Chapter Eight

                    The Churning of the Milk Ocean


   This chapter describes how the goddess of fortune appeared during the churning of the ocean of milk and how she accepted Lord Visnu as her husband. As described later in the chapter, when Dhanvantari appeared with a pot of nectar the demons immediately snatched it from him, but Lord Visnu appeared as the incarnation Mohini, the most beautiful woman in the world, just to captivate the demons and save the nectar for the demigods.

   After Lord Siva drank all the poison, both the demigods and demons took courage and resumed their activities of churning. Because of this churning, first a surabhi cow was produced. Great saintly persons accepted this cow to derive clarified butter from its milk and offer this clarified butter in oblations for great sacrifices. Thereafter, a horse named Uccaihsrava was generated. This horse was taken by Bali Maharaja. Then there appeared Airavata and other elephants that could go anywhere in any direction, and she-elephants also appeared. The gem known as Kaustubha was also generated, and Lord Visnu took that gem and placed it on His chest. Thereafter, a parijata flower and the Apsaras, the most beautiful women in the universe, were generated. Then the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, appeared. The demigods, great sages, Gandharvas and others offered her their respectful worship. The goddess of fortune could not find anyone to accept as her husband. At last she selected Lord Visnu to be her master. Lord Visnu gave her a place to stay everlastingly at His chest. Because of this combination of Laksmi and Narayana, all who were present, including the demigods and people in general, were very pleased. The demons, however, being neglected by the goddess of fortune, were very depressed. Then Varuni, the goddess of drinking, was generated, and by the order of Lord Visnu the demons accepted her. Then the demons and demigods, with renewed energy, began to churn again. This time a partial incarnation of Lord Visnu called Dhanvantari appeared. He was very beautiful, and he carried a jug containing nectar. The demons immediately snatched the jug from Dhanvantari's hand and began to run away, and the demigods, being very morose, took shelter of Visnu. After the demons snatched the jug from Dhanvantari, they began to fight among themselves. Lord Visnu solaced the demigods, who therefore did not fight, but remained silent. While the fighting was going on among the demons, the Lord Himself appeared as the incarnation Mohini, the most beautiful woman in the universe.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                         pite gare vrsankena

                       pritas te 'mara-danavah

                       mamanthus tarasa sindhum

                       havirdhani tato 'bhavat




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; pite--was drunk; gare--when the poison; vrsa-ankena--by Lord Siva, who sits on a bull; pritah--being pleased; te--all of them; amara--the demigods; danavah--and the demons; mamanthuh--again began to churn; tarasa--with great force; sindhum--the ocean of milk; havirdhani--the surabhi cow, who is the source of clarified butter; tatah--from that churning; abhavat--was generated.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Upon Lord Siva's drinking the poison, both the demigods and the demons, being very pleased, began to churn the ocean with renewed vigor. As a result of this, there appeared a cow known as surabhi.




   The surabhi cow is described as havirdhani, the source of butter. Butter, when clarified by melting, produces ghee, or clarified butter, which is inevitably necessary for performing great ritualistic sacrifices. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (18. 5), yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam karyam eva tat: sacrifice, charity and austerity are essential to keep human society perfect in peace and prosperity. Yajna, the performance of sacrifice, is essential; to perform yajna, clarified butter is absolutely necessary; and to get clarified butter, milk is necessary. Milk is produced when there are sufficient cows. Therefore in Bhagavad-gita (18.44), cow protection is recommended (krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava jam).


                                TEXT 2




                        tam agni-hotrim rsayo

                        jagrhur brahma-vadinah

                        yajnasya deva-yanasya

                         medhyaya havise nrpa




   tam--that cow; agni-hotrim--absolutely necessary for the production of yogurt, milk and ghee to offer as oblations in the fire; rsayah--sages who perform such sacrifices; jagrhuh--took in charge; brahma-vadinah--because such sages know the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies; yajnasya--of sacrifice; deva-yanasya--which fulfills the desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems and to Brahmaloka; medhyaya--fit for offering oblations; havise--for the sake of pure clarified butter; nrpa--O King.




   O King Pariksit, great sages who were completely aware of the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies took charge of that surabhi cow, which produced all the yogurt, milk and ghee absolutely necessary for offering oblations into the fire. They did this just for the sake of pure ghee, which they wanted for the performance of sacrifices to elevate themselves to the higher planetary systems, up to Brahmaloka.




   Surabhi cows are generally found on the Vaikuntha planets. As described in Brahma-samhita, Lord Krsna, on His planet, Goloka Vrndavana, engages in tending the surabhi cows (surabhir abhipalayantam). These cows are the Lord's pet animals. From the surabhi cows one can take as much milk as one needs, and one may milk these cows as many times as he desires. In other words, the surabhi cow can yield milk unlimitedly. Milk is necessary for the performance of yajna. Sages know how to use milk to elevate human society to the perfection of life. Since cow protection is recommended everywhere in the sastras, the brahma vadis took charge of the surabhi cow, in which the demons were not very interested.


                                TEXT 3




                        tata uccaihsrava nama

                      hayo 'bhuc candra-pandurah

                      tasmin balih sprham cakre

                        nendra isvara-siksaya




   tatah--thereafter; uccaihsravah nama--by the name Uccaihsrava; hayah--a horse; abhut--was generated; candra-pandurah--being as white as the moon; tasmin--unto it; balih--Maharaja Bali; sprham cakre--desired to possess; na--not; indrah--the King of the demigods; isvara-siksaya--by the previous advice of the Lord.




