Chapter Fourteen

                  The System of Universal Management


   This chapter describes the duties allotted to Manu by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the Manus, as well as their sons, the sages, the demigods and the Indras, act under the orders of various incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. At the end of every catur-yuga, consisting of Satya-yuga, Dvapara-yuga, Treta-yuga and Kali-yuga, the sages, acting under the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, distribute the Vedic knowledge and thus reinstate eternal religious principles. Manu's duty is to reestablish the system of religion. Manu's sons execute Manu's orders, and thus the entire universe is maintained by Manu and his descendants. The Indras are various rulers of the heavenly planets. Assisted by the demigods, they rule the three worlds. The Supreme Personality of Godhead also appears as incarnations in different yugas. He appears as Sanaka, Sanatana, Yajnavalkya, Dattatreya and others, and thus He gives instructions in spiritual knowledge, prescribed duties, principles of mystic yoga, and so on. As Marici and others, He creates progeny; as the king, He punishes the miscreants; and in the form of time, He annihilates the creation. One may argue, "If the all-powerful Supreme Personality of Godhead can do anything simply by His will, why has He arranged for so many personalities to manage?" How and why He does this cannot be understood by those who are under the clutches of maya.


                                TEXT 1





                        manvantaresu bhagavan

                       yatha manv-adayas tv ime

                        yasmin karmani ye yena

                       niyuktas tad vadasva me




   sri-raja uvaca--King Pariksit said; manvantaresu--in the reign of each Manu; bhagavan--O great sage; yatha--as; manu-adayah--the Manus and others; tu--but; ime--these; yasmin--in which; karmani--activities; ye--which persons; yena--by whom; niyuktah--appointed; tat--that; vadasva--kindly describe; me--to me.




   Maharaja Pariksit inquired: O most opulent Sukadeva Gosvami, please explain to me how Manu and the others in each manvantara are engaged in their respective duties, and by whose order they are so engaged.


                                TEXT 2




                            sri-rsir uvaca

                        manavo manu-putras ca

                         munayas ca mahi-pate

                       indrah sura-ganas caiva

                         sarve purusa-sasanah




   sri-rsih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; manavah--all the Manus; manu-putrah--all the sons of Manu; ca--and; munayah--all the great sages; ca--and; mahi-pate--O King; indrah--all the Indras; sura-ganah--the demigods; ca--and; eva--certainly; sarve--all of them; purusa-sasanah--under the rule of the Supreme person.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: The Manus, the sons of Manu, the great sages, the Indras and all the demigods, O King, are appointed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His various incarnations such as Yajna.


                                TEXT 3




                        yajnadayo yah kathitah

                        paurusyas tanavo nrpa

                       manv-adayo jagad-yatram

                       nayanty abhih pracoditah




   yajna-adayah--the Lord's incarnation known as Yajna and others; yah--who; kathitah--already spoken of; paurusyah--of the Supreme Person; tanavah--incarnations; nrpa--O King; manu-adayah--the Manus and others; jagat-yatram--universal affairs; nayanti--conduct; abhih--by the incarnations; pracoditah--being inspired.




   O King, I have already described to you various incarnations of the Lord, such as Yajna. The Manus and others are chosen by these incarnations, under whose direction they conduct the universal affairs.




   The Manus execute the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His various incarnations.


                                TEXT 4




                         catur-yugante kalena

                      grastan chruti-ganan yatha

                         tapasa rsayo 'pasyan

                        yato dharmah sanatanah




   catuh-yuga-ante--at the end of every four yugas (Satya, Dvapara, Treta and Kali); kalena--in due course of time; grastan--lost; sruti-ganan--the Vedic instruction; yatha--as; tapasa--by austerity; rsayah--great saintly persons; apasyan--by seeing misuse; yatah--wherefrom; dharmah--occupational duties; sanatanah--eternal.




   At the end of every four yugas, the great saintly persons, upon seeing that the eternal occupational duties of mankind have been misused, reestablish the principles of religion.




