fruitive activities [karma-kandiya] as well as kith and kin, and being obsessed with polluted consciousness, eventually arrived at that point not very much liked by those who are overly attached to material things.




   In this verse the words priya-yositam and apriyah are very significant. The word yosit means "woman," and priya means "dear" or "pleasing." Death is not very much welcome for those who are too much attached to material enjoyment, which culminates in sex. There is an instructive story in this connection. Once when a saintly person was passing on his way, he met a prince, the son of a king, and he blessed him, saying, "My dear prince, may you live forever." The sage next met a saintly person and said to him, "You may either live or die." Eventually the sage met a brahmacari devotee, and he blessed him, saying, "My dear devotee, you may die immediately." Finally the sage met a hunter, and he blessed him, saying, "Neither live nor die." The point is that those who are very sensual and are engaged in sense gratification do not wish to die. Generally a prince has enough money to enjoy his senses; therefore the great sage said that he should live forever, for as long as he lived he could enjoy life, but after his death he would go to hell. Since the brahmacari devotee was leading a life of severe austerities and penances in order to be promoted back to Godhead, the sage said that he should die immediately so that he need not continue to labor hard and could instead go back home, back to Godhead. A saintly person may either live or die, for during his life he is engaged in serving the Lord and after his death he also serves the Lord. Thus this life and the next are the same for a saintly devotee, for in both he serves the Lord. Since the hunter lives a very ghastly life due to killing animals, and since he will go to hell when he dies, he is advised to neither live nor die.

   King Puranjana finally arrived at the point of old age. In old age the senses lose their strength, and although an old man desires to enjoy his senses, and especially sex life, he is very miserable because his instruments of enjoyment no longer function. Such sensualists are never prepared for death. They simply want to live on and on and extend their life by so-called scientific advancement. Some foolish Russian scientists also claim that they are going to make man immortal through scientific advancement. Under the leadership of such crazy fellows, civilization is going on. Cruel death, however, comes and takes all of them away despite their desire to live forever. This type of mentality was exhibited by Hiranyakasipu, but when the time was ripe, the Lord personally killed him within a second.


                               TEXT 13




                         candavega iti khyato

                        gandharvadhipatir nrpa

                       gandharvas tasya balinah





   candavegah--Candavega; iti--thus; khyatah--celebrated; gandharva--belonging to the Gandharvaloka; adhipatih--king; nrpa--O King; gandharvah--other Gandharvas; tasya--his; balinah--very powerful soldiers; sasti--sixty; uttara--surpassing; sata--hundred; trayam--three.




   O King! In Gandharvaloka there is a king named Candavega. Under him there are 360 very powerful Gandharva soldiers.




   Time is figuratively described here as Candavega. Since time and tide wait for no man, time is herein called Candavega, which means "very swiftly passing away." As time passes, it is calculated in terms of years. One year contains 360 days, and the soldiers of Candavega herein mentioned represent these days. Time passes swiftly; Candavega's powerful soldiers of Gandharvaloka very swiftly carry away all the days of our life. As the sun rises and sets, it snatches away the balance of our life-span. Thus as each day passes, each one of us loses some of life's duration. It is therefore said that the duration of one's life cannot be saved. But if one is engaged in devotional service, his time cannot be taken away by the sun. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.3.17), ayur harati vai pumsam udyann astam ca yann asau. The conclusion is that if one wants to make himself immortal, he should give up sense gratification. By engaging oneself in devotional service, one can gradually enter into the eternal kingdom of God.

   Mirages and other illusory things are sometimes called Gandharvas. Our losing our life-span is taken as advancement of age. This imperceptible passing away of the days of life is figuratively referred to in this verse as Gandharvas. As explained in later verses, such Gandharvas are both male and female. This indicates that both men and women lose their life-span imperceptibly by the force of time, which is herein described as Candavega.


                               TEXT 14




                       gandharvyas tadrsir asya

                       maithunyas ca sitasitah

                        parivrttya vilumpanti





   gandharvyah--Gandharvis; tadrsih--similarly; asya--of Candavega; maithunyah--companions for sexual intercourse; ca--also; sita--white; asitah--black; parivrttya--by surrounding; vilumpanti--they plundered; sarva-kama--all kinds of desirable objects; vinirmitam--manufactured.