   Thereafter, a horse named Uccaihsrava, which was as white as the moon, was generated. Bali Maharaja desired to possess this horse, and Indra, the King of heaven, did not protest, for he had previously been so advised by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                                TEXT 4




                          tata airavato nama

                        varanendro vinirgatah

                     dantais caturbhih svetadrer

                        haran bhagavato mahim




   tatah--thereafter; airavatah nama--of the name Airavata; varana-indrah--the king of elephants; vinirgatah--was generated; dantaih--with its tusks; caturbhih--four; sveta--white; adreh--of the mountain; haran--defying; bhagavatah--of Lord Siva; mahim--the glories.




   As the next result of the churning, the king of elephants, named Airavata, was generated. This elephant was white, and with its four tusks it defied the glories of Kailasa Mountain, the glorious abode of Lord Siva.


                                TEXT 5




                        airavanadayas tv astau

                       dig-gaja abhavams tatah

                     abhramu-prabhrtayo 'stau ca

                       karinyas tv abhavan nrpa




   airavana-adayah--headed by Airavana; tu--but; astau--eight; dik-gajah--elephants that could go in any direction; abhavan--were generated; tatah--thereafter; abhramu-prabhrtayah--headed by the she-elephant named Abhramu; astau--eight; ca--also; karinyah--female elephants; tu--indeed; abhavan--also generated; nrpa--O King.




   Thereafter, O King, eight great elephants, which could go in any direction, were generated. They were headed by Airavana. Eight she-elephants, headed by Abhramu, were also generated.




   The names of the eight elephants were Airavana, Pundarika, Vamana, Kumuda, Anjana, Puspadanta, Sarvabhauma and Supratika.


                                TEXT 6




                     kaustubhakhyam abhud ratnam

                         padmarago mahodadheh

                      tasmin manau sprham cakre

                        vakso-'lankarane harih

                        tato 'bhavat parijatah


                     purayaty arthino yo 'rthaih

                      sasvad bhuvi yatha bhavan




   kaustubha-akhyam--known as Kaustubha; abhut--was generated; ratnam--a valuable gem; padmaragah--another gem, named Padmaraga; maha-udadheh--from that great ocean of milk; tasmin--that; manau--jewel; sprham cakre--desired to possess; vaksah-alankarane--to decorate His chest; harih--the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tatah--thereafter; abhavat--was generated; parijatah--the celestial flower named parijata; sura-loka-vibhusanam--which decorates the heavenly planets; purayati--fulfills; arthinah--giving persons desiring material wealth; yah--that which; arthaih--by what is desired; sasvat--always; bhuvi--on this planet; yatha--as; bhavan--Your Lordship (Maharaja Pariksit).




   Generated thereafter from the great ocean were the celebrated gems Kaustubha-mani and Padmaraga-mani. Lord Visnu, to decorate His chest, desired to possess them. Generated next was the parijata flower, which decorates the celestial planets. O King, as you fulfill the desires of everyone on this planet by fulfilling all ambitions, the parijata fulfills the desires of everyone.


                                TEXT 7




                         tatas capsaraso jata

                       niska-kanthyah suvasasah

                      ramanyah svarginam valgu-





   tatah--thereafter; ca--also; apsarasah--the residents of Apsaroloka; jatah--were generated; niska-kanthyah--decorated with golden necklaces; su-vasasah--dressed with fine clothing; ramanyah--extremely beautiful and attractive; svarginam--of the inhabitants of the heavenly planets; valgu-gati-lila-avalokanaih--moving very softly, they attract everyone's heart.




   Next there appeared the Apsaras [who are used as prostitutes on the heavenly planets]. They were fully decorated with golden ornaments and lockets and were dressed in fine and attractive clothing. The Apsaras move very slowly in an attractive style that bewilders the inhabitants of the heavenly planets.


                                TEXT 8




                       tatas cavirabhut saksac

                       chri rama bhagavat-para

                       ranjayanti disah kantya

                        vidyut saudamani yatha




   tatah--thereafter; ca--and; avirabhut--manifested; saksat--directly; sri--the goddess of fortune; rama--known as Rama; bhagavat-para--absolutely inclined to be possessed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ranjayanti--illuminating; disah--all directions; kantya--by luster; vidyut--lightning; saudamani--Saudamani; yatha--as.




   Then there appeared the goddess of fortune, Rama, who is absolutely dedicated to being enjoyed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. She appeared like electricity, surpassing the lightning that might illuminate a marble mountain.




   Sri means opulence. Krsna is the owner of all opulences.


                       bhoktaram yajna-tapasam


                        suhrdam sarva-bhutanam

                      jnatva mam santim rcchati


   This peace formula for the world is given in Bhagavad-gita (5.29). When people know that the Supreme Lord, Krsna, is the supreme enjoyer, the supreme proprietor and the most intimate well-wishing friend of all living entities, peace and prosperity will ensue all over the world. Unfortunately, the conditioned souls, being placed into illusion by the external energy of the Lord, want to fight with one another, and therefore peace is disturbed. The first prerequisite for peace is that all the wealth presented by Sri, the goddess of fortune, be offered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone should give up his false proprietorship over worldly possessions and offer everything to Krsna. This is the teaching of the Krsna consciousness movement.


                                TEXT 9




                      tasyam cakruh sprham sarve







   tasyam--unto her; cakruh--did; sprham--desire; sarve--everyone; sa-sura-asura-manavah--the demigods, the demons and the human beings; rupa-audarya--by the exquisite beauty and bodily features; vayah--youth; varna--complexion; mahima--glories; aksipta--agitated; cetasah--their minds.




   Because of her exquisite beauty, her bodily features, her youth, her complexion and her glories, everyone, including the demigods, the demons and the human beings, desired her. They were attracted because she is the source of all opulences.




