Chapter Sixteen

             Executing the Payo-vrata Process of Worship


   As described in this chapter, because Aditi, the mother of the demigods, was very afflicted, her husband, Kasyapa Muni, told her how to observe vows in austerities for the benefit of her sons.

   Since the demigods were not visible in the heavenly kingdom, their mother, Aditi, because of separation from them, was very much aggrieved. One day after many, many years, the great sage Kasyapa emerged from a trance of meditation and returned to his asrama. He saw that the asrama was no longer beautiful and that his wife was very morose. Everywhere in the asrama, he saw signs of lamentation. The great sage therefore inquired from his wife about the well-being of the asrama and asked her why she looked so morose. After Aditi informed Kasyapa Muni about the asrama's well-being, she told him that she was lamenting for the absence of her sons. She then requested him to tell her how her sons could return and reoccupy their positions. She wanted all good fortune for her sons. Moved by Aditi's request, Kasyapa Muni instructed her in the philosophy of self-realization, the difference between matter and spirit, and how to be unaffected by material loss. But when he saw that Aditi was not satisfied even after he had given these instructions, he advised her to worship Vasudeva, Janardana. He assured her that only Lord Vasudeva could satisfy her and fulfill all her desires. When Aditi then expressed her desire to worship Lord Vasudeva, Prajapati Kasyapa told her about a process of worship known as payo-vrata, which is executed in twelve days. Lord Brahma had instructed him how to satisfy Lord Krsna by this process, and thus he advised his wife to observe this vow and its regulative principles.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                         evam putresu nastesu

                         deva-mataditis tada

                      hrte tri-vistape daityaih

                        paryatapyad anathavat




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--in this way; putresu--when her sons; nastesu--disappearing from their position; deva-mata--the mother of the demigods; aditih--Aditi; tada--at that time; hrte--because of being lost; tri-vistape--the kingdom of heaven; daityaih--by the influence of the demons; paryatapyat--began to lament; anatha-vat--as if she had no protector.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, when Aditi's sons, the demigods, had thus disappeared from heaven and the demons had occupied their places, Aditi began lamenting, as if she had no protector.


                                TEXT 2




                         ekada kasyapas tasya

                        asramam bhagavan agat

                        nirutsavam niranandam

                        samadher viratas cirat




   ekada--one day; kasyapah--the great sage Kasyapa Muni; tasyah--of Aditi; asramam--to the shelter; bhagavan--greatly powerful; agat--went; nirutsavam--without enthusiasm; niranandam--without jubilation; samadheh--his trance; viratah--stopping; cirat--after a long time.




   After many, many days, the great powerful sage Kasyapa Muni arose from a trance of meditation and returned home to see the asrama of Aditi neither jubilant nor festive.


                                TEXT 3




                        sa patnim dina-vadanam


                        sabhajito yatha-nyayam

                          idam aha kurudvaha




   sah--Kasyapa Muni; patnim--unto his wife; dina-vadanam--having a dry face; krta-asana-parigrahah--after accepting a sitting place; sabhajitah--being honored by Aditi; yatha-nyayam--according to time and place; idam aha--spoke as follows; kuru-udvaha--O Maharaja Pariksit, the best of the Kurus.




   O best of the Kurus, when Kasyapa Muni had been properly received and welcomed, he took his seat and then spoke as follows to his wife, Aditi, who was very morose.


                                TEXT 4




                       apy abhadram na vipranam

                       bhadre loke 'dhunagatam

                       na dharmasya na lokasya

                       mrtyos chandanuvartinah




   api--whether; abhadram--ill fortune; na--not; vipranam--of the brahmanas; bhadre--O most gentle Aditi; loke--in this world; adhuna--at the present moment; agatam--has come; na--not; dharmasya--of religious principles; na--not; lokasya--of the people in general; mrtyoh--death; chanda-anuvartinah--who are followers of the whims of death.




   O most gentle one, I wonder whether anything inauspicious has now taken place in regard to religious principles, the brahmanas or the people in general, who are subject to the whims of death.