   Along with Candavega were as many female Gandharvis as there were soldiers, and all of them repetitively plundered all the paraphernalia for sense enjoyment.




   The days have been compared to the soldiers of Candavega. Night is generally a time for sex enjoyment. Days are considered to be white, and nights are considered to be black, or, from another point of view, there are two kinds of nights--black nights and white nights. All these days and nights combine to pass away our span of life and everything we manufacture for sense gratification. Material activity means manufacturing things for sense gratification. Scientists are conducting research to find out how we can satisfy our senses more and more elaborately. In this Kali-yuga, the demoniac mentality is employed in manufacturing various machines to facilitate the process of sense gratification. There are so many machines for ordinary household activities. There are machines for washing dishes, cleansing the floor, shaving, clipping hair--today everything is done by machine. All these facilities for sense gratification are described in this verse as sarva-kama-vinirmitam. The time factor, however, is so strong that not only is our span of life being expended, but all the machines and facilities for sense gratification are deteriorating. Therefore in this verse the word vilumpanti ("plundering") is used. Everything is being plundered from the very beginning of our lives.

   This plundering of our possessions and life-span begins with the day of our birth. One day will come when death will finish everything, and the living entity will have to enter another body to begin another chapter of life and again begin the cycle of material sense gratification. Prahlada Maharaja describes this process as punah punas carvita-carvananam (Bhag. 7.5.30). Materialistic life means chewing the chewed again and again. The central point of material life is sense gratification. In different types of bodies, the living entity enjoys various senses, and through creating various types of facilities, he chews the chewed. Whether we squeeze sugar out of the sugarcane with our teeth or a machine, the result is the same--sugarcane juice. We may discover many ways to squeeze the juice out of the sugarcane, but the result is the same.


                               TEXT 15




                         te candaveganucarah

                         puranjana-puram yada

                        hartum arebhire tatra

                       pratyasedhat prajagarah




   te--all of them; candavega--of Candavega; anucarah--followers; puranjana--of King Puranjana; puram--city; yada--when; hartum--to plunder; arebhire--began; tatra--there; pratyasedhat--defended; prajagarah--the big serpent.




   When King Gandharva-raja [Candavega] and his followers began to plunder the city of Puranjana, a snake with five hoods began to defend the city.




   When one is sleeping, the life air remains active in different dreams. The five hoods of the snake indicate that the life air is surrounded by five kinds of air, known as prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana. When the body is inactive, the prana, or the life air, is active. Up to the age of fifty one can actively work for sense gratification, but after the fiftieth year one's energy decreases, although one can with great strain work for two or three more years--perhaps up to the fifty-fifth year. Thus the fifty-fifth year is generally taken by government regulations as the final year for retirement. The energy, which is fatigued after fifty years, is figuratively described herein as a serpent with five hoods.


                               TEXT 16




                       sa saptabhih satair eko

                       vimsatya ca satam samah


                       gandharvair yuyudhe bali




   sah--he; saptabhih--with seven; sataih--hundred; ekah--alone; vimsatya--with twenty; ca--also; satam--hundred; samah--years; puranjana--of King Puranjana; pura-adhyaksah--superintendent of the city; gandharvaih--with the Gandharvas; yuyudhe--fought; bali--very valiant.




   The five-hooded serpent, the superintendent and protector of the city of King Puranjana, fought with the Gandharvas for one hundred years. He fought alone, with all of them, although they numbered 720.




   The 360 days and 360 nights combine to become the 720 soldiers of Candavega (time). One has to fight these soldiers throughout one's lifespan, beginning with birth and ending with death. This fight is called the struggle for existence. Despite this struggle, however, the living entity does not die. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (2.20), the living entity is eternal:


                     na jayate mriyate va kadacin

                  nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah

                    ajo nityah sasvato 'yam purano

                     na hanyate hanyamane sarire


   "For the soul there is never birth nor death. Nor, having once been, does he ever cease to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain." Actually the living entity does not take birth nor does he die, but he has to fight with the stringent laws of material nature throughout the entire span of his lifetime. He must also face different kinds of miserable conditions. Despite all this, the living entity, due to illusion, thinks that he is well situated in sense gratification.