   In this verse, the words dharmah and sanatanah are very important. Sanatana means "eternal," and dharma means "occupational duties." From Satya-yuga to Kali-yuga, the principles of religion and occupational duty gradually deteriorate. In Satya-yuga, the religious principles are observed in full, without deviation. In Treta-yuga, however, these principles are somewhat neglected, and only three fourths of the religious duties continue. In Dvapara-yuga only half of the religious principles continue, and in Kali-yuga only one fourth of the religious principles, which gradually disappear. At the end of Kali-yuga, the principles of religion, or the occupational duties of humanity, are almost lost. Indeed, in this Kali-yuga we have passed through only five thousand years, yet the decline of sanatana-dharma is very prominent. The duty of saintly persons, therefore, is to take up seriously the cause of sanatana-dharma and try to reestablish it for the benefit of the entire human society. The Krsna consciousness movement has been started according to this principle. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (12.3.51):


                        kaler dosa-nidhe rajan

                       asti hy eko mahan gunah

                        kirtanad eva krsnasya

                      mukta-sangah param vrajet


   The entire Kali-yuga is full of faults. It is like an unlimited ocean of faults. But the Krsna consciousness movement is very authorized. Therefore, following in the footsteps of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who five hundred years ago inaugurated the movement of sankirtana, krsna-kirtana, we are trying to introduce this movement, according to superior orders, all over the world. Now, if the inaugurators of this movement strictly follow the regulative principles and spread this movement for the benefit of all human society, they will certainly usher in a new way of life by reestablishing sanatana-dharma, the eternal occupational duties of humanity. The eternal occupational duty of the human being is to serve Krsna. Jivera 'svarupa' haya--krsnera 'nitya-dasa.' This is the purport of sanatana-dharma. Sanatana means nitya, or "eternal," and krsna-dasa means "servant of Krsna." The eternal occupational duty of the human being is to serve Krsna. This is the sum and substance of the Krsna consciousness movement.


                                TEXT 5




                       tato dharmam catuspadam

                          manavo harinoditah

                      yuktah sancarayanty addha

                       sve sve kale mahim nrpa




   tatah--thereafter (at the end of Kali-yuga); dharmam--the religious principle; catuh-padam--in four parts; manavah--all the Manus; harina--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uditah--being instructed; yuktah--being engaged; sancarayanti--reestablish; addha--directly; sve sve--in their own; kale--time; mahim--within this world; nrpa--O King.




   Thereafter, O King, the Manus, being fully engaged according to the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, directly reestablish the principles of occupational duty in its full four parts.




   Dharma, or occupational duty, can be established in its full four parts as explained in Bhagavad-gita. In Bhagavad-gita (4.1) the Lord says:


                         imam vivasvate yogam

                        proktavan aham avyayam

                        vivasvan manave praha

                       manur iksvakave 'bravit


   "I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvan, and Vivasvan instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Iksvaku." This is the process of disciplic succession. Following the same process, the Krsna consciousness movement is teaching the principles of Bhagavad-gita as it is, without deviation, all over the world. If the fortunate people of this time accept the instructions of Lord Krsna, they will certainly be happy in Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's mission. Caitanya Mahaprabhu wanted everyone, at least in India, to become a preacher of this mission. In other words, one should become a guru and preach the Lord's instructions all over the world for the peace and prosperity of humanity.


                                TEXT 6




                         palayanti praja-pala

                        yavad antam vibhagasah

                        yajna-bhaga-bhujo deva

                      ye ca tatranvitas ca taih




   palayanti--execute the order; praja-palah--the rulers of the world, namely the sons and grandsons of Manu; yavat antam--unto the end of Manu's reign; vibhagasah--in divisions; yajna-bhaga-bhujah--the enjoyers of the result of yajnas; devah--the demigods; ye--others; ca--also; tatra anvitah--engaged in that business; ca--also; taih--by them.




   To enjoy the results of sacrifices [yajnas], the rulers of the world, namely the sons and grandsons of Manu, discharge the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead until the end of Manu's reign. The demigods also share the results of these sacrifices.




   As stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.2):


                        evam parampara-praptam

                         imam rajarsayo viduh


   "This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way." This parampara system extends from Manu to Iksvaku and from Iksvaku to his sons and grandsons. The rulers of the world in the line of hierarchy execute the order of the Supreme personality of Godhead in the parampara system. Anyone interested in peaceful life must participate in this parampara system and perform yajnas. As Gaudiya Vaisnavas in the parampara system of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, we must perform sankirtana-yajna all over the world (yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah). Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in this age of Kali, and He will be easily satisfied if the sankirtana movement is spread vigorously all over the world. This will also make people happy without a doubt.