   There are prescribed duties for all the inhabitants of this material world, especially for the brahmanas but also for the people in general, who are subject to the whims of death. Kasyapa Muni wondered whether the regulative principles, which are meant for the well-being of everyone, had been disobeyed. He accordingly continued his inquiries for seven verses.


                                TEXT 5




                         api vakusalam kincid

                         grhesu grha-medhini

                       dharmasyarthasya kamasya

                        yatra yogo hy ayoginam




   api--I am wondering; va--either; akusalam--inauspiciousness; kincit--some; grhesu--at home; grha-medhini--O my wife, who are attached to household life; dharmasya--of the principles of religion; arthasya--of the economic condition; kamasya--of satisfaction of desires; yatra--at home; yogah--the result of meditation; hi--indeed; ayoginam--even of those who are not transcendentalists.




   O my wife, who are very much attached to household life, if the principles of religion, economic development and satisfaction of the senses are properly followed in household life, one's activities are as good as those of a transcendentalist. I wonder whether there have been any discrepancies in following these principles.




   In this verse, Aditi has been addressed by her husband, Kasyapa Muni, as grha-medhini, which means "one who is satisfied in household life for sense gratification." Generally, those who are in household life pursue sense gratification in the field of activities performed for material results. Such grhamedhis have only one aim in life--sense gratification. Therefore it is said, yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham: the householder's life is based on sense gratification, and therefore the happiness derived from it is very meager. Nonetheless, the Vedic process is so comprehensive that even in householder life one can adjust his activities according to the regulative principles of dharma, artha, kama and moksa. One's aim should be to achieve liberation, but because one cannot at once give up sense gratification, in the sastras there are injunctions prescribing how to follow the principles of religion, economic development and sense gratification. As explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.9), dharmasya hy apavargyasya nartho 'rthayopakalpate: "All occupational engagements are certainly meant for ultimate liberation. They should never be performed for material gain." Those who are in household life should not think that religion is meant to improve the process of the householder's sense gratification. Household life is also meant for advancement in spiritual understanding, by which one can ultimately gain liberation from the material clutches. One should remain in household life with the aim of understanding the ultimate goal of life (tattva jijnasa). Then household life is as good as the life of a yogi. Kasyapa Muni therefore inquired from his wife whether the principles of religion, economic development and sense gratification were being properly followed in terms of the sastric injunctions. As soon as one deviates from the injunctions of the sastra, the purpose of household life is immediately lost in confusion.


                                TEXT 6




                        api vatithayo 'bhyetya

                         kutumbasaktaya tvaya

                         grhad apujita yatah

                       pratyutthanena va kvacit




   api--whether; va--either; atithayah--guests who come without an invitation; abhyetya--coming to the home; kutumba-asaktaya--who were too attached to the family members; tvaya--by you; grhat--from the house; apujitah--without being properly welcomed; yatah--went away; pratyutthanena--by standing up; va--either; kvacit--sometimes.




   I wonder whether because of being too attached to the members of your family, you failed to properly receive uninvited guests, who therefore were not welcomed and went away.




   It is the duty of a householder to receive guests, even if a guest be an enemy. When a guest comes to one's home, one should properly receive him by standing up and offering him a seat. It is enjoined, grhe satrum api praptam visvastam akutobhayam: if even an enemy comes to one's home, one should receive him in such a way that the guest will forget that his host is an enemy. According to one's position, one should properly receive anyone who comes to one's home. At least a seat and a glass of water should be offered, so that the guest will not be displeased. Kasyapa Muni inquired from Aditi whether disrespect had been shown to such guests, or atithis. The word atithi refers to one who comes without an invitation.


                                TEXT 7




                         grhesu yesv atithayo

                        narcitah salilair api

                        yadi niryanti te nunam





   grhesu--at home; yesu--which; atithayah--uninvited guests; na--not; arcitah--welcomed; salilaih api--even by offering a glass of water; yadi--if; niryanti--they go away; te--such household life; nunam--indeed; pheru-raja--of jackals; grha--the homes; upamah--like.




   Homes from which guests go away without having been received even with an offering of a little water are like those holes in the field which are the homes of jackals.




