Chapter Five

            The Demigods Appeal to the Lord for Protection


   This chapter describes the fifth and sixth Manus, and it also describes the prayers of the demigods and the curse of Durvasa Muni.

   The brother of Tamasa, the fourth Manu, who has previously been described, was the fifth Manu, Raivata. The sons of Raivata included Arjuna, Bali and Vindhya. During the reign of this Manu, Indra, the King of heaven, was known as Vibhu. Among the demigods were the Bhutarayas, and among the seven rsis were Hiranyaroma, Vedasira and Urdhvabahu. The rsi known as Subhra, by his wife, Vikuntha, gave birth to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha. This Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested a Vaikuntha planet at the request of Ramadevi. His power and activities are mentioned in the Third Canto.

   The sixth Manu was Caksusa, the son of Caksu Manu. Among the sons of the sixth Manu were Puru, Purusa and Sudyumna. During the reign of this Manu, Mantradruma was Indra, the King of the heavenly planets. Among the demigods were the Apyas, and among the seven rsis were Havisman and Viraka. The wife of Vairaja, whose name was Devasambhuti, gave birth to Ajita, an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This Ajita, taking the shape of a tortoise and holding the mountain known as Mandara on His back, churned the ocean and produced nectar for the demigods.

   Maharaja Pariksit was very eager to hear about the churning of the ocean, and therefore Sukadeva Gosvami began to explain to him how the demigods, having been cursed by Durvasa Muni, were defeated in battle by the asuras. When the demigods were deprived of their heavenly kingdom, they went to the assembly house of Lord Brahma and informed Lord Brahma of what had happened. Then Brahma, along with all the demigods, went to the shore of the ocean of milk and offered prayers to Ksirodakasayi Visnu.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        rajann uditam etat te

                        hareh karmagha-nasanam

                       gajendra-moksanam punyam

                       raivatam tv antaram srnu




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; rajan--O King; uditam--already described; etat--this; te--unto you; hareh--of the Lord; karma--activity; agha-nasanam--by hearing which one can be freed from all misfortune; gajendra-moksanam--deliverance of Gajendra, the King of the elephants; punyam--very pious to hear and describe; raivatam--about Raivata Manu; tu--but; antaram--in this millennium; srnu--kindly hear from me.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O King, I have described to you the pastime of Gajendra-moksana, which is most pious to hear. By hearing of such activities of the Lord, one can be freed from all sinful reactions. Now please listen as I describe Raivata Manu.


                                TEXT 2




                         pancamo raivato nama

                         manus tamasa-sodarah

                       bali-vindhyadayas tasya

                        suta harjuna-purvakah




   pancamah--the fifth; raivatah--Raivata; nama--by the name; manuh--Manu; tamasa-sodarah--the brother of Tamasa Manu; bali--Bali; vindhya--Vindhya; adayah--and so on; tasya--his; sutah--sons; ha--certainly; arjuna--Arjuna; purvakah--heading all the sons.




   The brother of Tamasa Manu was the fifth Manu, named Raivata. His sons were headed by Arjuna, Bali and Vindhya.


                                TEXT 3




                       vibhur indrah sura-gana

                         rajan bhutarayadayah

                         hiranyaroma vedasira

                       urdhvabahv-adayo dvijah




   vibhuh--Vibhu; indrah--the King of heaven; sura-ganah--the demigods; rajan--O King; bhutaraya-adayah--headed by the Bhutarayas; hiranyaroma--Hiranyaroma; vedasira--Vedasira; urdhvabahu--Urdhvabahu; adayah--and others; dvijah--the brahmanas or rsis who occupied the seven planets.




   O King, in the millennium of Raivata Manu the King of heaven was known as Vibhu, among the demigods were the Bhutarayas, and among the seven brahmanas who occupied the seven planets were Hiranyaroma, Vedasira and Urdhvabahu.


                                TEXT 4




                       patni vikuntha subhrasya

                      vaikunthaih sura-sattamaih

                        tayoh sva-kalaya jajne

                      vaikuntho bhagavan svayam




   patni--the wife; vikuntha--named Vikuntha; subhrasya--of Subhra; vaikunthaih--with the Vaikunthas; sura-sat-tamaih--demigods; tayoh--by Vikuntha and Subhra; sva-kalaya--with plenary expansions; jajne--appeared; vaikunthah--the Lord; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam--personally.




   From the combination of Subhra and his wife, Vikuntha, there appeared the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, along with demigods who were His personal plenary expansions.


                                TEXT 5




                       vaikunthah kalpito yena

                         loko loka-namaskrtah

                        ramaya prarthyamanena

                       devya tat-priya-kamyaya




   vaikunthah--a Vaikuntha planet; kalpitah--was constructed; yena--by whom; lokah--planet; loka-namaskrtah--worshiped by all people; ramaya--by Rama, the goddess of fortune; prarthyamanena--being so requested; devya--by the goddess; tat--her; priya-kamyaya--just to please.




   Just to please the goddess of fortune, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuntha, at her request, created another Vaikuntha planet, which is worshiped by everyone.




   Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks here that this Vaikuntha planet, like Srimad-Bhagavatam, appears and is said to be born or created, but both Srimad-Bhagavatam and Vaikuntha eternally exist beyond the material universes, which are enveloped by eight kinds of coverings. As described in the Second Canto, Lord Brahma saw Vaikuntha before the creation of the universe. Viraraghava Acarya mentions that this Vaikuntha is within the universe. It is situated above the mountain known as Lokaloka. This planet is worshiped by everyone.


                                TEXT 6




                        tasyanubhavah kathito

                         gunas ca paramodayah

                       bhauman renun sa vimame

                       yo visnor varnayed gunan




   tasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead appearing as Vaikuntha; anubhavah--great activities; kathitah--were explained; gunah--transcendental qualities; ca--also; parama-udayah--greatly glorious; bhauman--earthly; renun--particles; sah--someone; vimame--can count; yah--such a person; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; varnayet--can count; gunan--the transcendental qualities.




   Although the great activities and transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's various incarnations are wonderfully described, sometimes we are unable to understand them. Yet everything is possible for Lord Visnu. If one could count the atoms of the universe, then he could count the qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But no one can count the atoms of the universe, nor can anyone count the transcendental qualities of the Lord.




   The Lord's glorious activities referred to in this connection took place after His personal bodyguards Jaya and Vijaya became Daityas, having been cursed by the great sages Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanat-kumara and Sanandana. Jaya, as Hiranyaksa, had to fight with Varahadeva, and that same Varahadeva is mentioned in regard to the Raivata millennium. The fighting, however, took place during the reign of the first Manu, Svayambhuva. Therefore according to some authorities there are two Varahas. According to others, however, Varaha appeared during the regime of Svayambhuva Manu and stayed in the water until that of Raivata Manu. Some may doubt that this could be possible, but the answer is that everything is possible. If one could count the atoms within the universe, one could count the qualities of Lord Visnu. But the atoms of the universe are impossible for anyone to count, and similarly no one can count the transcendental qualities of the Lord.


                                TEXT 7




                      sasthas ca caksusah putras

                        caksuso nama vai manuh


                       pramukhas caksusatmajah




   sasthah--the sixth; ca--and; caksusah--of Caksu; putrah--the son; caksusah--Caksusa; nama--named; vai--indeed; manuh--Manu; puru--Puru; purusa--Purusa; sudyumna--Sudyumna; pramukhah--headed by; caksusa-atma-jah--the sons of Caksusa.




   The son of Caksu known as Caksusa was the sixth Manu. He had many sons, headed by Puru, Purusa and Sudyumna.


                                TEXT 8




                       indro mantradrumas tatra

                         deva apyadayo ganah

                       munayas tatra vai rajan





   indrah--the King of heaven; mantradrumah--known as Mantradruma; tatra--in that sixth manvantara; devah--the demigods; apya-adayah--the Apyas and others; ganah--that assembly; munayah--the seven sages; tatra--there; vai--indeed; rajan--O King; havismat--of the name Havisman; viraka-adayah--Viraka and others.




   During the reign of Caksusa Manu, the King of heaven was known as Mantradruma. Among the demigods were the Apyas, and among the great sages were Havisman and Viraka.


                                TEXT 9




                        tatrapi devasambhutyam

                        vairajasyabhavat sutah

                         ajito nama bhagavan

                         amsena jagatah patih




   tatra api--again in that sixth manvantara; devasambhutyam--by Devasambhuti; vairajasya--by her husband, Vairaja; abhavat--there was; sutah--a son; ajitah nama--by the name Ajita; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amsena--partially; jagatah patih--the master of the universe.




   In this sixth manvantara millennium, Lord Visnu, the master of the universe, appeared in His partial expansion. He was begotten by Vairaja in the womb of his wife, Devasambhuti, and His name was Ajita.


                               TEXT 10




                       payodhim yena nirmathya

                        suranam sadhita sudha

                      bhramamano 'mbhasi dhrtah

                        kurma-rupena mandarah




   payodhim--the ocean of milk; yena--by whom; nirmathya--by churning; suranam--of the demigods; sadhita--produced; sudha--nectar; bhramamanah--moving here and there; ambhasi--within the water; dhrtah--was staying; kurma-rupena--in the form of a tortoise; mandarah--the mountain known as Mandara.




   By churning the ocean of milk, Ajita produced nectar for the demigods. In the form of a tortoise, He moved here and there, carrying on His back the great mountain known as Mandara.