                               TEXT 17




                       ksiyamane sva-sambandhe

                        ekasmin bahubhir yudha

                       cintam param jagamartah





   ksiyamane--when he became weak; sva-sambandhe--his intimate friend; ekasmin--alone; bahubhih--with many warriors; yudha--by battle; cintam--anxiety; param--very great; jagama--obtained; artah--being aggrieved; sa--along with; rastra--of the kingdom; pura--of the city; bandhavah--friends and relatives.




   Because he had to fight alone with so many soldiers, all of whom were great warriors, the serpent with five hoods became very weak. Seeing that his most intimate friend was weakening, King Puranjana and his friends and citizens living within the city all became very anxious.




   The living entity resides within the body and struggles for existence with the limbs of the body, which are referred to here as citizens and friends. One can struggle alone with many soldiers for some time, but not for all time. The living entity within the body can struggle up to the limit of a hundred years with good luck, but after that it is not possible to prolong the struggle. Thus the living entity submits and falls victim. In this regard, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has sung: vrddha kala aola saba sukha bhagala. When one becomes old, it becomes impossible to enjoy material happiness. Generally people think that religion and piety come at the end of life, and at this time one generally becomes meditative and takes to some so-called yogic process to relax in the name of meditation. Meditation, however, is simply a farce for those who have enjoyed life in sense gratification. As described in the Sixth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita, meditation (dhyana, dharana) is a difficult subject matter that one has to learn from his very youth. To meditate, one must restrain himself from all kinds of sense gratification. Unfortunately, meditation has now become a fashion for those who are overly addicted to sensual things. Such meditation is defeated by the struggle for existence. Sometimes such meditative processes pass for transcendental meditation. King Puranjana, the living entity, being thus victimized by the hard struggle for existence, took to transcendental meditation with his friends and relatives.


                               TEXT 18




                       sa eva puryam madhu-bhuk

                       pancalesu sva-parsadaih

                        upanitam balim grhnan

                       stri-jito navidad bhayam




   sah--he; eva--certainly; puryam--within the city; madhu-bhuk--enjoying sex life; pancalesu--in the kingdom of Pancala (five sense objects); sva-parsadaih--along with his followers; upanitam--brought; balim--taxes; grhnan--accepting; stri-jitah--conquered by women; na--did not; avidat--understand; bhayam--fear of death.




   King Puranjana collected taxes in the city known as Pancala and thus was able to engage in sexual indulgence. Being completely under the control of women, he could not understand that his life was passing away and that he was reaching the point of death.




   Government men--including kings, presidents, secretaries and ministers--are in a position to utilize taxes collected from the citizens for sense gratification. It is stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam that in this Kali-yuga government men (rajanyas) and those connected with the government, as well as exalted government ministers, secretaries and presidents, will all simply collect taxes for sense gratification. The government is top-heavy, and without increasing taxes the government cannot maintain itself. When taxes are collected they are utilized for the sense gratification of the government officials. Such irresponsible politicians forget that there is a time when death will come to take away all their sense gratification. Some of them are convinced that after life everything is finished. This atheistic theory was conceived long ago by a philosopher called Carvaka. Carvaka recommended that man should live very opulently by either begging, borrowing or stealing. He also maintained that one should not be afraid of death, the next life, the past life or an impious life because after the body is burnt to ashes, everything is finished. This is the philosophy of those who are too much materially addicted. Such philosophizing will not save one from the danger of death, nor will it save one from an abominable afterlife.


                               TEXT 19




                         kalasya duhita kacit

                       tri-lokim varam icchati

                       paryatanti na barhisman

                        pratyanandata kascana




   kalasya--of formidable Time; duhita--the daughter; kacit--someone; tri-lokim--within the three worlds; varam--husband; icchati--desiring; paryatanti--traveling all over the universe; na--never; barhisman--O King Pracinabarhisat; pratyanandata--accepted her proposal; kascana--anyone.




   My dear King Pracinabarhisat, at this time the daughter of formidable Time was seeking her husband throughout the three worlds. Although no one agreed to accept her, she came.