   In a field there may be holes made by snakes and mice, but when there are very big holes, it may be supposed that jackals live there. Certainly no one goes to take shelter in such homes. Thus the homes of human beings where atithis, uninvited guests, are not properly received are like the homes of jackals.


                                TEXT 8




                        apy agnayas tu velayam

                         na huta havisa sati

                       tvayodvigna-dhiya bhadre

                        prosite mayi karhicit




   api--whether; agnayah--fires; tu--indeed; velayam--in the fire sacrifice; na--not; hutah--offered; havisa--by ghee; sati--O chaste woman; tvaya--by you; udvigna-dhiya--because of some anxiety; bhadre--O auspicious woman; prosite--was away from home; mayi--when I; karhicit--sometimes.




   O chaste and auspicious woman, when I left home for other places, were you in so much anxiety that you did not offer oblations of ghee into the fire?


                                TEXT 9




                        yat-pujaya kama-dughan

                        yati lokan grhanvitah

                     brahmano 'gnis ca vai visnoh

                        sarva-devatmano mukham




   yat-pujaya--by worshiping the fire and brahmanas; kama-dughan--which fulfill one's desires; yati--one goes; lokan--to the destination of the higher planetary system; grha-anvitah--a person attached to household life; brahmanah--the brahmanas; agnih ca--and the fire; vai--indeed; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; sarva-deva-atmanah--the soul of all the demigods; mukham--the mouth.




   By worshiping the fire and the brahmanas, a householder can achieve the desired goal of residing in the higher planets, for the sacrificial fire and the brahmanas are to be considered the mouth of Lord Visnu, who is the Supersoul of all the demigods.




   According to the Vedic system, a fire sacrifice is held in order to offer oblations of ghee, grains, fruits, flowers and so on, so that Lord Visnu may eat and be satisfied. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.26):


                      patram puspam phalam toyam

                      yo me bhaktya prayacchati

                       tad aham bhakty-upahrtam

                         asnami prayatatmanah


   "If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, fruit or water, I will accept it." Therefore, all these items may be offered in the sacrificial fire, and Lord Visnu will be satisfied. Similarly, brahmana-bhojana, feeding of the brahmanas, is also recommended, for when the brahmanas eat sumptuous remnants of food after yajna, this is another way that Lord Visnu Himself eats. Therefore the Vedic principles recommend that in every festival or ceremony one offer oblations to the fire and give sumptuous food for the brahmanas to eat. By such activities, a householder may be elevated to the heavenly planets and similar places in the higher planetary systems.


                               TEXT 10




                         api sarve kusalinas

                         tava putra manasvini

                      laksaye 'svastham atmanam

                       bhavatya laksanair aham




   api--whether; sarve--all; kusalinah--in full auspiciousness; tava--your; putrah--sons; manasvini--O great-minded lady; laksaye--I see; asvastham--not in tranquillity; atmanam--the mind; bhavatyah--of you; laksanaih--by symptoms; aham--I.




   O great-minded lady, are all your sons faring well? Seeing your withered face, I can perceive that your mind is not tranquil. How is this so?


                               TEXT 11




                           sri-aditir uvaca

                     bhadram dvija-gavam brahman

                       dharmasyasya janasya ca

                      tri-vargasya param ksetram

                         grhamedhin grha ime




   sri-aditih uvaca--Srimati Aditi said; bhadram--all auspiciousness; dvija-gavam--of the brahmanas and the cows; brahman--O brahmana; dharmasya asya--of the religious principles mentioned in sastra; janasya--of the people in general; ca--and; tri-vargasya--of the three processes of elevation (dharma, artha and kama); param--the supreme; ksetram--field; grhamedhin--O my husband, who are attached to household life; grhah--your home; ime--all these things.




   Aditi said: O my respected brahmana husband, all is well with the brahmanas, the cows, religion and the welfare of other people. O master of the house, the three principles of dharma, artha and kama flourish in household life, which is consequently full of good fortune.




   In household life one can develop the three principles of religion, economic development and sense gratification according to the regulations given in the sastras, but to attain liberation one must give up household life and place himself in the transcendental renounced order. Kasyapa Muni was not in the renounced order of life. Therefore he is addressed here once as brahman and another time as grhamedhin. Aditi, his wife, assured him that as far as household life was concerned, everything was going nicely, and the brahmanas and cows were being honored and protected. In other words, there were no disturbances; household life was duly progressing.