                             TEXTS 11-12





                       yatha bhagavata brahman

                        mathitah ksira-sagarah

                      yad-artham va yatas cadrim



                      yathamrtam suraih praptam

                       kim canyad abhavat tatah

                        etad bhagavatah karma

                        vadasva paramadbhutam




   sri-raja uvaca--King Pariksit inquired; yatha--as; bhagavata--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; brahman--O learned brahmana; mathitah--churned; ksira-sagarah--the ocean of milk; yat-artham--what was the purpose; va--either; yatah--wherefrom, for what reason; ca--and; adrim--the mountain (Mandara); dadhara--was staying; ambucara-atmana--in the form of a tortoise; yatha--as; amrtam--nectar; suraih--by the demigods; praptam--was achieved; kim--what; ca--and; anyat--other; abhavat--became; tatah--thereafter; etat--all these; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; karma--pastimes, activities; vadasva--kindly describe; parama-adbhutam--because they are so wonderful.




   King Pariksit inquired: O great brahmana, Sukadeva Gosvami, why and how did Lord Visnu churn the ocean of milk? For what reason did He stay in the water as a tortoise and hold up Mandara Mountain? Mow did the demigods obtain the nectar, and what other things were produced from the churning of the ocean? Kindly describe all these wonderful activities of the Lord.


                               TEXT 13




                        tvaya sankathyamanena

                        mahimna satvatam pateh

                        natitrpyati me cittam

                         suciram tapa-tapitam




   tvaya--by Your Holiness; sankathyamanena--being described; mahimna--by all the glories; satvatam pateh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the devotees; na--not; ati-trpyati--is sufficiently satisfied; me--my; cittam--heart; suciram--for such a long time; tapa--by miseries; tapitam--being distressed.




   My heart, which is disturbed by the three miserable conditions of material life, is not yet sated with hearing you describe the glorious activities of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of the devotees.


                               TEXT 14




                            sri-suta uvaca

                        samprsto bhagavan evam

                        dvaipayana-suto dvijah

                       abhinandya harer viryam

                        abhyacastum pracakrame




   sri-sutah uvaca--Sri Suta Gosvami said; samprstah--being questioned; bhagavan--Sukadeva Gosvami; evam--thus; dvaipayana-sutah--the son of Vyasadeva; dvi-jah--O brahmanas assembled here; abhinandya--congratulating Maharaja Pariksit; hareh viryam--the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abhyacastum--to describe; pracakrame--endeavored.




   Sri Suta Gosvami said: O learned brahmanas assembled here at Naimisaranya, when Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Dvaipayana, was thus questioned by the King, he congratulated the King and then endeavored to describe further the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                             TEXTS 15-16




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       yada yuddhe 'surair deva

                       badhyamanah sitayudhaih

                          gatasavo nipatita

                      nottistheran sma bhurisah


                         yada durvasah sapena

                       sendra lokas trayo nrpa

                      nihsrikas cabhavams tatra

                        nesur ijyadayah kriyah




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; yada--when; yuddhe--in the fighting; asuraih--by the demons; devah--the demigods; badhyamanah--besieged; sita-ayudhaih--by serpent weapons; gata-asavah--almost dead; nipatitah--some of them having fallen; na--not; uttistheran--got up again; sma--so became; bhurisah--the majority of them; yada--when; durvasah--of Durvasa Muni; sapena--with the curse; sa-indrah--with Indra; lokah trayah--the three worlds; nrpa--O King; nihsrikah--without any material opulence; ca--also; abhavan--became; tatra--at that time; nesuh--could not be performed; ijya-adayah--sacrifices; kriyah--ritualistic ceremonies.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: When the asuras, with their serpent weapons, severely attacked the demigods in a fight, many of the demigods fell and lost their lives. Indeed, they could not be revived. At that time, O King, the demigods had been cursed by Durvasa Muni, the three worlds were poverty-stricken, and therefore ritualistic ceremonies could not be performed. The effects of this were very serious.




   It is described that while Durvasa Muni was passing on the road, he saw Indra on the back of his elephant and was pleased to offer Indra a garland from his own neck. Indra, however, being too puffed up, took the garland, and without respect for Durvasa Muni, he placed it on the trunk of his carrier elephant. The elephant, being an animal, could not understand the value of the garland, and thus the elephant threw the garland between its legs and smashed it. Seeing this insulting behavior, Durvasa Muni immediately cursed Indra to be poverty-stricken, bereft of all material opulence. Thus the demigods, afflicted on one side by the fighting demons and on the other by the curse of Durvasa Muni, lost all the material opulences in the three worlds.

   To be extremely opulent in materialistic advancement is sometimes very risky. The materially opulent person does not care about anyone, and thus he commits offenses to great personalities, such as devotees and great saints. This is the way of material opulence. As described by Sukadeva Gosvami, dhana-durmadandha: too much wealth makes one blind. This happens even to Indra in his heavenly kingdom, and what to speak of others in this material world? When one is materially opulent, he should learn to be sober and well-behaved toward Vaisnavas and saintly persons; otherwise he will fall down.


                             TEXTS 17-18




                        nisamyaitat sura-gana


                    nadhyagacchan svayam mantrair

                        mantrayanto viniscitam


                      tato brahma-sabham jagmur

                       meror murdhani sarvasah

                       sarvam vijnapayam cakruh

                        pranatah paramesthine




   nisamya--hearing; etat--this incident; sura-ganah--all the demigods; maha-indra--King Indra; varuna-adayah--Varuna and other demigods; na--not; adhyagacchan--reached; svayam--personally; mantraih--by deliberation; mantrayantah--discussing; viniscitam--a real conclusion; tatah--thereupon; brahma-sabham--to the assembly of Lord Brahma; jagmuh--they went; meroh--of Sumeru Mountain; murdhani--on the top; sarvasah--all of them; sarvam--everything; vijnapayam cakruh--they informed; pranatah--offered obeisances; paramesthine--unto Lord Brahma.




   Lord Indra, Varuna and the other demigods, seeing their lives in such a state, consulted among themselves, but they could not find any solution. Then all the demigods assembled and went together to the peak of Sumeru Mountain. There, in the assembly of Lord Brahma, they fell down to offer Lord Brahma their obeisances, and then they informed him of all the incidents that had taken place.


                             TEXTS 19-20




                       sa vilokyendra-vayv-adin

                      nihsattvan vigata-prabhan

                        lokan amangala-prayan

                         asuran ayatha vibhuh


                          samahitena manasa

                       samsmaran purusam param


                       devan sa bhagavan parah




   sah--Lord Brahma; vilokya--looking over; indra-vayu-adin--all the demigods, headed by Lord Indra and Vayu; nihsattvan--bereft of all spiritual potency; vigata-prabhan--bereft of all effulgence; lokan--all the three worlds; amangala-prayan--merged into misfortune; asuran--all the demons; ayathah--flourishing; vibhuh--Lord Brahma, the supreme within this material world; samahitena--by full adjustment; manasa--of the mind; samsmaran--remembering again and again; purusam--the Supreme Person; param--transcendental; uvaca--said; utphulla-vadanah--bright-faced; devan--unto the demigods; sah--he; bhagavan--the most powerful; parah--of the demigods.




   Upon seeing that the demigods were bereft of all influence and strength and that the three worlds were consequently devoid of auspiciousness, and upon seeing that the demigods were in an awkward position whereas all the demons were flourishing, Lord Brahma, who is above all the demigods and who is most powerful, concentrated his mind on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus being encouraged, he became bright-faced and spoke to the demigods as follows.




   After hearing from the demigods the real situation, Lord Brahma was very much concerned because the demons were unnecessarily so powerful. When demons become powerful, the entire world is placed in an awkward position because demons are simply interested in their own sense gratification and not in the welfare of the world. Demigods or devotees, however, are concerned with the welfare of all living beings. Srila Rupa Gosvami, for example, left his ministership and went to Vrndavana for the benefit of the entire world (lokanam hita-karinau). This is the nature of a saintly person or demigod. Even impersonalists think of the welfare of all people. Thus Brahma was very much concerned at seeing the demons in power.


                               TEXT 21




                   aham bhavo yuyam atho 'suradayo



                  vrajama sarve saranam tam avyayam




   aham--I; bhavah--Lord Siva; yuyam--all of you demigods; atho--as well as; asura-adayah--demons and others; manusya--the human beings; tiryak--the animals; druma--the trees and plants; gharma-jatayah--as well as the insects and germs born of perspiration; yasya--of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); avatara--of the purusa incarnation; amsa--of His part and parcel, the guna-avatara, Brahma; kala--of Brahma's sons; visarjitah--produced by the generation; vrajama--we shall go; sarve--all of us; saranam--unto the shelter; tam--unto the Supreme; avyayam--the inexhaustible.




   Lord Brahma said: I, Lord Siva, all of you demigods, the demons, the living entities born of perspiration, the living beings born of eggs, the trees and plants sprouting from the earth, and the living entities born from embryos--all come from the Supreme Lord, from His incarnation of rajo-guna [Lord Brahma, the guna-avatara] and from the great sages [rsis] who are part of me. Let us therefore go to the Supreme Lord and take shelter of His lotus feet.




   Some creatures are born from embryos, some from perspiration, and some from seeds. In this way, all living entities emanate from the guna-avatara of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Ultimately, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the shelter of all living entities.


                               TEXT 22




                   na yasya vadhyo na ca raksaniyo


                  tathapi sarga-sthiti-samyamartham

                   dhatte rajah-sattva-tamamsi kale




   na--not; yasya--by whom (the Lord); vadhyah--anyone is to be killed; na--nor; ca--also; raksaniyah--anyone is to be protected; na--nor; upeksaniya--to be neglected; adaraniya--to be worshiped; paksah--part; tathapi--still; sarga--creation; sthiti--maintenance; samyama--and annihilation; artham--for the sake of; dhatte--He accepts; rajah--passion; sattva--goodness; tamamsi--and ignorance; kale--in due course of time.