   Who in this world does not want to possess wealth, beauty and the social respectability that come from these opulences? People generally desire material enjoyment, material opulence and the association of aristocratic family members (bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam). Material enjoyment entails money, beauty and the reputation they bring, which can all be achieved by the mercy of the goddess of fortune. The goddess of fortune, however, never remains alone. As indicated in the previous verse by the word bhagavat-para, she is the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and is enjoyable only by Him. If one wants the favor of the goddess of fortune, mother Laksmi, because she is by nature bhagavat-para one must keep her with Narayana. The devotees who always engage in the service of Narayana (narayana-parayana) can easily achieve the favor of the goddess of fortune without a doubt, but materialists who try to get the favor of the goddess of fortune only to possess her for personal enjoyment are frustrated. Theirs is not a good policy. The celebrated demon Ravana, for example, wanted to deprive Ramacandra of Laksmi, Sita, and thus be victorious, but the result was just the opposite. Sita, of course, was taken by force by Lord Ramacandra, and Ravana and his entire material empire were vanquished. The goddess of fortune is desirable for everyone, including human beings, but one should understand that the goddess of fortune is the exclusive property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One cannot achieve the mercy of the goddess of fortune unless one prays both to her and to the supreme enjoyer, the Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 10




                         tasya asanam aninye

                       mahendro mahad-adbhutam

                      murtimatyah saric-chrestha

                       hema-kumbhair jalam suci




   tasyah--for her; asanam--a sitting place; aninye--brought; maha-indrah--the King of heaven, Indra; mahat--glorious; adbhutam--wonderful; murti-matyah--accepting forms; sarit-sresthah--the best of various sacred waters; hema--golden; kumbhaih--with waterpots; jalam--water; suci--pure.




   The King of heaven, Indra, brought a suitable sitting place for the goddess of fortune. All the rivers of sacred water, such as the Ganges and Yamuna, personified themselves, and each of them brought pure water in golden waterpots for mother Laksmi, the goddess of fortune.


                               TEXT 11




                         abhisecanika bhumir

                         aharat sakalausadhih

                        gavah panca pavitrani

                        vasanto madhu-madhavau




   abhisecanikah--paraphernalia required for installing the Deity; bhumih--the land; aharat--collected; sakala--all kinds of; ausadhih--drugs and herbs; gavah--the cows; panca--five different varieties of products from the cow, namely milk, yogurt, clarified butter, cow dung and cow urine; pavitrani--uncontaminated; vasantah--personified springtime; madhu-madhavau--flowers and fruits produced during spring, or in the months of Caitra and Vaisakha.




   The land became a person and collected all the drugs and herbs needed for installing the Deity. The cows delivered five products, namely milk, yogurt, ghee, urine and cow dung, and spring personified collected everything produced in spring, during the months of Caitra and Vaisakha [April and May].




   Panca-gavya, the five products received from the cow, namely milk, yogurt, ghee, cow dung and cow urine, are required in all ritualistic ceremonies performed according to the Vedic directions. Cow urine and cow dung are uncontaminated, and since even the urine and dung of a cow are important, we can just imagine how important this animal is for human civilization. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, directly advocates go-raksya, the protection of cows. Civilized men who follow the system of varnasrama, especially those of the vaisya class, who engage in agriculture and trade, must give protection to the cows. Unfortunately, because people in Kali-yuga are mandah, all bad, and sumanda-matayah, misled by false conceptions of life, they are killing cows in the thousands. Therefore they are unfortunate in spiritual consciousness, and nature disturbs them in so many ways, especially through incurable diseases like cancer and through frequent wars and among nations. As long as human society continues to allow cows to be regularly killed in slaughterhouses, there cannot be any question of peace and prosperity.


                               TEXT 12




                        rsayah kalpayam cakrur

                        abhisekam yatha-vidhi

                       jagur bhadrani gandharva

                       natyas ca nanrtur jaguh




   rsayah--the great sages; kalpayam cakruh--executed; abhisekam--the abhiseka ceremony, which is required during the installation of the Deity; yatha-vidhi--as directed in the authorized scriptures; jaguh--chanted Vedic mantras; bhadrani--all good fortune; gandharvah--and the inhabitants of Gandharvaloka; natyah--the women who were professional dancers; ca--also; nanrtuh--very nicely danced on the occasion; jaguh--and sang authorized songs prescribed in the Vedas.




   The great sages performed the bathing ceremony of the goddess of fortune as directed in the authorized scriptures, the Gandharvas chanted all-auspicious Vedic mantras, and the professional women dancers very nicely danced and sang authorized songs prescribed in the Vedas.


                               TEXT 13




                        megha mrdanga-panava-


                       vyanadayan sankha-venu-

                        vinas tumula-nihsvanan




   meghah--personified clouds; mrdanga--drums; panava--kettledrums; muraja--another kind of drum; anaka--another type of drum; gomukhan--a type of bugle; vyanadayan--vibrated; sankha--conchshells; venu--flutes; vinah--stringed instruments; tumula--tumultuous; nihsvanan--vibration.




   The clouds in personified form beat various types of drums, known as mrdangas, panavas, murajas and anakas. They also blew conchshells and bugles known as gomukhas and played flutes and stringed instruments. The combined sound of these instruments was tumultuous.


                               TEXT 14




                        tato 'bhisisicur devim

                       sriyam padma-karam satim

                       digibhah purna-kalasaih

                      sukta-vakyair dvijeritaih




   tatah--thereafter; abhisisicuh--poured all-auspicious water on the body; devim--the goddess of fortune; sriyam--very beautiful; padma-karam--with a lotus in her hand; satim--she who is most chaste, not knowing anyone but the Supreme Personality of Godhead; digibhah--the great elephants; purna-kalasaih--by completely full water jugs; sukta-vakyaih--with Vedic mantras; dvi-ja--by brahmanas; iritaih--chanted.