                               TEXT 12




                        agnayo 'tithayo bhrtya

                       bhiksavo ye ca lipsavah

                      sarvam bhagavato brahmann

                        anudhyanan na risyati




   agnayah--worshiping the fires; atithayah--receiving the guests; bhrtyah--satisfying the servants; bhiksavah--pleasing the beggars; ye--all of them who; ca--and; lipsavah--as they desire (are taken care of); sarvam--all of them; bhagavatah--of you, my lord; brahman--O brahmana; anudhyanat--from always thinking; na risyati--nothing is missed (everything is properly done).




   O beloved husband, the fires, guests, servants and beggars are all being properly cared for by me. Because I always think of you, there is no possibility that any of the religious principles will be neglected.


                               TEXT 13




                        ko nu me bhagavan kamo

                        na sampadyeta manasah

                      yasya bhavan prajadhyaksa

                       evam dharman prabhasate




   kah--what; nu--indeed; me--my; bhagavan--O lord; kamah--desire; na--not; sampadyeta--can be fulfilled; manasah--within my mind; yasyah--of me; bhavan--your good self; praja-adhyaksah--Prajapati; evam--thus; dharman--religious principles; prabhasate--talks.




   O my lord, since you are a Prajapati and are personally my instructor in the principles of religion, where is the possibility that all my desires will not be fulfilled?


                               TEXT 14




                    tavaiva marica manah-sarirajah

                  praja imah sattva-rajas-tamo-jusah

                  samo bhavams tasv asuradisu prabho

                  tathapi bhaktam bhajate mahesvarah




   tava--your; eva--indeed; marica--O son of Marici; manah-sarira-jah--born either of your body or of your mind (all the demons and demigods); prajah--born of you; imah--all of them; sattva-rajah-tamah-jusah--infected with sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna; samah--equal; bhavan--your good self; tasu--to every one of them; asura-adisu--beginning with the asuras; prabho--O my lord; tatha api--still; bhaktam--unto the devotees; bhajate--takes care of; maha-isvarah--the Supreme personality of Godhead, the supreme controller.




   O son of Marici, because you are a great personality you are equal toward all the demons and demigods, who are born either from your body or from your mind and who possess one or another of the three qualities--sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna. But although the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, is equal toward all living entities, He is especially favorable to the devotees.




   In Bhagavad-gita (9.29) the Lord says:


                       samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu

                     na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah

                      ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya

                        mayi te tesu capy aham


   Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead is equal toward everyone, He is especially inclined toward those who engage in His devotional service. The Lord says, kaunteya pratijanihi na me bhaktah pranasyati: "My dear son of Kunti, please declare that My devotee will never be vanquished." Elsewhere, Krsna also says:


                       ye yatha mam prapadyante

                      tams tathaiva bhajamy aham

                        mama vartmanuvartante

                       manusyah partha sarvasah


   (Bg. 4.11)


   Actually, everyone is trying to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead in various ways, but according to their methods of approach, the Supreme Lord endows them with different benedictions. Thus Aditi appealed to her husband by saying that since even the supreme controller favors His devotees and since Indra, Kasyapa's devoted son, was in difficulty, Kasyapa should bestow his favor upon Indra.


                               TEXT 15




                       tasmad isa bhajantya me

                        sreyas cintaya suvrata

                       hrta-sriyo hrta-sthanan

                      sapatnaih pahi nah prabho




   tasmat--therefore; isa--O powerful controller; bhajantyah--of your servitor; me--me; sreyah--auspiciousness; cintaya--just consider; su-vrata--O most gentle one; hrta-sriyah--bereft of all opulence; hrta-sthanan--bereft of a residence; sapatnaih--by the competitors; pahi--please protect; nah--us; prabho--O my lord.




   Therefore, most gentle lord, kindly favor your maidservant. We have now been deprived of our opulence and residence by our competitors, the demons. Kindly give us protection.