   For the Supreme Personality of Godhead there is no one to be killed, no one to be protected, no one to be neglected and no one to be worshiped. Nonetheless, for the sake of creation, maintenance and annihilation according to time, He accepts different forms as incarnations either in the mode of goodness, the mode of passion or the mode of ignorance.




   This verse explains that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is equal to everyone. This is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (9.29):


                       samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu

                     na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah

                      ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya

                        mayi te tesu capy aham


   "I envy no one, nor am I partial to anyone. I am equal to all. But whoever renders service unto Me in devotion is a friend, is in Me, and I am also a friend to him." Although the Lord is impartial, He gives special attention to His devotees. Therefore the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (4.8):


                         paritranaya sadhunam

                         vinasaya ca duskrtam


                         sambhavami yuge yuge


   "To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I advent Myself millennium after millennium." The Lord has nothing to do with anyone's protection or destruction, but for the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this material world He apparently has to act either in goodness, in passion or in darkness. Actually, however, He is unaffected by these modes of material nature. He is the Supreme Lord of everyone. As a king sometimes punishes or rewards someone to maintain law and order, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although having nothing to do with the activities of this material world, sometimes appears as various incarnations according to the time, place and object.


                               TEXT 23




                  ayam ca tasya sthiti-palana-ksanah

                  sattvam jusanasya bhavaya dehinam

                 tasmad vrajamah saranam jagad-gurum

                svanam sa no dhasyati sam sura-priyah




   ayam--this period; ca--also; tasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sthiti-palana-ksanah--the time for maintenance, or for establishing His rule; sattvam--the mode of goodness; jusanasya--accepting (now, without waiting); bhavaya--for the increased development or establishment; dehinam--of all living entities who accept material bodies; tasmat--therefore; vrajamah--let us take; saranam--shelter; jagat-gurum--at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the universal teacher; svanam--His own persons; sah--He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); nah--unto us; dhasyati--will give; sam--the good fortune we need; sura-priyah--because He is naturally very dear to the devotees.




   Now is the time to invoke the mode of goodness of the living entities who have accepted material bodies. The mode of goodness is meant to establish the Supreme Lord's rule, which will maintain the existence of the creation. Therefore, this is the opportune moment to take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because He is naturally very kind and dear to the demigods, He will certainly bestow good fortune upon us.




   The material world is conducted by the three modes of nature, namely sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna. By rajo-guna everything material is created, by sattva-guna everything material is maintained properly, and by tamo-guna, when the creation is improperly situated, everything is destroyed.

   From this verse we can understand the situation of Kali-yuga, through which we are now passing. Just before the beginning of Kali-yuga--or, in other words, at the end of Dvapara-yuga--Lord Sri Krsna appeared and left His instructions in the form of Bhagavad-gita, in which He asked all living entities to surrender unto Him. Since the beginning of Kali-yuga, however, people have practically been unable to surrender to the lotus feet of Krsna, and therefore, after some five thousand years, Krsna came again as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu just to teach the entire world how to surrender unto Him, unto Sri Krsna, and thus be purified.

   Surrendering unto the lotus feet of Krsna means achieving complete purification. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (18.66):


                       sarva-dharman parityajya

                        mam ekam saranam vraja

                       aham tvam sarva-papebhyo

                        moksayisyami ma sucah


   "Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." Thus as soon as one surrenders unto the lotus feet of Krsna, one certainly becomes free from all contamination.

   Kali-yuga is full of contamination. This is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (12.3.51):


                       kaler dosa-nidhe rajann

                       asti hy eko mahan gunah

                        kirtanad eva krsnasya

                      mukta-sangah param vrajet


   This age of Kali is full of unlimited faults. Indeed, it is just like an ocean of faults (dosa-nidhi). But there is one chance, one opportunity. Kirtanad eva krsnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet: simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, one can be freed from the contamination of Kali-yuga and, in his original spiritual body, can return home, back to Godhead. This is the opportunity of Kali-yuga.

   When Krsna appeared, He gave His orders, and when Krsna Himself appeared as a devotee, as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, He showed us the path by which to cross the ocean of Kali-yuga. That is the path of the Hare Krsna movement. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared, He ushered in the era for the sankirtana movement. It is also said that for ten thousand years this era will continue. This means that simply by accepting the sankirtana movement and chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, the fallen souls of this Kali-yuga will be delivered. After the Battle of Kuruksetra, at which Bhagavad-gita was spoken, Kali-yuga continues for 432,000 years, of which only 5,000 years have passed. Thus there is still a balance of 427,000 years to come. Of these 427,000 years, the 10,000 years of the sankirtana movement inaugurated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu 500 years ago provide the opportunity for the fallen souls of Kali-yuga to take to the Krsna consciousness movement, chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra and thus be delivered from the clutches of material existence and return home, back to Godhead.

   Chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is potent always, but it is especially potent in this age of Kali. Therefore Sukadeva Gosvami, while instructing Maharaja Pariksit, stressed this chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra.


                       kaler dosa-nidhe rajann

                       asti hy eko mahan gunah

                        kirtanad eva krsnasya

                      mukta-sangah param vrajet


   "My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age. It is that simply by chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom." (Bhag. 12.3.51) Those who have accepted the task of spreading the Hare Krsna maha-mantra in full Krsna consciousness should take this opportunity to deliver people very easily from the clutches of material existence. Our duty, therefore, is to follow the instructions of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and preach the Krsna consciousness movement all over the world very sincerely. This is the best welfare activity for the peace and prosperity of human society.

   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's movement consists of spreading krsna-sankirtana. Param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam: "All glories to the Sri Krsna sankirtana!" Why is it so glorious? This has also been explained by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Ceto-darpana-marjanam: by the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, one's heart is cleansed. The whole difficulty is that in this age of Kali there is no sattva-guna and no clearance of the heart, and therefore people are making the mistake of identifying with their bodies. Even the big philosophers and scientists with whom we deal are practically all under the impression that they are their bodies. The other day we were discussing a prominent philosopher, Thomas Huxley, who was proud of being an Englishman. This means that he was in the bodily conception of life. Everywhere we find this same misunderstanding. As soon as one is in the bodily conception of life, one is nothing but an animal like a cat or a dog (sa eva go-kharah). Thus the most dangerous of the dirty things within our hearts is this misidentification of the body as the self. Under the influence of this misunderstanding, one thinks, "I am this body. I am an Englishman. I am an Indian. I am an American. I am Hindu. I am Muslim." This misconception is the strongest impediment, and it must be removed. That is the instruction of Bhagavad-gita and of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Indeed, Bhagavad-gita begins with this instruction:


                       dehino 'smin yatha dehe

                        kaumaram yauvanam jara

                       tatha dehantara-praptir

                       dhiras tatra na muhyati


   "As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." (Bg. 2.13) Although the soul is within the body, nevertheless, because of misunderstanding and animal propensities one accepts the body as the self. Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore says, ceto-darpana-marjanam. To cleanse the core of the heart, which is full of misunderstanding, is possible only through sri-krsna-sankirtana. The leaders of the Krsna consciousness movement should very seriously take this opportunity to be kind to the fallen souls by delivering them from the misunderstanding of materialistic life.

   One cannot be happy in any way within this material world. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (8.16):


                        abrahma-bhuvanal lokah

                        punar avartino 'rjuna


   "From the highest planet in this material world down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place." Therefore, not to speak of going to the moon, even if one is promoted to the highest planetary system, Brahmaloka, there cannot be any happiness in this material world. If one actually wants happiness, one must go to the spiritual world. The material world is characterized by a struggle for existence, and survival of the fittest is a well-known principle, but the poor souls of this material world do not know what is survival and who is fit. Survival does not mean that one should die; survival means that one should not die, but should enjoy an everlastingly blissful life of knowledge. This is survival. The Krsna consciousness movement is meant to make every person fit for survival. Indeed, it is meant to stop the struggle for existence. The Srimad-Bhagavatam and Bhagavad-gita give definite directions on how to stop the struggle for existence and how to survive in eternal life. The sankirtana movement, therefore, is a great opportunity. Simply by hearing Bhagavad-gita and chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, one becomes completely purified. Thus the struggle for existence ceases, and one goes back home, back to Godhead.


                               TEXT 24




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       ity abhasya suran vedhah

                         saha devair arindama

                        ajitasya padam saksaj

                         jagama tamasah param




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; abhasya--talking; suran--unto the demigods; vedhah--Lord Brahma, who is the head of this universe and who gives everyone good sense in Vedic knowledge; saha--with; devaih--the demigods; arim-dama--O Maharaja Pariksit, subduer of all kinds of enemies (such as the senses); ajitasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; padam--to the place; saksat--directly; jagama--went; tamasah--the world of darkness; param--transcendental to, beyond.




   O Maharaja Pariksit, subduer of all enemies, after Lord Brahma finished speaking to the demigods, he took them with him to the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which is beyond this material world. The Lord's abode is on an island called Svetadvipa, which is situated in the ocean of milk.