   In due course of time, when the body becomes old and practically invalid, it is subject to jara, the sufferings of old age. There are four basic kinds of suffering--birth, old age, disease and death. No scientist or philosopher has ever been able to make a solution to these four miserable conditions. The invalidity of old age known as jara is figuratively explained here as the daughter of Time. No one likes her, but she is very much anxious to accept anyone as her husband. No one likes to become old and invalid, but this is inevitable for everyone.


                               TEXT 20




                        daurbhagyenatmano loke

                        visruta durbhageti sa

                        ya tusta rajarsaye tu

                         vrtadat purave varam




   daurbhagyena--on account of misfortune; atmanah--of herself; loke--in the world; visruta--celebrated; durbhaga--most unfortunate; iti--thus; sa--she; ya--who; tusta--being satisfied; raja-rsaye--unto the great king; tu--but; vrta--being accepted; adat--delivered; purave--unto King Puru; varam--benediction.




   The daughter of Time [Jara] was very unfortunate. Consequently she was known as Durbhaga ["ill-fated"]. However, she was once pleased with a great king, and because the king accepted her, she granted him a great benediction.




   As Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings, saba sukha bhagala: all kinds of happiness disappear in old age. Consequently, no one likes old age, or jara. Thus Jara, as the daughter of Time, is known as a most unfortunate daughter. She was, however, at one time accepted by a great king, Yayati. Yayati was cursed by his father-in-law, Sukracarya, to accept her. When Sukracarya's daughter was married to King Yayati, one of her friends named Sarmistha went with her. Later King Yayati became very much attached to Sarmistha, and Sukracarya's daughter complained to her father. Consequently, Sukracarya cursed King Yayati to become prematurely old. King Yayati had five youthful sons, and he begged all his sons to exchange their youth for his old age. No one agreed except the youngest son, whose name was Puru. Upon accepting Yayati's old age, Puru was given the kingdom. It is said that two of Yayati's other sons, being disobedient to their father, were given kingdoms outside of India, most probably Turkey and Greece. The purport is that one can accumulate wealth and all kinds of material opulences, but during old age one cannot enjoy them. Although Puru attained his father's kingdom, he could not enjoy all the opulence, for he had sacrificed his youth. One should not wait for old age in order to become Krsna conscious. Due to the invalidity of old age, one cannot make progress in Krsna consciousness, however opulent he may be materially.


                               TEXT 21




                          kadacid atamana sa

                       brahma-lokan mahim gatam

                      vavre brhad-vratam mam tu

                          janati kama-mohita




   kadacit--once upon a time; atamana--traveling; sa--she; brahma-lokat--from Brahmaloka, the highest planet; mahim--on the earth; gatam--having come; vavre--she proposed; brhat-vratam--avowed brahmacari; mam--unto me; tu--then; janati--knowing; kama-mohita--being illusioned by lust.




   When I once came to this earth from Brahmaloka, the highest planetary system, the daughter of Time, wandering over the universe, met me. Knowing me to be an avowed brahmacari, she became lusty and proposed that I accept her.




   The great sage Narada Muni was a naisthika-brahmacari--that is, he never had sex life. He was consequently an ever-green youth. Old age, jara, could not attack him. The invalidity of old age can overcome an ordinary man, but Narada Muni was different. Taking Narada Muni to be an ordinary man, the daughter of Time confronted him with her lusty desire. It requires great strength to resist a woman's attraction. It is difficult for old men, and what to speak of young. Those who live as brahmacaris must follow in the footsteps of the great sage Narada Muni, who never accepted the proposals of Jara. Those who are too much sexually addicted become victims of jara, and very soon their life-span is shortened. Without utilizing the human form of life for Krsna consciousness the victims of jara die very soon in this world.


                               TEXT 22




                        mayi samrabhya vipula-

                       madac chapam suduhsaham

                       sthatum arhasi naikatra

                        mad-yacna-vimukho mune




   mayi--unto me; samrabhya--having become angry; vipula--unlimited; madat--out of illusion; sapam--curse; su-duhsaham--unbearable; sthatum arhasi--you may remain; na--never; ekatra--in one place; mat--my; yacna--request; vimukhah--having refused; mune--O great sage.