   Aditi, the mother of the demigods, appealed to Kasyapa Muni to give the demigods protection. When we speak of the demigods, this also includes their mother.


                               TEXT 16




                        parair vivasita saham

                         magna vyasana-sagare

                     aisvaryam srir yasah sthanam

                        hrtani prabalair mama




   paraih--by our enemies; vivasita--taken away from our residential quarters; sa--the same; aham--I; magna--drowned; vyasana-sagare--in an ocean of trouble; aisvaryam--opulence; srih--beauty; yasah--reputation; sthanam--place; hrtani--all taken away; prabalaih--very powerful; mama--my.




   The demons, our formidably powerful enemies, have taken away our opulence, our beauty, our fame and even our residence. Indeed, we have now been exiled, and we are drowning in an ocean of trouble.


                               TEXT 17




                        yatha tani punah sadho

                        prapadyeran mamatmajah

                        tatha vidhehi kalyanam

                        dhiya kalyana-krttama




   yatha--as; tani--all of our lost things; punah--again; sadho--O great saintly person; prapadyeran--can regain; mama--my; atmajah--offspring (sons); tatha--so; vidhehi--kindly do; kalyanam--auspiciousness; dhiya--by consideration; kalyana-krt-tama--O you who are the best person to act for our welfare.




   O best of sages, best of all those who grant auspicious benedictions, please consider our situation and bestow upon my sons the benedictions by which they can regain what they have lost.


                               TEXT 18




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       evam abhyarthito 'ditya

                       kas tam aha smayann iva

                        aho maya-balam visnoh

                       sneha-baddham idam jagat




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--in this way; abhyarthitah--being requested; aditya--by Aditi; kah--Kasyapa Muni; tam--unto her; aha--said; smayan--smiling; iva--just like; aho--alas; maya-balam--the influence of the illusory energy; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; sneha-baddham--influenced by this affection; idam--this; jagat--whole world.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: When Kasyapa Muni was thus requested by Aditi, he slightly smiled. "Alas," he said, "how powerful is the illusory energy of Lord Visnu, by which the entire world is bound by affection for children!"




   Kasyapa Muni was surely sympathetic to his wife's affliction, yet he was surprised at how the whole world is influenced by affection.


                               TEXT 19




                       kva deho bhautiko 'natma

                       kva catma prakrteh parah

                        kasya ke pati-putradya

                         moha eva hi karanam




   kva--where is; dehah--this material body; bhautikah--made of five elements; anatma--not the spirit soul; kva--where is; ca--also; atma--the spirit soul; prakrteh--to the material world; parah--transcendental; kasya--of whom; ke--who is; pati--husband; putra-adyah--or son and so on; mohah--illusion; eva--indeed; hi--certainly; karanam--cause.




   Kasyapa Muni continued: What is this material body, made of five elements? It is different from the spirit soul. Indeed, the spirit soul is completely different from the material elements from which the body is made. But because of bodily attachment, one is regarded as a husband or son. These illusory relationships are caused by misunderstanding.




   The spirit soul (atma or jiva) is certainly different from the body, which is a combination of five material elements. This is a simple fact, but it is not understood unless one is spiritually educated. Kasyapa Muni met his wife, Aditi, in the heavenly planets, but the same misconception extends throughout the entire universe and is also here on earth. There are different grades of living entities, but all of them are more or less under the impression of the bodily conception of life. In other words, all living entities in this material world are more or less devoid of spiritual education. The Vedic civilization, however, is based on spiritual education, and spiritual education is the special basis on which Bhagavad-gita was spoken to Arjuna. In the beginning of Bhagavad-gita, Krsna instructed Arjuna to understand that the spirit soul is different from the body.