   Maharaja Pariksit is addressed here as arindama, "subduer of all enemies." Not only do we have enemies outside of our bodies, but within our bodies there are many enemies, such as lusty desires, anger and greed. Maharaja Pariksit is specifically addressed as arindama because in his political life he was able to subdue all kinds of enemies, and even though he was a young king, as soon as he heard that he was going to die within seven days, he immediately left his kingdom. He did not follow the dictates of enemies within his body, such as lust, greed and anger. He was not at all angry with the muni's son who had cursed him. Rather, he accepted the curse and prepared for his death in the association of Sukadeva Gosvami. Death is inevitable; no one can surpass the force of death. Therefore Maharaja Pariksit, while fully alive, wanted to hear Srimad-Bhagavatam. He is consequently addressed here as arindama.

   Another word, sura-priya, is also significant. Although Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is equal toward everyone, He is especially inclined toward His devotees (ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya mayi te tesu capy aham). The devotees are all demigods. There are two kinds of men within this world. One is called the deva, and the other is called the asura. The Padma Purana states:


                     dvau bhuta-sargau loke 'smin

                          daiva asura eva ca

                      visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva

                        asuras tad-viparyayah


   Anyone who is a devotee of Lord Krsna is called a deva, and others, even though they may be devotees of demigods, are called asuras. Ravana, for example, was a great devotee of Lord Siva, but he is described as an asura. Similarly, Hiranyakasipu is described as a great devotee of Lord Brahma, yet he was also an asura. Therefore, only the devotee of Lord Visnu is called sura, not asura. Lord Krsna is very much pleased with His devotees, even if they are not on the topmost stage of devotional service. Even on the lower stages of devotional service one is transcendental, and if one continues with devotional life, he continues to be a deva or sura. If one continues in this way, Krsna will always be pleased with him and will give him all instructions so that he may very easily return home, back to Godhead.

   Concerning ajitasya padam, the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the milk ocean of this material world, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says: padam ksirodadhi-stha-svetadvipam tamasah prakrteh param. The island known as Svetadvipa, which is in the ocean of milk, is transcendental. It has nothing to do with this material world. A city government may have a rest house where the governor and important government officers stay. Such a rest house is not an ordinary house. Similarly, although Svetadvipa, which is in the ocean of milk, is in this material world, it is param padam, transcendental.


                               TEXT 25





                      sruta-purvaya vai prabhuh

                       stutim abruta daivibhir

                      girbhis tv avahitendriyah




   tatra--there (at the Lord's abode known as Svetadvipa); adrsta-svarupaya--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who was not seen even by Lord Brahma; sruta-purvaya--but who was heard about from the Vedas; vai--indeed; prabhuh--Lord Brahma; stutim--prayers derived from Vedic literature; abruta--performed; daivibhih--by prayers mentioned in the Vedic literature or offered by persons strictly following Vedic principles; girbhih--by such sound vibrations or songs; tu--then; avahita-indriyah--fixed in mind, without deviation.




   There [at Svetadvipa], Lord Brahma offered prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, even though he had never seen the Supreme Lord. Simply because Lord Brahma had heard about the Supreme Personality of Godhead from Vedic literature, with a fixed mind he offered the Lord prayers as written or approved by Vedic literature.




   It is said that when Brahma and the other demigods go to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Svetadvipa, they cannot directly see Him, but their prayers are heard by the Lord, and the needful action is taken. This we have seen in many instances. The word sruta-purvaya is significant. We get experience by directly seeing or by hearing. If it is not possible to see someone directly, we can hear about him from authentic sources. Sometimes people ask whether we can show them God. This is ludicrous. It is not necessary for one to see God before he can accept God. Our sensory perception is always incomplete. Therefore, even if we see God, we may not be able to understand Him. When Krsna was on earth, many, many people saw Him but could not understand that He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam. Even though the rascals and fools saw Krsna personally, they could not understand that He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Even upon seeing God personally, one who is unfortunate cannot understand Him. Therefore we have to hear about God, Krsna, from the authentic Vedic literature and from persons who understand the Vedic version properly. Even though Brahma had not seen the Supreme Personality of Godhead before, he was confident that the Lord was there in Svetadvipa. Thus he took the opportunity to go there and offer prayers to the Lord.

   These prayers were not ordinary concocted prayers. Prayers must be approved by Vedic literature, as indicated in this verse by the words daivibhir girbhih. In our Krsna consciousness movement we do not allow any song that has not been approved or sung by bona fide devotees. We cannot allow cinema songs to be sung in the temple. We generally sing two songs. One is sri-krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda. This is bona fide. It is always mentioned in the Caitanya-caritamrta, and it is accepted by the acaryas. The other, of course, is the maha-mantra--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. We may also sing the songs of Narottama dasa Thakura, Bhaktivinoda Thakura and Locana dasa Thakura, but these two songs--"sri-krsna-caitanya" and the Hare Krsna maha-mantra--are sufficient to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although we cannot see Him. Seeing the Lord is not as important as appreciating Him from the authentic literature or the authentic statements of authorized persons.


                               TEXT 26





                    avikriyam satyam anantam adyam

                   guha-sayam niskalam apratarkyam

                    mano-'grayanam vacasaniruktam

                     namamahe deva-varam varenyam




   sri-brahma uvaca--Lord Brahma said; avikriyam--unto the Personality of Godhead, who never changes (as opposed to material existence); satyam--the eternal supreme truth; anantam--unlimited; adyam--the original cause of all causes; guha-sayam--present in everyone's heart; niskalam--without any decrease in potency; apratarkyam--inconceivable, not within the jurisdiction of material arguments; manah-agrayanam--more quick than the mind, inconceivable to mental speculation; vacasa--by jugglery of words; aniruktam--indescribable; namamahe--all of us demigods offer our respectful obeisances; deva-varam--unto the Supreme Lord, who is not equalled or surpassed by anyone; varenyam--the supreme worshipable, who is worshiped by the Gayatri mantra.




   Lord Brahma said: O Supreme Lord, O changeless, unlimited supreme truth. You are the origin of everything. Being all-pervading, You are in everyone's heart and also in the atom. You have no material qualities. Indeed, You are inconceivable. The mind cannot catch You by speculation, and words fail to describe You. You are the supreme master of everyone, and therefore You are worshipable for everyone. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not anything of material creation. Everything material must change from one form to another--for example, from earth to earthen pot and from earthen pot to earth again. All our creations are temporary, impermanent. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, however, is eternal, and similarly the living entities, who are parts of Him, are also eternal (mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah). The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sanatana, eternal, and the individual living entities are also eternal. The difference is that Krsna, or God, is the supreme eternal, whereas the individual souls are minute, fragmental eternals. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (13.3), ksetrajnam capi mam viddhi sarva-ksetresu bharata. Although the Lord is a living being and the individual souls are living beings, the Supreme Lord, unlike the individual souls, is vibhu, all-pervading, and ananta, unlimited. The Lord is the cause of everything. The living entities are innumerable, but the Lord is one. No one is greater than Him, and no one is equal to Him. Thus the Lord is the supreme worshipable object, as understood from the Vedic mantras (na tat-samas cabhyadhikas ca drsyate). The Lord is supreme because no one can evaluate Him by mental speculation or jugglery of words. The Lord can travel more quickly than the mind. In the sruti-mantras of Isopanisad it is said:


                      anejad ekam manaso javiyo

                   nainad deva apnuvan purvam arsat

                   tad dhavato 'nyan atyeti tisthat

                    tasminn apo matarisva dadhati


   "Although fixed in His abode, the Personality of Godhead is swifter than the mind and can overcome all others running. The powerful demigods cannot approach Him. Although in one place, He controls those who supply the air and rain. He surpasses all in excellence." (Isopanisad 4) Thus the Supreme is never to be equaled by the subordinate living entities.

   Because the Lord is situated in everyone's heart and the individual living entity is not, never should the individual living entity be equated with the Supreme Lord. In Bhagavad-gita (15.15) the Lord says, sarvasya caham hrdi sannivistah: "I am situated in everyone's heart." This does not mean, however, that everyone is equal to the Lord. In the sruti-mantras it is also said, hrdi hy ayam atma pratisthitah. In the beginning of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, satyam param dhimahi. The Vedic mantras say, satyam jnanam anantam and niskalam niskriyam santam niravadyam. God is supreme. Although naturally He does not do anything, He is doing everything. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita:


                        maya tatam idam sarvam

                        jagad avyakta-murtina

                       mat-sthani sarva-bhutani

                       na caham tesv avasthitah


   "By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded. All beings are in Me, but I am not in them." (Bg. 9.4)


                        mayadhyaksena prakrtih

                          suyate sacaracaram

                         hetunanena kaunteya

                         jagad viparivartate


   "This material nature, working under My direction, O son of Kunti, is producing all moving and unmoving beings. By its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again." (Bg. 9.10) Thus although the Lord is silent in His abode, He is doing everything through His different energies (parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate).

   All the Vedic mantras, or sruti-mantras, are included in this verse spoken by Lord Brahma, for Brahma and his followers, the Brahma-sampradaya, understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead through the parampara system. We have to gain understanding through the words of our predecessors. There are twelve mahajanas, or authorities, of whom Brahma is one.


                      svayambhur naradah sambhuh

                         kumarah kapilo manuh

                        prahlado janako bhismo

                        balir vaiyasakir vayam


   (Bhag. 6.3.20)


   We belong to the disciplic succession of Brahma, and therefore we are known as the Brahma-sampradaya. As the demigods follow Lord Brahma to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we also have to follow the authorities of the parampara system to understand the Lord.