   The great sage Narada continued: When I refused to accept her request, she became very angry at me and cursed me severely. Because I refused her request, she said that I would not be able to stay in one place for a long time.




   The great sage Narada Muni has a spiritual body; therefore old age, disease, birth and death do not affect him. Narada is the most kind devotee of the Supreme Lord, and his only business is to travel all over the universe and preach God consciousness. In other words, his business is to make everyone a Vaisnava. Under the circumstances, there is ordinarily no need for him to stay in one place for more than the time he requires to preach. Since by his own free will he is already traveling all over the universe, the curse of Kalakanya is described as fortunate. Like Narada Muni, many other devotees of the Lord are engaged in preaching the glories of the Lord in different places and in different universes. Such personalities are beyond the jurisdiction of material laws.


                               TEXT 23




                         tato vihata-sankalpa

                         kanyaka yavanesvaram

                         mayopadistam asadya

                       vavre namna bhayam patim




   tatah--thereafter; vihata-sankalpa--being disappointed in her determination; kanyaka--the daughter of Time; yavana-isvaram--unto the king of the untouchables; maya upadistam--indicated by me; asadya--having approached; vavre--accepted; namna--of the name; bhayam--Fear; patim--as her husband.




   After she was thus disappointed by me, with my permission she approached the King of the Yavanas, whose name was Bhaya, or Fear, and she accepted him as her husband.




   Being the most perfect Vaisnava, Sri Narada Muni is always willing to do good to others, even to one who curses him. Although Kalakanya, the daughter of Time, was refused by Narada Muni, she was given a shelter. Of course no one could give her shelter, but a Vaisnava gives shelter somewhere to such an unfortunate girl. When jara, or old age, attacks, everyone dwindles and deteriorates. In one stroke Narada Muni gave shelter to Kalakanya and counterattacked the ordinary karmis. If one accepts the instructions of Narada Muni, the ocean of fear (bhaya) can be very quickly removed by the grace of that great Vaisnava.


                               TEXT 24




                        rsabham yavananam tvam

                        vrne virepsitam patim

                       sankalpas tvayi bhutanam

                        krtah kila na risyati




   rsabham--the best; yavananam--of the untouchables; tvam--you; vrne--I accept; vira--O great hero; ipsitam--desired; patim--husband; sankalpah--the determination; tvayi--unto you; bhutanam--of all living entities; krtah--if done; kila--certainly; na--never; risyati--becomes baffled.




   Approaching the King of the Yavanas, Kalakanya addressed him as a great hero, saying: My dear sir, you are the best of the untouchables. I am in love with you, and I want you as my husband. I know that no one is baffled if he makes friends with you.




   The words yavananam rsabham refer to the King of the Yavanas. The Sanskrit words yavana and mleccha apply to those who do not follow the Vedic principles. According to the Vedic principles, one should rise early in the morning, take bath, chant Hare Krsna, offer mangala-arati to the Deities, study Vedic literature, take prasada and engage in dressing and decorating the Deities. One must also collect money for the temple expenditures, or if one is a householder he must go to work in accordance with the prescribed duties of a brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya or sudra. In this way one should live a life of spiritual understanding, and this is the Vedic way of civilization. One who does not follow all these rules and regulations is called a yavana or mleccha. One should not mistakenly think that these words refer to certain classes of men in other countries. There is no question of limitation according to nationalism. Whether one lives in India or outside of India, he is called a yavana or mleccha if he does not follow the Vedic principles. One who does not actually follow the hygienic principles prescribed in the Vedic rules and regulations will be subjected to many contagious diseases. Because the students in this Krsna consciousness movement are advised to follow the Vedic principles, they naturally become hygienic.