                       dehino 'smin yatha dehe

                        kaumaram yauvanam jara

                       tatha dehantara-praptir

                       dhiras tatra na muhyati


   "As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." (Bg. 2.13) Unfortunately, this spiritual education is completely absent from modern human civilization. No one understands his real self-interest, which lies with the spirit soul, not with the material body. Education means spiritual education. To work hard in the bodily conception of life, without spiritual education, is to live like an animal. Nayam deho deha-bhajam nr-loke kastan kaman arhate vid-bhujam ye (Bhag. 5.5.1). People are working so hard simply for bodily comforts, without education regarding the spirit soul. Thus they are living in a very risky civilization, for it is a fact that the spirit soul has to transmigrate from one body to another (tatha dehantara-praptih). Without spiritual education, people are kept in dark ignorance and do not know what will happen to them after the annihilation of the present body. They are working blindly, and blind leaders are directing them. Andha yathandhair upaniyamanas te 'pisa-tantryam uru-damni baddhah (Bhag. 7.5.31). A foolish person does not know that he is completely under the bondage of material nature and that after death material nature will impose upon him a certain type of body, which he will have to accept. He does not know that although in his present body he may be a very important man, he may next get the body of an animal or tree because of his ignorant activities in the modes of material nature. Therefore the Krsna consciousness movement is trying to give the true light of spiritual existence to all living entities. This movement is not very difficult to understand, and people must take advantage of it, for it will save them from the risky life of irresponsibility.


                               TEXT 20




                         upatisthasva purusam

                        bhagavantam janardanam


                        vasudevam jagad-gurum




   upatisthasva--just try to worship; purusam--the Supreme Person; bhagavantam--the Personality of Godhead; janardanam--who can kill all the enemies; sarva-bhuta-guha-vasam--living within the core of the heart of everyone; vasudevam--Vasudeva, Krsna, who is all-pervading and is the son of Vasudeva; jagat-gurum--the spiritual master and teacher of the whole world.




   My dear Aditi, engage in devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the master of everything, who can subdue everyone's enemies, and who sits within everyone's heart. Only that Supreme Person--Krsna, or Vasudeva--can bestow all auspicious benedictions upon everyone, for He is the spiritual master of the universe.




   With these words, Kasyapa Muni tried to pacify his wife. Aditi made her appeal to her material husband. Of course, that is nice, but actually a material relative cannot do anything good for anyone. If anything good can be done, it is done by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva. Therefore, Kasyapa Muni advised his wife, Aditi, to begin worshiping Lord Vasudeva, who is situated in everyone's heart. He is the friend of everyone and is known as Janardana because He can kill all enemies. There are three modes of material nature--goodness, passion and ignorance--and above material nature, transcendental to material nature, is another existence, which is called suddha-sattva. In the material world, the mode of goodness is considered the best, but because of material contamination, even the mode of goodness is sometimes overpowered by the modes of passion and ignorance. But when one transcends the competition between these modes and engages himself in devotional service, he rises above the three modes of material nature. In that transcendental position, one is situated in pure consciousness. Sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam (Bhag. 4.3.23). Above material nature is the position called vasudeva, or freedom from material contamination. Only in that position can one perceive the Supreme personality of Godhead, Vasudeva. Thus the vasudeva condition fulfills a spiritual necessity. Vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah. When one realizes Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he becomes most exalted.

   Paramatma (Vasudeva) is situated in everyone's heart, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita. The Lord says:


                        tesam satata-yuktanam

                       bhajatam priti-purvakam

                       dadami buddhi-yogam tam

                         yena mam upayanti te


   "To those who are constantly devoted and who worship Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me." (Bg. 10.10)


                        isvarah sarva-bhutanam

                       hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati


   "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna." (Bg. 18.61)


                       bhoktaram yajna-tapasam


                        suhrdam sarva-bhutanam

                      jnatva mam santim rcchati


   "The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attain peace from the pangs of material miseries." (Bg. 5.29)