                               TEXT 27




                  vipascitam prana-mano-dhiyatmanam

                  arthendriyabhasam anidram avranam

                  chayatapau yatra na grdhra-paksau

                 tam aksaram kham tri-yugam vrajamahe




   vipascitam--unto the omniscient; prana--how the living force is working; manah--how the mind is working; dhiya--how the intelligence is working; atmanam--of all living entities; artha--the objects of the senses; indriya--the senses; abhasam--knowledge; anidram--always awake and free from ignorance; avranam--without a material body subject to pains and pleasures; chaya-atapau--the shelter for all who are suffering from ignorance; yatra--wherein; na--not; grdhra-paksau--partiality toward any living being; tam--unto Him; aksaram--infallible; kham--all-pervading like the sky; tri-yugam--appearing with six opulences in three yugas (Satya, Treta and Dvapara); vrajamahe--I take shelter.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead directly and indirectly knows how everything, including the living force, mind and intelligence, is working under His control. He is the illuminator of everything and has no ignorance. He does not have a material body subject to the reactions of previous activities, and He is free from the ignorance of partiality and materialistic education. I therefore take shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, who is eternal, all-pervading and as great as the sky and who appears with six opulences in three yugas [Satya, Treta and Dvapara].




   In the beginning of Srimad-Bhagavatam the Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in this way: janmady asya yato'nvayad itaratas carthesv abhijnah. The Lord is the origin of all emanations, and He directly and indirectly knows everything about all the activities within His creation. Therefore the Lord is addressed here as vipascitam, one who is full of all knowledge or who knows everything. The Lord is the Supreme Soul, and He knows everything about the living entities and their senses.

   The word anidram, meaning "always awake and free from ignorance," is very important in this verse. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: it is the Lord who gives intelligence to everyone and who causes everyone to forget. There are millions and millions of living entities, and the Lord gives them directions. Therefore He has no time to sleep, and He is never in ignorance of our activities. The Lord is the witness of everything; He sees what we are doing at every moment. The Lord is not covered by a body resulting from karma. Our bodies are formed as a result of our past deeds (karmana daiva-netrena), but the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not have a material body, and therefore He has no avidya, ignorance. He does not sleep, but is always alert and awake.

   The Supreme Lord is described as tri-yuga because although He appeared variously in Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga and Dvapara-yuga, when He appeared in Kali-yuga He never declared Himself the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                       krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam



   The Lord appears in Kali-yuga as a devotee. Thus although He is Krsna, He chants the Hare Krsna mantra like a devotee. Still, Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32) recommends:


                      yajnaih sankirtana-prayair

                        yajanti hi sumedhasah


   Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, whose complexion is not black like that of Krsna but is golden (tvisakrsnam), is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is accompanied by associates like Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara and Srivasa. Those who are sufficiently intelligent worship this Supreme Personality of Godhead by performing sankirtana-yajna. In this incarnation, the Supreme Lord declares Himself not to be the Supreme Lord, and therefore He is known as Tri-yuga.


                               TEXT 28




                    ajasya cakram tv ajayeryamanam

                      manomayam pancadasaram asu

                   tri-nabhi vidyuc-calam asta-nemi

                   yad-aksam ahus tam rtam prapadye




   ajasya--of the living being; cakram--the wheel (the cycle of birth and death in this material world); tu--but; ajaya--by the external energy of the Supreme Lord; iryamanam--going around with great force; manah-mayam--which is nothing but a mental creation depending chiefly on the mind; pancadasa--fifteen; aram--possessing spokes; asu--very quick; tri-nabhi--having three naves (the three modes of material nature); vidyut--like electricity; calam--moving; asta-nemi--made of eight fellies (the eight external energies of the Lord--bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh, etc.); yat--who; aksam--the hub; ahuh--they say; tam--unto Him; rtam--the fact; prapadye--let us offer our respectful obeisances.




   In the cycle of material activities, the material body resembles the wheel of a mental chariot. The ten senses [five for working and five for gathering knowledge] and the five life airs within the body form the fifteen spokes of the chariot's wheel. The three modes of nature [goodness, passion and ignorance] are its center of activities, and the eight ingredients of nature [earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence and false ego] comprise the rim of the wheel. The external, material energy moves this wheel like electrical energy. Thus the wheel revolves very quickly around its hub or central support, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the Supersoul and the ultimate truth. We offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.




   The cycle of repeated birth and death is figuratively described herein. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.5):


                        apareyam itas tv anyam

                       prakrtim viddhi me param

                        jiva-bhutam maha-baho

                        yayedam dharyate jagat


   The entire world is going on because the living entity, who is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, is utilizing the material energy. Under the clutches of the material energy, the jivatma is revolving on the wheel of birth and death under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The central point is the Supersoul. As explained in Bhagavad-gita (18.61):


                        isvarah sarva-bhutanam

                       hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

                       bhramayan sarva-bhutani

                         yantrarudhani mayaya


   "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy." The material body of the living entity is a result of the conditioned soul's activities, and because the supporter is the Supersoul, the Supersoul is the true reality. Every one of us, therefore, should offer respectful obeisances to this central reality. One should not be misguided by the activities of this material world and forget the central point, the Absolute Truth. That is the instruction given here by Lord Brahma.


                               TEXT 29




                   ya eka-varnam tamasah param tad

                     alokam avyaktam ananta-param

                      asam cakaropasuparnam enam

                     upasate yoga-rathena dhirah




   yah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead who; eka-varnam--absolute, situated in pure goodness; tamasah--to the darkness of the material world; param--transcendental; tat--that; alokam--who cannot be seen; avyaktam--not manifested; ananta-param--unlimited, beyond the measurement of material time and space; asam cakara--situated; upa-suparnam--on the back of Garuda; enam--Him; upasate--worship; yoga-rathena--by the vehicle of mystic yoga; dhirah--persons who are sober, undisturbed by material agitation.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in pure goodness [suddha-sattva], and therefore He is eka-varna--the omkara [pranava]. Because the Lord is beyond the cosmic manifestation, which is considered to be darkness, He is not visible to material eyes. Nonetheless, He is not separated from us by time or space, but is present everywhere. Seated on His carrier, Garuda, He is worshiped by means of mystical yogic power by those who have achieved freedom from agitation. Let us all offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.




   Sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam (Bhag. 4.3.23). In this material world, the three modes of material nature--goodness, passion and ignorance--prevail. Among these three, goodness is the platform of knowledge, and passion brings about a mixture of knowledge and ignorance, but the mode of ignorance is full of darkness. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead is beyond darkness and passion. He is on the platform where goodness or knowledge is not disturbed by passion and ignorance. This is called the vasudeva platform. It is on this platform of vasudeva that Vasudeva, or Krsna, can appear. Thus Krsna appeared on this planet as the son of Vasudeva. Because the Lord is situated beyond the three modes of material nature, He is unseen by those who are dominated by these three modes. One must therefore become dhira, or undisturbed by the modes of material nature. The process of yoga may be practiced by one who is free from the agitation of these modes. Therefore yoga is defined in this way: yoga indriya-samyamah. As previously explained, we are disturbed by the indriyas, or senses. Moreover, we are agitated by the three modes of material nature, which are imposed upon us by the external energy. In conditional life, the living entity moves turbulently in the whirlpool of birth and death, but when one is situated on the transcendental platform of visuddha-sattva, pure goodness, he can see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who sits on the back of Garuda. Lord Brahma offers his respectful obeisances unto that Supreme Lord.


                               TEXT 30




                    na yasya kascatititarti mayam

                    yaya jano muhyati veda nartham

                   tam nirjitatmatma-gunam paresam

                    namama bhutesu samam carantam




   na--not; yasya--of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); kasca--anyone; atititarti--is able to overcome; mayam--the illusory energy; yaya--by whom (by the illusory energy); janah--people in general; muhyati--become bewildered; veda--understand; na--not; artham--the aim of life; tam--unto Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); nirjita--completely controlling; atma--the living entities; atma-gunam--and His external energy; para-isam--the Lord, who is transcendentally situated; namama--we offer our respectful obeisances; bhutesu--unto all living beings; samam--equally situated, or equipoised; carantam--controlling or ruling them.




   No one can overcome the Supreme Personality of Godhead's illusory energy [maya], which is so strong that it bewilders everyone, making one lose the sense to understand the aim of life. That same maya, however, is subdued by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who rules everyone and who is equally disposed toward all living entities. Let us offer our obeisances unto Him.




   The prowess of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, certainly controls all living entities, so much so that the living entities have forgotten the aim of life. Na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum: the living entities have forgotten that the aim of life is to go back home, back to Godhead. The external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead gives all conditioned souls what appears to be an opportunity to be happy within this material world, but that is maya; in other words, it is a dream that is never to be fulfilled. Thus every living being is illusioned by the external energy of the Supreme Lord. That illusory energy is undoubtedly very strong, but she is fully under the control of the transcendental person who is described in this verse as paresam, the transcendental Lord. The Lord is not a part of the material creation, but is beyond the creation. Therefore, not only does He control the conditioned souls through His external energy, but He also controls the external energy itself. Bhagavad-gita clearly says that the strong material energy controls everyone and that getting out of her control is extremely difficult. That controlling energy belongs to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and works under His control. The living entities, however, being subdued by the material energy, have forgotten the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 31




                    ime vayam yat-priyayaiva tanva

                   sattvena srsta bahir-antar-avih

                  gatim na suksmam rsayas ca vidmahe

                    kuto 'suradya itara-pradhanah




   ime--these; vayam--we (the demigods); yat--to whom; priyaya--appearing very near and dear; eva--certainly; tanva--the material body; sattvena--by the mode of goodness; srstah--created; bahih-antah-avih--although fully aware, internally and externally; gatim--destination; na--not; suksmam--very subtle; rsayah--great saintly persons; ca--also; vidmahe--understand; kutah--how; asura-adyah--the demons and atheists; itara--who are insignificant in their identities; pradhanah--although they are leaders of their own societies.