   Thereafter, the great elephants from all the directions carried big water jugs full of Ganges water and bathed the goddess of fortune, to the accompaniment of Vedic mantras chanted by learned brahmanas. While thus being bathed, the goddess of fortune maintained her original style, with a lotus flower in her hand, and she appeared very beautiful. The goddess of fortune is the most chaste, for she does not know anyone but the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   The goddess of fortune, Laksmi, is described in this verse as sriyam, which means that she has six opulences--wealth, strength, influence, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. These opulences are received from the goddess of fortune. Laksmi is addressed here as devi, the goddess, because in Vaikuntha she supplies all opulences to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees, who in this way enjoy natural life in the Vaikuntha planets. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is pleased with His consort, the goddess of fortune, who carries a lotus flower in her hand. Mother Laksmi is described in this verse as sati, the supremely chaste, because she never diverts her attention from the Supreme Personality of Godhead to anyone else.


                               TEXT 15




                        samudrah pita-kauseya-

                          vasasi samupaharat

                      varunah srajam vaijayantim

                        madhuna matta-satpadam




   samudrah--the ocean; pita-kauseya--yellow silk; vasasi--both the upper and lower portions of a garment; samupaharat--presented; varunah--the predominating deity of the water; srajam--garland; vaijayantim--the most decorated and the biggest; madhuna--with honey; matta--drunken; sat-padam--bumblebees, which have six legs.




   The ocean, which is the source of all valuable jewels, supplied the upper and lower portions of a yellow silken garment. The predominating deity of the water, Varuna, presented flower garlands surrounded by six-legged bumblebees, drunken with honey.




   When bathing the Deity in the abhiseka ceremony with various liquids, such as milk, honey, yogurt, ghee, cow dung and cow urine, it is customary to supply yellow garments. In this way the abhiseka ceremony for the goddess of fortune was performed according to the regular Vedic principles.


                               TEXT 16




                         bhusanani vicitrani

                        visvakarma prajapatih

                        haram sarasvati padmam

                         ajo nagas ca kundale




   bhusanani--varieties of ornaments; vicitrani--all very nicely decorated; visvakarma prajapatih--Visvakarma, one of the prajapatis, the sons of Lord Brahma who generate progeny; haram--garland or necklace; sarasvati--the goddess of education; padmam--a lotus flower; ajah--Lord Brahma; nagah ca--the inhabitants of Nagaloka; kundale--two earrings.




   Visvakarma, one of the prajapatis, supplied varieties of decorated ornaments. The goddess of learning, Sarasvati, supplied a necklace, Lord Brahma supplied a lotus flower, and the inhabitants of Nagaloka supplied earrings.


                               TEXT 17




                  tatah krta-svastyayanotpala-srajam

                   nadad-dvirepham parigrhya panina

                   cacala vaktram sukapola-kundalam

                   savrida-hasam dadhati susobhanam




   tatah--thereafter; krta-svastyayana--being worshiped regularly by all-auspicious ritualistic ceremonies; utpala-srajam--a garland of lotuses; nadat--humming; dvirepham--surrounded by bumblebees; parigrhya--capturing; panina--by the hand; cacala--went on; vaktram--face; su-kapola-kundalam--her cheeks decorated with earrings; sa-vrida-hasam--smiling with shyness; dadhati--expanding; su-sobhanam--her natural beauty.




   Thereafter, mother Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, having been properly celebrated with an auspicious ritualistic ceremony, began moving about, holding in her hand a garland of lotus flowers, which were surrounded by humming bumblebees. Smiling with shyness, her cheeks decorated by her earrings, she looked extremely beautiful.




   The goddess of fortune, mother Laksmiji, accepted the ocean of milk as her father, but she perpetually rests on the bosom of Narayana. She offers benedictions even to Lord Brahma and other living entities in this material world, yet she is transcendental to all material qualities. Although she appeared to have been born of the ocean of milk, she immediately resorted to her eternal place on the bosom of Narayana.


                               TEXT 18




                   stana-dvayam catikrsodari samam

                   nirantaram candana-kunkumoksitam

                  tatas tato nupura-valgu sinjitair

                   visarpati hema-lateva sa babhau




   stana-dvayam--her two breasts; ca--also; ati-krsa-udari--the middle portion of her body being very thin; samam--equally; nirantaram--constantly; candana-kunkuma--with sandalwood pulp and kunkuma, a reddish powder; uksitam--smeared; tatah tatah--here and there; nupura--of ankle bells; valgu--very beautiful; sinjitaih--with the light resounding; visarpati--walking; hema-lata--a golden creeper; iva--exactly like; sa--the goddess of fortune; babhau--appeared.




   Her two breasts, which were symmetrical and nicely situated, were covered with sandalwood pulp and kunkuma powder, and her waist was very thin. As she walked here and there, her ankle bells jingling softly, she appeared like a creeper of gold.


                               TEXT 19




                    vilokayanti niravadyam atmanah

                 padam dhruvam cavyabhicari-sad-gunam


                    traipistapeyadisu nanvavindata




   vilokayanti--observing, examining; niravadyam--without any fault; atmanah--for herself; padam--position; dhruvam--eternal; ca--also; avyabhicari-sat-gunam--without any change of qualities; gandharva--among the inhabitants of Gandharvaloka; siddha--the inhabitants of Siddhaloka; asura--the demons; yaksa--the Yaksas; carana--the inhabitants of Caranaloka; traipistapeya-adisu--and among the demigods; na--not; anvavindata--could accept any one of them.




   While walking among the Gandharvas, Yaksas, asuras, Siddhas, Caranas and denizens of heaven, Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune, was scrutinizingly examining them, but she could not find anyone naturally endowed with all good qualities. None of them was devoid of faults, and therefore she could not take shelter of any of them.




   The goddess of fortune, Laksmidevi, having been generated from the ocean of milk, was the daughter of the ocean. Thus she was allowed to select her own husband in a svayamvara ceremony. She examined every one of the candidates, but she could not find anyone suitably qualified to be her shelter. In other words, Narayana, the natural husband of Laksmi, cannot be superseded by anyone in this material world.