   If a person is Krsna conscious, he can work like a young man even if he is seventy-five or eighty years old. Thus the daughter of Kala (Time) cannot overcome a Vaisnava. Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami engaged in writing Caitanya-caritamrta when he was very old, yet he presented the most wonderful literature about the activities of Lord Caitanya. Srila Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami began their spiritual lives at a very old age, that is, after they retired from their occupations and family lives. Yet they presented many valuable literatures for the advancement of spiritual life. This is confirmed by Srila Srinivasa Acarya, who praised the Gosvamis in this way:


       nana-sastra-vicaranaika-nipunau sad-dharma-samsthapakau

         lokanam hita-karinau tri-bhuvane manyau saranyakarau

          radha-krsna-padaravinda-bhajananandena mattalikau

         vande rupa-sanatanau raghu-yugau sri-jiva-gopalakau


   "I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvamis, namely Sri Sanatana Gosvami, Sri Rupa Gosvami, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami, Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, Sri Jiva Gosvami and Sri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami, who are very expert in scrutinizingly studying all the revealed scriptures with the aim of establishing eternal religious principles for the benefit of all human beings. Thus they are honored all over the three worlds, and they are worth taking shelter of because they are absorbed in the mood of the gopis and are engaged in the transcendental loving service of Radha and Krsna."

   Thus jara, the effect of old age, does not harass a devotee. This is because a devotee follows the instructions and the determination of Narada Muni. All devotees are in the disciplic succession stemming from Narada Muni because they worship the Deity according to Narada Muni's direction, namely the Narada-pancaratra, or the pancaratrika-vidhi. A devotee follows the principles of pancaratrika-vidhi as well as bhagavata-vidhi. Bhagavata-vidhi includes preaching work--sravanam kirtanam visnoh--the hearing and chanting of the glories of Lord Visnu, the Supreme personality of Godhead. The pancaratrika-vidhi includes arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. Because a devotee rigidly follows the instructions of Narada Muni, he has no fear of old age, disease or death. Apparently a devotee may grow old, but he is not subjected to the symptoms of defeat experienced by a common man in old age. Consequently, old age does not make a devotee fearful of death, as a common man is fearful of death. When jara, or old age, takes shelter of a devotee, Kalakanya diminishes the devotee's fear. A devotee knows that after death he is going back home, back to Godhead; therefore he has no fear of death. Thus instead of depressing a devotee, advanced age helps him become fearless and thus happy.


                               TEXT 25




                         dvav imav anusocanti

                         balav asad-avagrahau

                        yal loka-sastropanatam

                        na rati na tad icchati




   dvau--two kinds; imau--these; anusocanti--they lament; balau--ignorant; asat--the foolish; avagrahau--taking the path of; yat--that which; loka--by custom; sastra--by scriptures; upanatam--presented; na--never; rati--follows; na--neither; tat--that; icchati--desires.




   One who does not give charity according to the customs or injunctions of the scriptures and one who does not accept charity in that way are considered to be in the mode of ignorance. Such persons follow the path of the foolish. Surely they must lament at the end.




   It is herein stated that one should strictly follow the scriptures if one actually wants an auspicious life. The same is explained in Bhagavad-gita (16.23):


                      yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya

                         vartate kama-karatah

                        na sa siddhim avapnoti

                       na sukham na param gatim


   "He who discards scriptural injunctions and acts according to his own whims attains neither perfection, nor happiness, nor the supreme destination." One who does not strictly follow the terms of the Vedic injunctions never attains success in life or happiness. And what to speak of going home, back to Godhead.

   One sastric injunction holds that a householder, a ksatriya or an administrative head should not refuse to accept a woman if she voluntarily requests to become a wife. Since Kalakanya, the daughter of Time, was deputed by Narada Muni to offer herself to Yavana-raja, the King of the Yavanas could not refuse her. All transactions must be performed in light of the sastric injunctions. The sastric injunctions are confirmed by great sages like Narada Muni. As stated by Narottama dasa Thakura: sadhu-sastra-guru-vakya, cittete kariya aikya. One should follow the principles of saintly persons, scriptures and the spiritual master. In this way one is sure to attain success in life. Kalakanya, the daughter of Time, presented herself before the King of the Yavanas precisely in terms of sadhu, sastra and guru. Thus there was no reason for not accepting her.


                               TEXT 26




                       atho bhajasva mam bhadra

                       bhajantim me dayam kuru

                        etavan pauruso dharmo

                         yad artan anukampate




   atho--therefore; bhajasva--accept; mam--me; bhadra--O gentle one; bhajantim--willing to serve; me--to me; dayam--mercy; kuru--do; etavan--such a measure; paurusah--for any gentleman; dharmah--religious principle; yat--that; artan--to the distressed; anukampate--is compassionate.