   Since our bodies are made of sattva-guna, we, the demigods, are internally and externally situated in goodness. All the great saints are also situated in that way. Therefore, if even we cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, what is to be said of those who are most insignificant in their bodily constitutions, being situated in the modes of passion and ignorance? How can they understand the Lord? Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.




   Atheists and demons cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although He is situated within everyone. For them the Lord finally appears in the form of death, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (mrtyuh sarva-haras caham). Atheists think that they are independent, and therefore they do not care about the supremacy of the Lord, yet the Lord asserts His supremacy when He overcomes them as death. At the time of death, their attempts to use their so-called scientific knowledge and philosophical speculation to deny the supremacy of the Lord cannot work. Hiranyakasipu, for example, was an exalted representative of the atheistic class of men. He always challenged the existence of God, and thus he became inimical even toward his own son. Everyone was afraid of Hiranyakasipu's atheistic principles. Nonetheless, when Lord Nrsimhadeva appeared in order to kill him, Hiranyakasipu's atheistic principles could not save him. Lord Nrsimhadeva killed Hiranyakasipu and took away all his power, influence and pride. Atheistic men, however, never understand how everything they create is annihilated. The Supersoul is situated within them, but because of the predominance of the modes of passion and ignorance, they cannot understand the supremacy of the Lord. Even the demigods, the devotees, who are transcendentally situated or situated on the platform of goodness, are not fully aware of the qualities and position of the Lord. How then can the demons and atheists understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead? It is not possible. Therefore, to gain this understanding, the demigods, headed by Lord Brahma, offered their respectful obeisances to the Lord.


                               TEXT 32




                   padau mahiyam sva-krtaiva yasya

                  catur-vidho yatra hi bhuta-sargah

                   sa vai maha-purusa atma-tantrah

                   prasidatam brahma maha-vibhutih




   padau--His lotus feet; mahi--the earth; iyam--this; sva-krta--created by Himself; eva--indeed; yasya--of whom; catuh-vidhah--of four kinds of living entities; yatra--wherein; hi--indeed; bhuta-sargah--material creation; sah--He; vai--indeed; maha-purusah--the Supreme Person; atma-tantrah--self-sufficient; prasidatam--may He be merciful to us; brahma--the greatest; maha-vibhutih--with unlimited potency.




   On this earth there are four kinds of living entities, who are all created by Him. The material creation rests on His lotus feet. He is the great Supreme Person, full of opulence and power. May He be pleased with us.




   The word mahi refers to the five material elements--earth, water, air, fire and sky--which rest upon the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Mahat-padam punya-yaso murareh. The mahat-tattva, the total material energy, rests on His lotus feet, for the cosmic manifestation is but another opulence of the Lord. In this cosmic manifestation there are four kinds of living entities--jarayu ja (those born from embryos), anda ja (those born from eggs), sveda ja (those born from perspiration), and udbhijja (those born from seeds). Everything is generated from the Lord, as confirmed in the Vedanta-sutra (janmady asya yatah). No one is independent, but the Supreme Soul is completely independent. Janmady asya yato 'nvayad itaratas carthesv abhijnah sva-rat. The word sva-rat means "independent." We are dependent, whereas the Supreme Lord is completely independent. Therefore the Supreme Lord is the greatest of all. Even Lord Brahma, who created the cosmic manifestation, is but another opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The material creation is activated by the Lord, and therefore the Lord is not a part of the material creation. The Lord exists in His original, spiritual position. The universal form of the Lord, vairaja-murti, is another feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 33




                   ambhas tu yad-reta udara-viryam

                  sidhyanti jivanty uta vardhamanah

                    loka yato 'thakhila-loka-palah

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   ambhah--the masses of water seen on this planet or on others; tu--but; yat-retah--His semen; udara-viryam--so powerful; sidhyanti--are generated; jivanti--live; uta--indeed; vardhamanah--flourish; lokah--all the three worlds; yatah--from which; atha--also; akhila-loka-palah--all the demigods throughout the universe; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--a person with unlimited potency.




   The entire cosmic manifestation has emerged from water, and it is because of water that all living entities endure, live and develop. This water is nothing but the semen of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, may the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has such great potency, be pleased with us.




   Despite the theories of so-called scientists, the vast quantities of water on this planet and on other planets are not created by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Rather, the water is sometimes explained to be the perspiration and sometimes the semen of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is from water that all living entities emerge, and because of water they live and grow. If there were no water, all life would cease. Water is the source of life for everyone. Therefore, by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we have so much water all over the world.


                               TEXT 34




                     somam mano yasya samamananti

                    divaukasam yo balam andha ayuh

                    iso naganam prajanah prajanam

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   somam--the moon; manah--the mind; yasya--of whom (of the Supreme Personality of Godhead); samamananti--they say; divaukasam--of the denizens of the upper planetary systems; yah--who; balam--the strength; andhah--the food grains; ayuh--the duration of life; isah--the Supreme Lord; naganam--of the trees; prajanah--the source of breeding; prajanam--of all living entities; prasidatam--may He be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; maha-vibhutih--the source of all opulences.




   Soma, the moon, is the source of food grains, strength and longevity for all the demigods. He is also the master of all vegetation and the source of generation for all living entities. As stated by learned scholars, the moon is the mind of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the source of all opulences, be pleased with us.




   Soma, the predominating deity of the moon, is the source of food grains and therefore the source of strength even for the celestial beings, the demigods. He is the vital force for all vegetation. Unfortunately, modern so-called scientists, who do not fully understand the moon, describe the moon as being full of deserts. Since the moon is the source for our vegetation, how can the moon be a desert? The moonshine is the vital force for all vegetation, and therefore we cannot possibly accept that the moon is a desert.


                               TEXT 35




                   agnir mukham yasya tu jata-veda

                   jatah kriya-kanda-nimitta-janma

                  antah-samudre 'nupacan sva-dhatun

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   agnih--fire; mukham--the mouth through which the Supreme Personality of Godhead eats; yasya--of whom; tu--but; jata-vedah--the producer of wealth or of all necessities of life; jatah--produced; kriya-kanda--ritualistic ceremonies; nimitta--for the sake of; janma--formed for this reason; antah-samudre--within the depths of the ocean; anupacan--always digesting; sva-dhatun--all elements; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the supremely powerful.




   Fire, which is born for the sake of accepting oblations in ritualistic ceremonies, is the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Fire exists within the depths of the ocean to produce wealth, and fire is also present in the abdomen to digest food and produce various secretions for the maintenance of the body. May that supremely powerful Personality of Godhead be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 36




                  yac-caksur asit taranir deva-yanam

                   trayimayo brahmana esa dhisnyam

                  dvaram ca mukter amrtam ca mrtyuh

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   yat--that which; caksuh--eye; asit--became; taranih--the sun-god; deva-yanam--the predominating deity for the path of deliverance for the demigods; trayi-mayah--for the sake of guidance in karma-kanda Vedic knowledge; brahmanah--of the supreme truth; esah--this; dhisnyam--the place for realization; dvaram ca--as well as the gateway; mukteh--for liberation; amrtam--the path of eternal life; ca--as well as; mrtyuh--the cause of death; prasidatam--may He be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; maha-vibhutih--the all-powerful.




   The sun-god marks the path of liberation, which is called arciradi-vartma. He is the chief source for understanding of the Vedas, he is the abode where the Absolute Truth can be worshiped, He is the gateway to liberation, and he is the source of eternal life as well as the cause of death. The sun-god is the eye of the Lord. May that Supreme Lord, who is supremely opulent, be pleased with us.




   The sun-god is considered to be the chief of the demigods. He is also considered to be the demigod who watches the northern side of the universe. He gives help for understanding the Vedas. As confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.52):


                yac-caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam

                 raja samasta-sura-murtir asesa-tejah

               yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   "The sun, full of infinite effulgence, is the king of all the planets and the image of the good soul. The sun is like the eye of the Supreme Lord. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, in pursuance of whose order the sun performs his journey, mounting the wheel of time." The sun is actually the eye of the Lord. In the Vedic mantras it is said that unless the Supreme Personality of Godhead sees, no one can see. Unless there is sunlight, no living entity on any planet can see. Therefore the sun is considered to be the eye of the Supreme Lord. That is confirmed here by the words yac-caksur asit and in the Brahma-samhita by the words yac-caksur esa savita. The word savita means the sun-god.


                               TEXT 37




                    pranad abhud yasya caracaranam

                   pranah saho balam ojas ca vayuh

                    anvasma samrajam ivanuga vayam

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   pranat--from the vital force; abhut--generated; yasya--of whom; cara-acaranam--of all living entities, moving and nonmoving; pranah--the vital force; sahah--the basic principle of life; balam--strength; ojah--the vital force; ca--and; vayuh--the air; anvasma--follow; samrajam--an emperor; iva--like; anugah--followers; vayam--all of us; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the supremely powerful.




   All living entities, moving and nonmoving, receive their vital force, their bodily strength and their very lives from the air. All of us follow the air for our vital force, exactly as servants follow an emperor. The vital force of air is generated from the original vital force of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. May that Supreme Lord be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 38




                  srotrad diso yasya hrdas ca khani

                  prajajnire kham purusasya nabhyah


                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   srotrat--from the ears; disah--different directions; yasya--of whom; hrdah--from the heart; ca--also; khani--the holes of the body; prajajnire--generated; kham--the sky; purusasya--of the Supreme Person; nabhyah--from the navel; prana--of the life force; indriya--senses; atma--mind; asu--vital force; sarira--and body; ketah--the shelter; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the supremely powerful.