                               TEXT 20




                  nunam tapo yasya na manyu-nirjayo

                jnanam kvacit tac ca na sanga-varjitam

                 kascin mahams tasya na kama-nirjayah

                  sa isvarah kim parato vyapasrayah




   nunam--certainly; tapah--austerity; yasya--of someone; na--not; manyu--anger; nirjayah--conquered; jnanam--knowledge; kvacit--in some saintly person; tat--that; ca--also; na--not; sanga-varjitam--without the contamination of association; kascit--someone; mahan--a very great exalted person; tasya--his; na--not; kama--material desires; nirjayah--conquered; sah--such a person; isvarah--controller; kim--how can he be; paratah--of others; vyapasrayah--under the control.




   The goddess of fortune, examining the assembly, thought in this way: Someone who has undergone great austerity has not yet conquered anger. Someone possesses knowledge, but he has not conquered material desires. Someone is a very great personality, but he cannot conquer lusty desires. Even a great personality depends on something else. How, then, can he be the supreme controller?




   Here is an attempt to find the supreme controller, or isvara. Everyone may be accepted as an isvara, or controller, but still such controllers are controlled by others. For example, one may have undergone severe austerities but still be under the control of anger. By a scrutinizing analysis, we find that everyone is controlled by something else. No one, therefore, can be the true controller but the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna. This is supported by the sastras. Isvarah paramah krsnah: the supreme controller is Krsna. Krsna is never controlled by anyone, for He is the controller of everyone (sarva-karana-karanam).


                               TEXT 21




                dharmah kvacit tatra na bhuta-sauhrdam

                 tyagah kvacit tatra na mukti-karanam

                viryam na pumso 'sty aja-vega-niskrtam

                  na hi dvitiyo guna-sanga-varjitah




   dharmah--religion; kvacit--one may have full knowledge of; tatra--therein; na--not; bhuta-sauhrdam--friendship with other living entities; tyagah--renunciation; kvacit--one may possess; tatra--therein; na--not; mukti-karanam--the cause of liberation; viryam--power; na--not; pumsah--of any person; asti--there may be; aja-vega-niskrtam--no release from the power of time; na--nor; hi--indeed; dvitiyah--the second one; guna-sanga-varjitah--completely freed from the contamination of the modes of nature.




   Someone may possess full knowledge of religion but still not be kind to all living entities. In someone, whether human or demigod, there may be renunciation, but that is not the cause of liberation. Someone may possess great power and yet be unable to check the power of eternal time. Someone else may have renounced attachment to the material world, yet he cannot compare to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, no one is completely freed from the influence of the material modes of nature.




   The statement dharmah kvacit tatra na bhuta-sauhrdam is very important in this verse. We actually see that there are many Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and religionists of other cults who adhere to their religious principles very nicely but are not equal to all living entities. Indeed, although they profess to be very religious, they kill poor animals. Such religion has no meaning. Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.8) says:


                     dharmah svanusthitah pumsam

                        visvaksena-kathasu yah

                        notpadayed yadi ratim

                         srama eva hi kevalam


   One may be very expert in following the religious principles of his own sect, but if he has no tendency to love the Supreme Personality of Godhead, his observance of religious principles is simply a waste of time. One must develop a sense of loving Vasudeva (vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah). The sign of a devotee is that he is a friend to everyone (suhrdam sarva-bhutanam). A devotee will never allow a poor animal to be killed in the name of religion. This is the difference between a superficially religious person and a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

   We find that there have been many great heroes in history, but they could not escape from the cruel hands of death. Even the greatest hero cannot escape from the ruling power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead when Krsna comes as death. That is described by Krsna Himself: mrtyuh sarva-haras caham. The Lord, appearing as death, takes away a hero's so-called power. Even Hiranyakasipu could not be saved when Nrsimhadeva appeared before him as death. One's material strength is nothing before the strength of the Supreme personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 22




                  kvacic cirayur na hi sila-mangalam

                 kvacit tad apy asti na vedyam ayusah

                yatrobhayam kutra ca so 'py amangalah

                 sumangalah kasca na kanksate hi mam




   kvacit--someone; cira-ayuh--has a long duration of life; na--not; hi--indeed; sila-mangalam--good behavior or auspiciousness; kvacit--someone; tat api--although possessing good behavior; asti--is; na--not; vedyam ayusah--aware of the duration of life; yatra ubhayam--if there are both (behavior and auspiciousness); kutra--somewhere; ca--also; sah--that person; api--although; amangalah--a little inauspicious in some other detail; su-mangalah--auspicious in every respect; kasca--someone; na--not; kanksate--desires; hi--indeed; mam--me.




   Someone may have longevity but not have auspiciousness or good behavior. Someone may have both auspiciousness and good behavior, but the duration of his life is not fixed. Although such demigods as Lord Siva have eternal life, they have inauspicious habits like living in crematoriums. And even if others are well qualified in all respects, they are not devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 23




                  evam vimrsyavyabhicari-sad-gunair

                   varam nijaikasrayatayagunasrayam

                  vavre varam sarva-gunair apeksitam

                   rama mukundam nirapeksam ipsitam




   evam--in this way; vimrsya--after full deliberation; avyabhicari-sat-gunaih--with extraordinary transcendental qualities; varam--superior; nija-eka-asrayataya--because of possessing all good qualities without depending on others; aguna-asrayam--the reservoir of all transcendental qualities; vavre--accepted; varam--as a bridegroom; sarva-gunaih--with all transcendental qualities; apeksitam--qualified; rama--the goddess of fortune; mukundam--unto Mukunda; nirapeksam--although He did not wait for her; ipsitam--the most desirable.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: In this way, after full deliberation, the goddess of fortune accepted Mukunda as her husband because although He is independent and not in want of her, He possesses all transcendental qualities and mystic powers and is therefore the most desirable.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Mukunda, is self-sufficient. Since He is fully independent, He was not in want of the support or association of Laksmidevi. Nonetheless, Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune, accepted Him as her husband.