   Kalakanya continued: O gentle one, I am now present before you to serve you. Please accept me and thus show me mercy. It is a gentleman's greatest duty to be compassionate upon a person who is distressed.




   Yavana-raja, the King of the Yavanas, could also refuse to accept Kalakanya, daughter of Time, but he considered the request due to the order of Narada Muni. Thus he accepted Kalakanya in a different way. In other words, the injunctions of Narada Muni, or the path of devotional service, can be accepted by anyone within the three worlds, and certainly by the King of the Yavanas. Lord Caitanya Himself requested everyone to preach the cult of bhakti-yoga all over the world, in every village and town. Preachers in the Krsna consciousness movement have actually experienced that even the yavanas and mlecchas have taken to spiritual life on the strength of Narada Muni's pancaratrika-vidhi. When mankind follows the disciplic succession, as recommended by Caitanya Mahaprabhu, everyone throughout the world will benefit.


                               TEXT 27





                         nisamya yavanesvarah

                       cikirsur deva-guhyam sa

                        sasmitam tam abhasata




   kala-kanya--by the daughter of Time; udita--expressed; vacah--words; nisamya--hearing; yavana-isvarah--the King of the Yavanas; cikirsuh--desiring to execute; deva--of providence; guhyam--confidential duty; sah--he; sa-smitam--smilingly; tam--her; abhasata--addressed.




   After hearing the statement of Kalakanya, daughter of Time, the King of the Yavanas began to smile and devise a means for executing his confidential duty on behalf of providence. He then addressed Kalakanya as follows.




   In Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 5.142) it is said:


                 ekale isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya

               yare yaiche nacaya, se taiche kare nrtya


   Actually the supreme controller is the Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and everyone is His servant. Yavana-raja, the King of the Yavanas, was also a servant of Krsna. Consequently, he wanted to execute the purpose of Krsna through the agency of Kalakanya. Although Kalakanya means invalidity or old age, Yavana-raja wanted to serve Krsna by introducing Kalakanya everywhere. Thus a sane person, by attaining old age, will become fearful of death. Foolish people engage in material activities as if they will live forever and enjoy material advancement, but actually there is no material advancement. Under illusion people think that material opulence will save them, but although there has been much advancement in material science, the problems of human society--birth, death, old age and disease--are still unsolved. Nonetheless foolish scientists are thinking that they have advanced materially. When Kalakanya, the invalidity of old age, attacks them, they become fearful of death, if they are sane. Those who are insane simply do not care for death, nor do they know what is going to happen after death. They are under the wrong impression that after death there is no life, and consequently they act very irresponsibly in this life and enjoy unrestricted sense gratification. For an intelligent person, the appearance of old age is an impetus to spiritual life. People naturally fear impending death. The King of the Yavanas tried to utilize Kalakanya for this purpose.


                               TEXT 28




                        maya nirupitas tubhyam

                         patir atma-samadhina

                        nabhinandati loko 'yam

                       tvam abhadram asammatam




   maya--by me; nirupitah--settled; tubhyam--for you; patih--husband; atma--of the mind; samadhina--by meditation; na--never; abhinandati--welcome; lokah--the people; ayam--these; tvam--you; abhadram--inauspicious; asammatam--unacceptable.




   The King of the Yavanas replied: After much consideration, I have arrived at a husband for you. Actually, as far as everyone is concerned, you are inauspicious and mischievous. Since no one likes you, how can anyone accept you as his wife?




   After much consideration, the King of the Yavanas decided to make the best use of a bad bargain. Kalakanya was a bad bargain, and no one liked her, but everything can be used for the service of the Lord. Thus the King of the Yavanas tried to utilize her for some purpose. The purpose has already been explained--that is, Kalakanya as jara, the invalidity of old age, can be used to arouse a sense of fear in people so that they will prepare for the next life by engaging in Krsna consciousness.