   May the supremely powerful Personality of Godhead be pleased with us. The different directions are generated from His ears, the holes of the body come from His heart, and the vital force, the senses, the mind, the air within the body, and the ether, which is the shelter of the body, come from His navel.




   All living entities, moving and nonmoving, receive their vital force, their bodily strength and their very lives from the air. All of us follow the air for our vital force, exactly as servants follow an emperor. The vital force of air is generated from the original vital force of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. May that Supreme Lord be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 39




                  balan mahendras tri-dasah prasadan

                   manyor giriso dhisanad virincah

              khebhyas tu chandamsy rsayo medhratah kah

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   balat--by His strength; maha-indrah--King Indra became possible; tri-dasah--as well as the demigods; prasadat--by satisfaction; manyoh--by anger; giri-isah--Lord Siva; dhisanat--from sober intelligence; virincah--Lord Brahma; khebhyah--from the bodily holes; tu--as well as; chandamsi--Vedic mantras; rsayah--great saintly persons; medhratah--from the genitals; kah--the prajapatis; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has extraordinary power.




   Mahendra, the King of Heaven, was generated from the prowess of the Lord, the demigods were generated from the mercy of the Lord, Lord Siva was generated from the anger of the Lord, and Lord Brahma from His sober intelligence. The Vedic mantras were generated from the bodily holes of the Lord, and the great saints and prajapatis were generated from His genitals. May that supremely powerful Lord be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 40




                   srir vaksasah pitaras chayayasan

                 dharmah stanad itarah prsthato 'bhut

                 dyaur yasya sirsno 'psaraso viharat

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   srih--the goddess of fortune; vaksasah--from His chest; pitarah--the inhabitants of Pitrloka; chayaya--from His shadow; asan--became possible; dharmah--the principle of religion; stanat--from His bosom; itarah--irreligion (the opposite of dharma); prsthatah--from the back; abhut--became possible; dyauh--the heavenly planets; yasya--of whom; sirsnah--from the top of the head; apsarasah--the inhabitants of Apsaroloka; viharat--by His sense enjoyment; prasidatam--kindly be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); maha-vibhutih--the greatest in all prowess.




   The goddess of fortune was generated from His chest, the inhabitants of Pitrloka from His shadow, religion from His bosom, and irreligion [the opposite of religion] from His back. The heavenly planets were generated from the top of His head, and the Apsaras from His sense enjoyment. May that supremely powerful Personality of Godhead be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 41




                 vipro mukhad brahma ca yasya guhyam

                    rajanya asid bhujayor balam ca

                  urvor vid ojo 'nghrir aveda-sudrau

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   viprah--the brahmanas; mukhat--from His mouth; brahma--the Vedic literatures; ca--also; yasya--of whom; guhyam--from His confidential knowledge; rajanyah--the ksatriyas; asit--became possible; bhujayoh--from His arms; balam ca--as well as bodily strength; urvoh--from the thighs; vit--vaisyas; ojah--and their expert productive knowledge; anghrih--from His feet; aveda--those who are beyond the jurisdiction of Vedic knowledge; sudrau--the worker class; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the supremely powerful Personality of Godhead.




   The brahmanas and Vedic knowledge come from the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the ksatriyas and bodily strength come from His arms, the vaisyas and their expert knowledge in productivity and wealth come from His thighs, and the sudras, who are outside of Vedic knowledge, come from His feet. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full in prowess, be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 42




               lobho 'dharat pritir upary abhud dyutir

                    nastah pasavyah sparsena kamah

                 bhruvor yamah paksma-bhavas tu kalah

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   lobhah--greed; adharat--from the lower lip; pritih--affection; upari--from the upper lip; abhut--became possible; dyutih--bodily luster; nastah--from the nose; pasavyah--fit for the animals; sparsena--by the touch; kamah--lusty desires; bhruvoh--from the eyebrows; yamah--Yamaraja became possible; paksma-bhavah--from the eyelashes; tu--but; kalah--eternal time, which brings death; prasidatam--be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has great prowess.




   Greed is generated from His lower lip, affection from His upper lip, bodily luster from His nose, animalistic lusty desires from His sense of touch, Yamaraja from His eyebrows, and eternal time from His eyelashes. May that Supreme Lord be pleased with us.


                               TEXT 43




                  dravyam vayah karma gunan visesam

                     yad-yogamaya-vihitan vadanti

                  yad durvibhavyam prabudhapabadham

                   prasidatam nah sa maha-vibhutih




   dravyam--the five elements of the material world; vayah--time; karma--fruitive activities; gunan--the three modes of material nature; visesam--the varieties caused by combinations of the twenty-three elements; yat--that which; yoga-maya--by the Lord's creative potency; vihitan--all done; vadanti--all learned men say; yat durvibhavyam--which is actually extremely difficult to understand; prabudha-apabadham--rejected by the learned, by those who are fully aware; prasidatam--may be pleased; nah--upon us; sah--He; maha-vibhutih--the controller of everything.




   All learned men say that the five elements, eternal time, fruitive activity, the three modes of material nature, and the varieties produced by these modes are all creations of yogamaya. This material world is therefore extremely difficult to understand, but those who are highly learned have rejected it. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the controller of everything, be pleased with us.




   The word durvibhavyam is very important in this verse. No one can understand how everything is happening in this material world by the arrangement of the Supreme Personality of Godhead through His material energies. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (9.10), mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sacaracaram: everything is actually happening under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This much we can learn, but how it is happening is extremely difficult to understand. We cannot even understand how the affairs within our body are systematically taking place. The body is a small universe, and since we cannot understand how things are happening in this small universe, how can we understand the affairs of the bigger universe? Actually this universe is very difficult to understand, yet learned sages have advised, as Krsna has also advised, that this material world is duhkhalayam asasvatam; in other words, it is a place of misery and temporality. One must give up this world and go back home, back to the Personality of Godhead. Materialists may argue, "If this material world and its affairs are impossible to understand, how can we reject it?" The answer is provided by the word prabudhapabadham. We have to reject this material world because it is rejected by those who are learned in Vedic wisdom. Even though we cannot understand what this material world is, we should be ready to reject it in accordance with the advice of learned persons, especially the advice of Krsna. Krsna says:


                        mam upetya punar janma

                        duhkhalayam asasvatam

                        napnuvanti mahatmanah

                       samsiddhim paramam gatah


   "After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection." (Bg. 8.15) One has to return home, back to Godhead, for this is the highest perfection of life. To go back to Godhead means to reject this material world. Although we cannot understand the functions of this material world and whether it is good for us or bad for us, in accordance with the advice of the supreme authority we must reject it and go back home, back to Godhead.


                               TEXT 44




                   namo 'stu tasma upasanta-saktaye


                    gunesu maya-racitesu vrttibhir

                    na sajjamanaya nabhasvad-utaye




   namah--our respectful obeisances; astu--let there be; tasmai--unto Him; upasanta-saktaye--who does not endeavor to achieve anything else, who is free from restlessness; svarajya--completely independent; labha--of all gains; pratipurita--fully achieved; atmane--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gunesu--of the material world, which is moving because of the three modes of nature; maya-racitesu--things created by the external energy; vrttibhih--by such activities of the senses; na sajjamanaya--one who does not become attached, or one who is above material pains and pleasures; nabhasvat--the air; utaye--unto the Lord, who has created this material world as His pastime.




   Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is completely silent, free from endeavor, and completely satisfied by His own achievements. He is not attached to the activities of the material world through His senses. Indeed, in performing His pastimes in this material world, He is just like the unattached air.




   We can simply understand that behind the activities of material nature is the Supreme Lord, by whose indications everything takes place, although we cannot see Him. Even without seeing Him, we should offer Him our respectful obeisances. We should know that He is complete. Everything is done systematically by His energies (parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate), and therefore He has nothing to do (na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate). As indicated here by the word upasanta-saktaye, His different energies act, but although He sets these energies in action, He Himself has nothing to do. He is not attached to anything, for He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, let us offer our respectful obeisances unto Him.


                               TEXT 45




                       sa tvam no darsayatmanam


                        prapannanam didrksunam

                       sasmitam te mukhambujam




   sah--He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); tvam--You are my Lord; nah--to us; darsaya--be visible; atmanam--in Your original form; asmat-karana-gocaram--appreciable by our direct senses, especially by our eyes; prapannanam--we are all surrendered unto You; didrksunam--yet we wish to see You; sasmitam--smiling; te--Your; mukha-ambujam--lotuslike face.




   O Supreme Personality of Godhead, we are surrendered unto You, yet we wish to see You. Please make Your original form and smiling lotus face visible to our eyes and appreciable to our other senses.




   The devotees are always eager to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form, with His smiling lotuslike face. They are not interested in experiencing the impersonal form. The Lord has both impersonal and personal features. The impersonalists have no idea of the personal feature of the Lord, but Lord Brahma and the members of his disciplic succession want to see the Lord in His personal form. Without a personal form there can be no question of a smiling face, which is clearly indicated here by the words sasmitam te mukhambujam. Those who are in the Vaisnava sampradaya of Brahma always want to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are eager to realize the Lord's personal feature, not the impersonal feature. As clearly stated here, asmat-karana-gocaram: the personal feature of the Lord can be directly perceived by our senses.