   Whenever one is perplexed, let him take shelter of the lotus feet of Vasudeva, Krsna, who will give the devotee intelligence to help him surpass all difficulties and return home, back to Godhead. Kasyapa Muni advised his wife to seek shelter at the lotus feet of Vasudeva, Krsna, so that all her problems would be very easily solved. Thus Kasyapa Muni was an ideal spiritual master. He was not so foolish that he would present himself as an exalted personality, as good as God. He was actually a bona fide guru because he advised his wife to seek shelter at the lotus feet of Vasudeva. One who trains his subordinate or disciple to worship Vasudeva is the truly bona fide spiritual master. The word jagad-gurum is very important in this regard. Kasyapa Muni did not falsely declare himself to be jagad-guru, although he actually was jagad-guru because he advocated the cause of Vasudeva. Actually, Vasudeva is jagad-guru, as clearly stated here (vasudevam jagad-gurum). One who teaches the instructions of Vasudeva, Bhagavad-gita, is as good as vasudevam jagad-gurum. But when one who does not teach this instruction--as it is--declares himself jagad-guru, he simply cheats the public. Krsna is jagad-guru, and one who teaches the instruction of Krsna as it is, on behalf of Krsna, may be accepted as jagad-guru. One who manufactures his own theories cannot be accepted; he becomes jagad-guru falsely.


                               TEXT 21




                        sa vidhasyati te kaman

                         harir dinanukampanah

                       amogha bhagavad-bhaktir

                         netareti matir mama




   sah--he (Vasudeva); vidhasyati--will undoubtedly fulfill; te--your; kaman--desires; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dina--unto the poor; anukampanah--very merciful; amogha--infallible; bhagavat-bhaktih--devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na--not; itara--anything but bhagavad-bhakti; iti--thus; matih--opinion; mama--my.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is very merciful to the poor, will fulfill all of your desires, for devotional service unto Him is infallible. Any method other than devotional service is useless. That is my opinion.




   There are three kinds of men, who are called akama, moksa-kama and sarva-kama. One who tries to get liberation from this material world is called moksa-kama, one who wants to enjoy this material world to its fullest extent is called sarva-kama, and one who has fulfilled all his desires and has no further material desires is called akama. A bhakta has no desire. Sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam. He is purified and free from material desires. The moksa-kami wants to achieve liberation by merging into the existence of the Supreme Brahman, and because of this desire to merge into the existence of the Lord, he is not yet pure. And since those who want liberation are impure, what to speak of the karmis, who have so many desires to fulfill? Nonetheless, the sastra says:


                         akamah sarva-kamo va

                        moksa-kama udara-dhih

                        tivrena bhakti-yogena

                         yajeta purusam param


   "Whether one desires everything or nothing or desires to merge into the existence of the Lord, he is intelligent only if he worships Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by rendering transcendental loving service." (Bhag. 2.3.10)

   Kasyapa Muni saw that his wife, Aditi, had some material desires for the welfare of her sons, but still he advised her to render devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In other words, everyone, regardless of whether he is a karmi, jnani, yogi or bhakta, should invariably take shelter of the lotus feet of Vasudeva and render transcendental loving service unto Him so that all his desires will be duly fulfilled. Krsna is dina-anukampana: He is very merciful to everyone. Therefore if one wants to fulfill his material desires, Krsna helps him. Of course, sometimes if a devotee is very sincere, the Lord, as a special favor to him, refuses to fulfill his material desires and directly blesses him with pure, unalloyed devotional service. It is said in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.38-39):


             krsna kahe,----'ama bhaje, mage visaya-sukha

              amrta chadi' visa mage,----ei bada murkha


             ami----vijna, ei murkhe 'visaya' kene diba?

                sva-caranamrta diya 'visaya' bhulaiba


   "Krsna says, 'If one engages in My transcendental loving service but at the same time wants the opulence of material enjoyment, he is very, very foolish. Indeed, he is just like a person who gives up ambrosia to drink poison. Since I am very intelligent, why should I give this fool material prosperity? Instead I shall induce him to take the nectar of the shelter of My lotus feet and make him forget illusory material enjoyment.' " If a devotee maintains some material desire and at the same time very sincerely desires to engage at the lotus feet of Krsna, Krsna may directly give him unalloyed devotional service and take away all his material desires and possessions. This is the Lord's special favor to devotees. Otherwise, if one takes to Krsna's devotional service but still has material desires to fulfill, he may become free from all material desires, as Dhruva Maharaja did, but this may take some time. However, if a very sincere devotee wants only Krsna's lotus feet, Krsna directly gives him the position of suddha-bhakti, unalloyed devotional service.