                                TEXT 7




                        indro bhagavata dattam

                       trailokya-sriyam urjitam

                      bhunjanah pati lokams trin

                        kamam loke pravarsati




   indrah--the King of heaven; bhagavata--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dattam--given; trailokya--of the three worlds; sriyam urjitam--the great opulences; bhunjanah--enjoying; pati--maintains; lokan--all the planets; trin--within the three worlds; kamam--as much as necessary; loke--within the world; pravarsati--pours rain.




   Indra, King of heaven, receiving benedictions from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and thus enjoying highly developed opulences, maintains the living entities all over the three worlds by pouring sufficient rain on all the planets.


                                TEXT 8




                        jnanam canuyugam brute

                      harih siddha-svarupa-dhrk

                        rsi-rupa-dharah karma

                        yogam yogesa-rupa-dhrk




   jnanam--transcendental knowledge; ca--and; anuyugam--according to the age; brute--explains; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; siddha-svarupa-dhrk--assuming the form of liberated persons like Sanaka and Sanatana; rsi-rupa-dharah--assuming the form of great saintly persons like Yajnavalkya; karma--karma; yogam--the mystic yoga system; yoga-isa-rupa-dhrk--by assuming the form of a great yogi like Dattatreya.




   In every yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, assumes the form of Siddhas such as Sanaka to preach transcendental knowledge, He assumes the form of great saintly persons such as Yajnavalkya to teach the way of karma, and He assumes the form of great yogis such as Dattatreya to teach the system of mystic yoga.




   For the benefit of all human society, not only does the Lord assume the form of Manu as an incarnation to rule the universe properly, but He also assumes the forms of a teacher, yogi, jnani and so on, for the benefit of human society. The duty of human society, therefore, is to accept the path of action enunciated by the Supreme Lord. In the present age, the sum and substance of all Vedic knowledge is to be found in Bhagavad-gita, which is personally taught by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the same Supreme Godhead, assuming the form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, expands the teachings of Bhagavad-gita all over the world. In other words, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, is so kind and merciful to human society that He is always anxious to take the fallen souls back home, back to Godhead.


                                TEXT 9




                        sargam prajesa-rupena

                      dasyun hanyat svarad-vapuh

                         kala-rupena sarvesam

                        abhavaya prthag gunah




   sargam--creation of progeny; praja-isa-rupena--in the form of the Prajapati Marici and others; dasyun--thieves and rogues; hanyat--kills; sva-rat-vapuh--in the form of the king; kala-rupena--in the form of time; sarvesam--of everything; abhavaya--for the annihilation; prthak--different; gunah--possessing qualities.




   In the form of Prajapati Marici, the Supreme Personality of Godhead creates progeny; becoming the king, He kills the thieves and rogues; and in the form of time, He annihilates everything. All the different qualities of material existence should be understood to be qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 10




                        stuyamano janair ebhir

                          mayaya nama-rupaya

                        vimohitatmabhir nana-

                       darsanair na ca drsyate




   stuyamanah--being sought; janaih--by people in general; ebhih--by all of them; mayaya--under the influence of maya; nama-rupaya--possessing different names and forms; vimohita--bewildered; atmabhih--by illusion; nana--various; darsanaih--by philosophical approaches; na--not; ca--and; drsyate--the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be found.




   People in general are bewildered by the illusory energy, and therefore they try to find the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, through various types of research and philosophical speculation. Nonetheless, they are unable to see the Supreme Lord.




   Whatever actions and reactions take place for the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this material world are actually brought about by the one Supreme Person. There are many varieties of philosophers trying to search for the ultimate cause under different names and forms, but they are unable to find the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, who explains in Bhagavad-gita that He is the origin of everything and the cause of all causes (aham sarvasya prabhavah). This inability is due to the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord. Devotees, therefore, accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is and remain happy simply by chanting the glories of the Lord.


                               TEXT 11




                        etat kalpa-vikalpasya

                        pramanam parikirtitam

                       yatra manvantarany ahus

                         caturdasa puravidah




   etat--all these; kalpa--in one day of Lord Brahma; vikalpasya--of the changes in a kalpa, such as the change of Manus; pramanam--evidences; parikirtitam--described (by me); yatra--wherein; manvantarani--periods of Manu; ahuh--said; caturdasa--fourteen; pura-vidah--learned scholars.




   In one kalpa, or one day of Brahma, there take place the many changes called vikalpas. O King, all of these have been previously described to you by me. Learned scholars who know the past, present and future have ascertained that in one day of Brahma there are fourteen Manus.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Eighth Canto, Fourteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The System of Universal Management."

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