                               TEXT 24




                tasyamsa-desa usatim nava-kanja-malam


              tasthau nidhaya nikate tad-urah sva-dhama

                  savrida-hasa-vikasan-nayanena yata




   tasya--of Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); amsa-dese--on the shoulders; usatim--very beautiful; nava--new; kanja-malam--garland of lotus flowers; madyat--maddened; madhuvrata-varutha--of bumblebees; gira--with the vibrating; upaghustam--surrounded by their humming; tasthau--remained; nidhaya--after placing the garland; nikate--nearby; tat-urah--the bosom of the Lord; sva-dhama--her real resort; sa-vrida-hasa--smiling with shyness; vikasat--glittering; nayanena--with the eyes; yata--so situated.




   Approaching the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the goddess of fortune placed upon His shoulders the garland of newly grown lotus flowers, which was surrounded by humming bumblebees searching for honey. Then, expecting to get a place on the bosom of the Lord, she remained standing by His side, her face smiling in shyness.


                               TEXT 25




               tasyah sriyas tri-jagato janako jananya

                vakso nivasam akarot paramam vibhuteh

               srih svah prajah sakarunena niriksanena

              yatra sthitaidhayata sadhipatims tri-lokan




   tasyah--of her; sriyah--the goddess of fortune; tri-jagatah--of the three worlds; janakah--the father; jananyah--of the mother; vaksah--bosom; nivasam--residence; akarot--made; paramam--supreme; vibhuteh--of the opulent; srih--the goddess of fortune; svah--own; prajah--descendants; sa-karunena--with favorable mercy; niriksanena--by glancing over; yatra--wherein; sthita--staying; aidhayata--increased; sa-adhipatin--with the great directors and leaders; tri-lokan--the three worlds.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the father of the three worlds, and His bosom is the residence of mother Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, the proprietor of all opulences. The goddess of fortune, by her favorable and merciful glance, can increase the opulence of the three worlds, along with their inhabitants and their directors, the demigods.




   According to the desire of Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune, the Supreme Personality of Godhead made His bosom her residence so that by her glance she could favor everyone, including the demigods and ordinary human beings. In other words, since the goddess of fortune stays on the bosom of Narayana, she naturally sees any devotee who worships Narayana. When the goddess of fortune understands that a devotee is in favor of devotional service to Narayana, she is naturally inclined to bless the devotee with all opulences. The karmis try to receive the favor and mercy of Laksmi, but because they are not devotees of Narayana, their opulence is flickering. The opulence of devotees who are attached to the service of Narayana is not like the opulence of karmis. The opulence of devotees is as permanent as the opulence of Narayana Himself.


                               TEXT 26





                       vaditranam prthuh svanah

                        devanuganam sastrinam

                        nrtyatam gayatam abhut




   sankha--conchshells; turya--bugles; mrdanganam--and of different types of drums; vaditranam--of the musical instruments; prthuh--very great; svanah--sound; deva-anuganam--the inhabitants of the upper planets like the Gandharvas and Caranas, who follow the demigods; sa-strinam--as along with their own wives; nrtyatam--engaged in dancing; gayatam--singing; abhut--became.




   The inhabitants of Gandharvaloka and Caranaloka then took the opportunity to play their musical instruments, such as conchshells, bugles and drums. They began dancing and singing along with their wives.


                               TEXT 27





                       sarve visva-srjo vibhum

                      idire 'vitathair mantrais

                      tal-lingaih puspa-varsinah




   brahma--Lord Brahma; rudra--Lord Siva; angirah--the great sage Angira Muni; mukhyah--headed by; sarve--all of them; visva-srjah--the directors of universal management; vibhum--the very great personality; idire--worshiped; avitathaih--real; mantraih--by chanting; tat-lingaih--worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead; puspa-varsinah--throwing flowers like showers.




   Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, the great sage Angira, and similar directors of universal management showered flowers and chanted mantras indicating the transcendental glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 28




                         sriyavalokita devah

                        saprajapatayah prajah


                        lebhire nirvrtim param




   sriya--by the goddess of fortune, Laksmi; avalokitah--being seen favorably with mercy; devah--all the demigods; sa-prajapatayah--with all the prajapatis; prajah--and their generations; sila-adi-guna-sampannah--all blessed with good behavior and good characteristics; lebhire--achieved; nirvrtim--satisfaction; param--the ultimate.




   All the demigods, along with the prajapatis and their descendants, being blessed by Laksmiji's glance upon them, were immediately enriched with good behavior and transcendental qualities. Thus they were very much satisfied.


                               TEXT 29




                        nihsattva lolupa rajan

                        nirudyoga gata-trapah

                        yada copeksita laksmya

                       babhuvur daitya-danavah




   nihsattvah--without strength; lolupah--very greedy; rajan--O King; nirudyogah--frustrated; gata-trapah--shameless; yada--when; ca--also; upeksitah--neglected; laksmya--by the goddess of fortune; babhuvuh--they became; daitya-danavah--the demons and Raksasas.




   O King, because of being neglected by the goddess of fortune, the demons and Raksasas were depressed, bewildered and frustrated, and thus they became shameless.


                               TEXT 30




                         athasid varuni devi

                         kanya kamala-locana

                        asura jagrhus tam vai

                          harer anumatena te




   atha--thereafter (after the appearance of the goddess of fortune); asit--there was; varuni--Varuni; devi--the demigoddess who controls drunkards; kanya--a young girl; kamala-locana--lotus-eyed; asurah--the demons; jagrhuh--accepted; tam--her; vai--indeed; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anumatena--by the order; te--they (the demons).