                               TEXT 29




                     tvam avyakta-gatir bhunksva

                        lokam karma-vinirmitam

                        ya hi me prtana-yukta

                        praja-nasam pranesyasi




   tvam--you; avyakta-gatih--whose movement is imperceptible; bhunksva--enjoy; lokam--this world; karma-vinirmitam--manufactured by fruitive activities; ya--one who; hi--certainly; me--my; prtana--soldiers; yukta--helped by; praja-nasam--annihilation of the living entities; pranesyasi--you shall carry out without any hindrance.




   This world is a product of fruitive activities. Therefore you may imperceptibly attack people in general. Helped by my soldiers, you can kill them without opposition.




   The word karma-vinirmitam means "manufactured by fruitive activities." This entire material world, especially in these days, is the result of fruitive activities. Everyone is fully engaged in decorating the world with highways, motorcars, electricity, skyscrapers, industries, businesses, etc. All this appears very nice for those who are simply engaged in sense gratification and who are ignorant of spiritual identity. As described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.5.4):


                    nunam pramattah kurute vikarma

                     yad indriya-pritaya aprnoti

                   na sadhu manye yata atmano 'yam

                     asann api klesada asa dehah


   Those without knowledge of the spirit soul are mad after materialistic activities, and they perform all kinds of sinful activities simply for sense gratification. According to Rsabhadeva, such activities are inauspicious because they force one to accept an abominable body in the next life. Everyone can experience that although we try to keep the body in a comfortable position, it is always giving pain and is subjected to the threefold miseries. Otherwise, why are there so many hospitals, welfare boards and insurance establishments? Actually, in this world there is no happiness. People are simply engaged trying to counteract unhappiness. Foolish people accept unhappiness as happiness; therefore the King of the Yavanas decided to attack such foolish people imperceptibly by old age, disease, and ultimately death. Of course, after death there must be birth; therefore Yavana-raja thought it wise to kill all the karmis through the agency of Kalakanya and thus try to make them aware that materialistic advancement is not actually advancement. Every living entity is a spiritual being, and consequently without spiritual advancement the human form of life is ruined.


                               TEXT 30




                      prajvaro 'yam mama bhrata

                       tvam ca me bhagini bhava

                     caramy ubhabhyam loke 'sminn

                        avyakto bhima-sainikah




   prajvarah--named Prajvara; ayam--this; mama--my; bhrata--brother; tvam--you; ca--also; me--my; bhagini--sister; bhava--become; carami--I shall go about; ubhabhyam--by both of you; loke--in the world; asmin--this; avyaktah--without being manifest; bhima--dangerous; sainikah--with soldiers.




   The King of the Yavanas continued: Here is my brother Prajvara. I now accept you as my sister. I shall employ both of you, as well as my dangerous soldiers, to act imperceptibly within this world.




   Kalakanya was sent by Narada Muni to Yavana-raja so that she might become his wife, but instead of accepting her as his wife, Yavana-raja accepted her as his sister. Those who do not follow the Vedic principles are unrestricted as far as sex life is concerned. Consequently they sometimes do not hesitate to have sex with their sisters. In this age of Kali there are many instances of such incest. Although Yavana-raja accepted the request of Narada Muni to show respect to him, he was nonetheless thinking of illicit sex. This was due to his being the King of the yavanas and mlecchas.

   The word prajvarah is very significant, for it means "the fever sent by Lord Visnu." Such a fever is always set at 107 degrees, the temperature at which a man dies. Thus the King of the mlecchas and yavanas requested the daughter of Time, Kalakanya, to become his sister. There was no need to ask her to become his wife, for the yavanas and mlecchas do not make distinctions as far as sex life is concerned. Thus one may outwardly be a sister, mother or daughter and still have sex. Yavana-raja's brother was Prajvara, and Kalakanya was invalidity itself. Combined and strengthened by the soldiers of Yavana-raja--namely nonhygienic conditions, illicit sex and ultimately a high degree of temperature to bring on death--they would be able to smash the materialistic way of life. In this connection it is significant that Narada was immune to the attack of jara, or invalidity, and similarly jara, or the destructive force, cannot attack any follower of Narada Muni or a pure Vaisnava.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fourth Canto, Twenty-seventh Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Attack by Candavega on the City of King Puranjana; the Character of Kalakanya."

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