                               TEXT 46




                   tais taih sveccha-bhutai rupaih

                        kale kale svayam vibho

                       karma durvisaham yan no

                       bhagavams tat karoti hi




   taih--by such appearances; taih--by such incarnations; sva-iccha-bhutaih--all appearing by Your personal sweet will; rupaih--by factual forms; kale kale--in different millenniums; svayam--personally; vibho--O Supreme; karma--activities; durvisaham--uncommon (unable to be enacted by anyone else); yat--that which; nah--unto us; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat--that; karoti--executes; hi--indeed.




   O Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, by Your sweet will You appear in various incarnations, millennium after millennium, and act wonderfully, performing uncommon activities that would be impossible for us.




   The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (4.7):


                        yada yada hi dharmasya

                        glanir bhavati bharata

                       abhyutthanam adharmasya

                        tadatmanam srjamy aham


   "Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion--at that time I descend Myself." Thus it is not imagination but a fact that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His sweet will, appears in different incarnations, such as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nrsimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Ramacandra, Balarama, Buddha and many other forms. Devotees are always eager to see one of the Lord's innumerable forms. It is said that just as no one can count how many waves there are in the sea, no one can count the forms of the Lord. This does not mean, however, that anyone can claim to be a form of the Lord and be acceptable as an incarnation. The incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead must be accepted in terms of the descriptions found in the sastras. Lord Brahma is eager to see the incarnation of the Lord, or the original source of all incarnations; he is not eager to see an imposter. The incarnation's activities are proof of His identity. All the incarnations described in the sastras act wonderfully (kesava dhrta-mina-sarira jaya jagadisa hare). It is only by the personal sweet will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that He appears and disappears, and only fortunate devotees can expect to see Him face to face.


                               TEXT 47





                         karmani viphalani va

                         dehinam visayartanam

                       na tathaivarpitam tvayi




   klesa--hardship; bhuri--very much; alpa--very little; sarani--good result; karmani--activities; viphalani--frustration; va--either; dehinam--of persons; visaya-artanam--who are eager to enjoy the material world; na--not; tatha--like that; eva--indeed; arpitam--dedicated; tvayi--unto Your Lordship.




   Karmis are always anxious to accumulate wealth for their sense gratification, but for that purpose they must work very hard. Yet even though they work hard, the results are not satisfying. Indeed, sometimes their work results only in frustration. But devotees who have dedicated their lives to the service of the Lord can achieve substantial results without working very hard. These results exceed the devotee's expectations.




   We can practically see how the devotees who have dedicated their lives for the service of the Lord in the Krsna consciousness movement are getting immense opportunities for the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead without working very hard. The Krsna consciousness movement actually started with only forty rupees, but now it has more than forty crores worth of property, and all this opulence has been achieved within eight or ten years. No karmi can expect to improve his business so swiftly, and besides that, whatever a karmi acquires is temporary and sometimes frustrating. In Krsna consciousness, however, everything is encouraging and improving. The Krsna consciousness movement is not very popular with the karmis because this movement recommends that one refrain from illicit sex, meat-eating, gambling and intoxication. These are restrictions that karmis very much dislike. Nonetheless, in the presence of so many enemies, this movement is progressing, going forward without impediments. If the devotees continue to spread this movement, dedicating life and soul to the lotus feet of Krsna, no one will be able to check it. The movement will go forward without limits. Chant Hare Krsna!


                               TEXT 48




                       navamah karma-kalpo 'pi


                         kalpate purusasyaiva

                       sa hy atma dayito hitah




   na--not; avamah--very little, or insignificant; karma--activities; kalpah--rightly executed; api--even; viphalaya--go in vain; isvara-arpitah--because of being dedicated to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kalpate--it is so accepted; purusasya--of all persons; eva--indeed; sah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hi--certainly; atma--the Supersoul, the supreme father; dayitah--extremely dear; hitah--beneficial.




   Activities dedicated to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, even if performed in small measure, never go in vain. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, being the supreme father, is naturally very dear and always ready to act for the good of the living entities.




   In Bhagavad-gita (2.40), the Lord says svalpam apy asya dharmasya trayate mahato bhayat: this dharma, devotional service, is so important that even if performed to a very small, almost negligible extent, it can give one the supreme result. There are many instances in the history of the world in which even a slight service rendered to the Lord has saved a living entity from the greatest danger. Ajamila, for example, was saved by the Supreme Personality of Godhead from the greatest danger, that of going to hell. He was saved simply because he chanted the name Narayana at the end of his life. When Ajamila chanted this holy name of the Lord, Narayana, he did not chant knowingly; actually he was calling his youngest son, whose name was Narayana. Nonetheless, Lord Narayana took this chanting seriously, and thus Ajamila achieved the result of ante narayana-smrtih, remembering Narayana at the end of life. If one somehow or other remembers the holy name of Narayana, Krsna or Rama at the end of life, he immediately achieves the transcendental result of going back home, back to Godhead.

   The Supreme Personality of Godhead is actually the only object of our love. As long as we are in this material world we have so many desires to fulfill, but when we come in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we immediately become perfect and fully satisfied, just as a child is fully satisfied when he comes to the lap of his mother. Dhruva Maharaja went to the forest to achieve some material result by austerity and penance, but when he actually saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead he said, "I do not want any material benediction. I am completely satisfied." Even if one wants some material benefit from serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this can be achieved extremely easily, without hard labor. Therefore the sastra recommends:


                         akamah sarva-kamo va

                        moksa-kama udara-dhih

                        tivrena bhakti-yogena

                         yajeta purusam param


   "Whether one desires everything or nothing or desires to merge into the existence of the Lord, he is intelligent only if he worships Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by rendering transcendental loving service." (Bhag. 2.3.10) Even if one has material desires, one can undoubtedly achieve what he wants by rendering service to the Lord.


                               TEXT 49




                      yatha hi skandha-sakhanam

                         taror mulavasecanam

                        evam aradhanam visnoh

                        sarvesam atmanas ca hi




   yatha--as; hi--indeed; skandha--of the trunk; sakhanam--and of the branches; taroh--of a tree; mula--the root; avasecanam--watering; evam--in this way; aradhanam--worship; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; sarvesam--of everyone; atmanah--of the Supersoul; ca--also; hi--indeed.




   When one pours water on the root of a tree, the trunk and branches of the tree are automatically pleased. Similarly, when one becomes a devotee of Lord Visnu, everyone is served, for the Lord is the Supersoul of everyone.




   As stated in the Padma Purana:


                         aradhananam sarvesam

                        visnor aradhanam param

                        tasmat parataram devi

                         tadiyanam samarcanam


   "Of all types of worship, worship of Lord Visnu is best, and better than the worship of Lord Visnu is the worship of His devotee, the Vaisnava." There are many demigods worshiped by people who are attached to material desires (kamais tais tair hrta jnanah prapadyante'nya-devatah). Because people are embarrassed by so many material desires, they worship Lord Siva, Lord Brahma, the goddess Kali, Durga, Ganesa and Surya to achieve different results. However, one can achieve all these results simultaneously just by worshiping Lord Visnu. As stated elsewhere in the Bhagavatam (4.31.14):


                     yatha taror mula-nisecanena

                  trpyanti tat-skandha-bhujopasakhah

                    pranopaharac ca yathendriyanam

                    tathaiva sarvarhanam acyutejya


   "Just by pouring water on the root of a tree, one nourishes its trunk and all of its branches, fruits and flowers, and just by supplying food to the stomach, one satisfies all the limbs of the body. Similarly, by worshiping Lord Visnu one can satisfy everyone." Krsna consciousness is not a sectarian religious movement. Rather, it is meant for all-embracing welfare activities for the world. One can enter this movement without discrimination in terms of caste, creed, religion or nationality. If one is trained to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, who is the origin of visnu-tattva, one can become fully satisfied and perfect in all respects.


                               TEXT 50




                        namas tubhyam anantaya


                          nirgunaya gunesaya

                      sattva-sthaya ca sampratam




   namah--all obeisances; tubhyam--unto You, my Lord; anantaya--who are everlasting, transcending the three phases of time (past, present and future); durvitarkya-atma-karmane--unto You, who perform inconceivable activities; nirgunaya--which are all transcendental, free from the inebriety of material qualities; guna-isaya--unto You, who control the three modes of material nature; sattva-sthaya--who are in favor of the material quality of goodness; ca--also; sampratam--at present.




   My Lord, all obeisances unto You, who are eternal, beyond time's limits of past, present and future. You are inconceivable in Your activities, You are the master of the three modes of material nature, and, being transcendental to all material qualities, You are free from material contamination. You are the controller of all three of the modes of nature, but at the present You are in favor of the quality of goodness. Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto You.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead controls the material activities manifested by the three modes of material nature. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, nirgunam guna-bhoktr ca: the Supreme Personality of Godhead is always transcendental to the material qualities (sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna), but nonetheless He is their controller. The Lord manifests Himself in three features--as Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara--to control these three qualities. He personally takes charge of sattva-guna as Lord Visnu, and He entrusts the charge of rajo-guna and tamo-guna to Lord Brahma and Lord Siva. Ultimately, however, He is the controller of all three gunas. Lord Brahma, expressing his appreciation, said that because Lord Visnu had now taken charge of the activities of goodness, there was every hope that the demigods would be successful in fulfilling their desires. The demigods were harassed by the demons, who were infested with tamo-guna. However, as Lord Brahma has previously described, since the time of sattva-guna had now arrived, the demigods could naturally expect to fulfill their desires. The demigods are supposedly well advanced in knowledge, yet they could not understand the knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the Lord is addressed here as anantaya. Although Lord Brahma knows past, present and future, he is unable to understand the unlimited knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Eighth Canto, Fifth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Demigods Appeal to the Lord for Protection."

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