   Next appeared Varuni, the lotus-eyed goddess who controls drunkards. With the permission of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, the demons, headed by Bali Maharaja, took possession of this young girl.


                               TEXT 31




                        athodadher mathyamanat

                       kasyapair amrtarthibhih

                         udatisthan maharaja

                        purusah paramadbhutah




   atha--thereafter; udadheh--from the ocean of milk; mathyamanat--while being churned; kasyapaih--by the sons of Kasyapa, namely the demigods and the demons; amrta-arthibhih--anxious to get nectar from the churning; udatisthat--there appeared; maharaja--O King; purusah--a male person; parama--highly; adbhutah--wonderful.




   O King, thereafter, while the sons of Kasyapa, both demons and demigods, were engaged in churning the ocean of milk, a very wonderful male person appeared.


                               TEXT 32





                       kambu-grivo 'runeksanah

                       syamalas tarunah sragvi





   dirgha--long; pivara--stout and strong; doh-dandah--the arms; kambu--like a conchshell; grivah--the neck; aruna-iksanah--reddish eyes; syamalah--blackish complexion; tarunah--very young; sragvi--wearing a flower garland; sarva--all; abharana--with ornaments; bhusitah--decorated.




   He was strongly built; his arms were long, stout and strong; his neck, which was marked with three lines, resembled a conchshell; his eyes were reddish; and his complexion was blackish. He was very young, he was garlanded with flowers, and his entire body was fully decorated with various ornaments.


                               TEXT 33




                         pita-vasa mahoraskah



                       subhagah simha-vikramah


                       bibhrad valaya-bhusitah




   pita-vasah--wearing yellow garments; maha-uraskah--his chest very broad; su-mrsta-mani-kundalah--whose earrings were well polished and made of pearls; snigdha--polished; kuncita-kesa--curling hair; anta--at the end; su-bhagah--separated and beautiful; simha-vikramah--strong like a lion; amrta--with nectar; apurna--filled to the top; kalasam--a jar; bibhrat--moving; valaya--with bangles; bhusitah--decorated.




   He was dressed in yellow garments and wore brightly polished earrings made of pearls. The tips of his hair were anointed with oil, and his chest was very broad. His body had all good features, he was stout and strong like a lion, and he was decorated with bangles. In his hand he carried a jug filled to the top with nectar.


                               TEXT 34




                       sa vai bhagavatah saksad

                       visnor amsamsa-sambhavah

                       dhanvantarir iti khyata

                       ayur-veda-drg ijya-bhak




   sah--he; vai--indeed; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; saksat--directly; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; amsa-amsa-sambhavah--incarnation of the plenary portion of a plenary portion; dhanvantarih--Dhanvantari; iti--thus; khyatah--celebrated; ayuh-veda-drk--fully conversant in the medical science; ijya-bhak--one of the demigods eligible to share the benefits of sacrifices.




   This person was Dhanvantari, a plenary portion of a plenary portion of Lord Visnu. He was very conversant with the science of medicine, and as one of the demigods he was permitted to take a share in sacrifices.




   Srila Madhvacarya remarks:


                       tesam satyac calanartham

                      harir dhanvantarir vibhuh

                       samartho 'py asuranam tu

                       sva-hastad amucat sudham


   Dhanvantari, who was carrying the jug containing nectar, was a plenary incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but although he was very strong, the asuras were able to take the jug of nectar from his hands.


                               TEXT 35




                        tam alokyasurah sarve

                         kalasam camrtabhrtam

                       lipsantah sarva-vastuni

                         kalasam tarasaharan




   tam--him; alokya--seeing; asurah--the demons; sarve--all of them; kalasam--the container of nectar; ca--also; amrta-abhrtam--filled with nectar; lipsantah--desiring strongly; sarva-vastuni--all objects; kalasam--the jug; tarasa--immediately; aharan--snatched away.




   Upon seeing Dhanvantari carrying the jug of nectar, the demons, desiring the jug and its contents, immediately snatched it away by force.


                               TEXT 36




                       niyamane 'surais tasmin

                         kalase 'mrta-bhajane

                         visanna-manaso deva

                         harim saranam ayayuh




   niyamane--being carried; asuraih--by the demons; tasmin--that; kalase--jug; amrta-bhajane--containing nectar; visanna-manasah--aggrieved in mind; devah--all the demigods; harim--unto the Supreme Lord; saranam--to take shelter; ayayuh--went.




   When the jug of nectar was carried off by the demons, the demigods were morose. Thus they sought shelter at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari.


                               TEXT 37




                        iti tad-dainyam alokya

                       bhagavan bhrtya-kama-krt

                     ma khidyata mitho 'rtham vah

                        sadhayisye sva-mayaya




   iti--in this way; tat--of the demigods; dainyam--moroseness; alokya--seeing; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhrtya-kama-krt--who is always ready to fulfill the desires of His servants; ma khidyata--do not be aggrieved; mithah--by a quarrel; artham--to get nectar; vah--for all of you; sadhayisye--I shall execute; sva-mayaya--by My own energy.




   When the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who always desires to fulfill the ambitions of His devotees, saw that the demigods were morose, He said to them, "Do not be aggrieved. By My own energy I shall bewilder the demons by creating a quarrel among them. In this way I shall fulfill your desire to have the nectar."


                               TEXT 38




                       mithah kalir abhut tesam

                       tad-arthe tarsa-cetasam

                       aham purvam aham purvam

                      na tvam na tvam iti prabho




   mithah--among themselves; kalih--disagreement and quarrel; abhut--there was; tesam--of all of them; tat-arthe--for the sake of nectar; tarsa-cetasam--bewildered in heart and soul by the illusory energy of Visnu; aham--I; purvam--first; aham--I; purvam--first; na--not; tvam--you; na--not; tvam--you; iti--thus; prabho--O King.




   O King, a quarrel then arose among the demons over who would get the nectar first. Each of them said, "You cannot drink it first. I must drink it first. Me first, not you!"




   This is the symptom of demons. The first concern of a nondevotee is how to enjoy his personal sense gratification at once, whereas the devotee's first concern is to satisfy the Lord. This is the distinction between the nondevotee and the devotee. In this material world, since most people are nondevotees, they regularly compete, fight, disagree and war among themselves, for everyone wants to enjoy and satisfy his own senses. Therefore, unless such demons become Krsna conscious and are trained to satisfy the senses of the Lord, there can be no question of peace in human society or any society, even that of the demigods. The demigods and devotees, however, always surrender to the lotus feet of the Lord, and thus the Lord is always anxious to satisfy their ambitions. While the demons fight to satisfy their own senses, devotees engage in devotional service to satisfy the senses of the Lord. The members of the Krsna consciousness movement must be alert in regard to this point, and then their preaching of the Krsna consciousness movement will be successful.


                             TEXTS 39-40




                      devah svam bhagam arhanti

                         ye tulyayasa-hetavah

                        satra-yaga ivaitasminn

                        esa dharmah sanatanah


                      iti svan pratyasedhan vai

                        daiteya jata-matsarah

                       durbalah prabalan rajan

                         grhita-kalasan muhuh




   devah--the demigods; svam bhagam--their own share; arhanti--deserve to take; ye--all of them who; tulya-ayasa-hetavah--who made an equal endeavor; satra-yage--in the performance of sacrifices; iva--similarly; etasmin--in this matter; esah--this; dharmah--religion; sanatanah--eternal; iti--thus; svan--among themselves; pratyasedhan--forbade one another; vai--indeed; daiteyah--the sons of Diti; jata-matsarah--envious; durbalah--weak; prabalan--by force; rajan--O King; grhita--possessing; kalasan--the jug containing nectar; muhuh--constantly.




   Some of the demons said, "All the demigods have taken part in churning the ocean of milk. Now, as everyone has an equal right to partake in any public sacrifice, according to the eternal religious system it is befitting that the demigods now have a share of the nectar." O King, in this way the weaker demons forbade the stronger demons to take the nectar.




   Desiring to take the nectar, those among the demons who were less strong spoke in favor of the demigods. The weaker Daityas naturally pleaded on behalf of the demigods to stop the stronger Daityas from drinking the nectar without sharing it. In this way, disagreement and trouble arose as they forbade one another to drink the nectar.


                             TEXTS 41-46




                        etasminn antare visnuh

                        sarvopaya-vid isvarah

                        yosid-rupam anirdesyam













                        bibhrat sukesa-bharena

                       malam utphulla-mallikam






                       kancya pravilasad-valgu-






                        kamam uddipayan muhuh




   etasmin antare--after this incident; visnuh--Lord Visnu; sarva-upaya-vit--one who knows how to deal with different situations; isvarah--the supreme controller; yosit-rupam--the form of a beautiful woman; anirdesyam--no one could ascertain who She was; dadhara--assumed; parama--supremely; adbhutam--wonderful; preksaniya--pleasing to look at; utpala-syamam--blackish like a newly grown lotus; sarva--all; avayava--parts of the body; sundaram--very beautiful; samana--equally adjusted; karna-abharanam--ornaments on the ears; su-kapola--very beautiful cheeks; unnasa-ananam--a raised nose on Her face; nava-yauvana--newly youthful; nirvrtta-stana--breasts not agitated; bhara--weight; krsa--very lean and thin; udaram--waist; mukha--face; amoda--creating pleasure; anurakta--attracted; ali--bumblebees; jhankara--making a humming sound; udvigna--from anxiety; locanam--Her eyes; bibhrat--moving; su-kesa-bharena--by the weight of beautiful hair; malam--with a flower garland; utphulla-mallikam--made of fully grown mallika flowers; su-griva--a nice neck; kantha-abharanam--ornamented with beautiful jewelry; su-bhuja--very beautiful arms; angada-bhusitam--decorated with bangles; viraja-ambara--very clean cloth; samvita--spread; nitamba--breast; dvipa--appearing like an island; sobhaya--by such beauty; kancya--the belt on the waist; pravilasat--spreading over; valgu--very beautiful; calat-carana-nupuram--moving ankle bells; sa-vrida-smita--smiling with shyness; viksipta--glancing; bhru-vilasa--activities of the eyebrows; avalokanaih--glancing over; daitya-yutha-pa--the leaders of the demons; cetahsu--in the core of the heart; kamam--lusty desire; uddipayat--awakening; muhuh--constantly.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, who can counteract any unfavorable situation, then assumed the form of an extremely beautiful woman. This incarnation as a woman, Mohini-murti, was most pleasing to the mind. Her complexion resembled in color a newly grown blackish lotus, and every part of Her body was beautifully situated. Her ears were equally decorated with earrings, Her cheeks were very beautiful, Her nose was raised and Her face full of youthful luster. Her large breasts made Her waist seem very thin. Attracted by the aroma of Her face and body, bumblebees hummed around Her, and thus Her eyes were restless. Her hair, which was extremely beautiful, was garlanded with mallika flowers. Her attractively constructed neck was decorated with a necklace and other ornaments, Her arms were decorated with bangles, Her body was covered with a clean sari, and Her breasts seemed like islands in an ocean of beauty. Her legs were decorated with ankle bells. Because of the movements of Her eyebrows as She smiled with shyness and glanced over the demons, all the demons were saturated with lusty desires, and every one of them desired to possess Her.




   Because of the Supreme Lord's assuming the form of a beautiful woman to arouse the lusty desires of the demons, a description of Her complete beauty is given here.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Eighth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Churning of the Milk Ocean."

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