                               TEXT 22




                           sri-aditir uvaca

                       kenaham vidhina brahmann

                        upasthasye jagat-patim

                       yatha me satya-sankalpo

                       vidadhyat sa manoratham




   sri-aditih uvaca--Srimati Aditi began to pray; kena--by which; aham--I; vidhina--by regulative principles; brahman--O brahmana; upasthasye--can please; jagat-patim--the Lord of the universe, Jagannatha; yatha--by which; me--my; satya-sankalpah--desire may actually be fulfilled; vidadhyat--may fulfill; sah--He (the Supreme Lord); manoratham--ambitions or desires.




   Srimati Aditi said: O brahmana, tell me the regulative principles by which I may worship the supreme master of the world so that the Lord will be pleased with me and fulfill all my desires.




   It is said, "Man proposes, God disposes." Thus a person may desire many things, but unless these desires are fulfilled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they cannot be fulfilled. Fulfillment of desire is called satya-sankalpa. Here the word satya-sankalpa is very important. Aditi placed herself at the mercy of her husband so that he would give her directions by which to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead so that all her desires would be fulfilled. A disciple must first decide that he should worship the Supreme Lord, and then the spiritual master will give the disciple correct directions. One cannot dictate to the spiritual master, just as a patient cannot demand that his physician prescribe a certain type of medicine. Here is the beginning of worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (7.16):


                       catur-vidha bhajante mam

                        janah sukrtino 'rjuna

                       arto jijnasur artharthi

                        jnani ca bharatarsabha


   "O best among the Bharatas, four kinds of pious men render devotional service unto Me--the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute." Aditi was arta, a person in distress. She was very much aggrieved because her sons, the demigods, were bereft of everything. Thus she wanted to take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead under the direction of her husband, Kasyapa Muni.


                               TEXT 23




                       adisa tvam dvija-srestha

                        vidhim tad-upadhavanam

                         asu tusyati me devah

                       sidantyah saha putrakaih




   adisa--just instruct me; tvam--O my husband; dvija-srestha--O best of the brahmanas; vidhim--the regulative principles; tat--the Lord; upadhavanam--the process of worshiping; asu--very soon; tusyati--becomes satisfied; me--unto me; devah--the Lord; sidantyah--now lamenting; saha--with; putrakaih--all my sons, the demigods.




   O best of the brahmanas, kindly instruct me in the perfect method of worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead in devotional service, by which the Lord may very soon be pleased with me and save me, along with my sons, from this most dangerous condition.




   Sometimes less intelligent men ask whether one has to approach a guru to be instructed in devotional service for spiritual advancement. The answer is given here--indeed, not only here, but also in Bhagavad-gita, where Arjuna accepted Krsna as his guru (sisyas te 'ham sadhi mam tvam prapannam). The Vedas also instruct, tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet: one must accept a guru for proper direction if one is seriously inclined toward advancement in spiritual life. The Lord says that one must worship the acarya, who is the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (acaryam mam vijaniyat). One should definitely understand this. In Caitanya-caritamrta it is said that the guru is the manifestation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, according to all the evidence given by the sastra and by the practical behavior of devotees, one must accept a guru. Aditi accepted her husband as her guru, so that he would direct her how to advance in spiritual consciousness, devotional service, by worshiping the Supreme Lord.


                               TEXT 24




                          sri-kasyapa uvaca

                       etan me bhagavan prstah

                        praja-kamasya padmajah

                        yad aha te pravaksyami

                        vratam kesava-tosanam




   sri-kasyapah uvaca--Kasyapa Muni said; etat--this; me--by me; bhagavan--the most powerful; prstah--when he was requested; praja-kamasya--desiring offspring; padma-jah--Lord Brahma, who was born of a lotus flower; yat--whatever; aha--he said; te--unto you; pravaksyami--I shall explain; vratam--in the form of worship; kesava-tosanam--by which Kesava, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is satisfied.




   Sri Kasyapa Muni said: When I desired offspring, I placed inquiries before Lord Brahma, who is born from a lotus flower. Now I shall explain to you the same process Lord Brahma instructed me, by which Kesava, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is satisfied.




   Here the process of devotional service is further explained. Kasyapa Muni wanted to instruct Aditi in the same process recommended to him by Brahma for satisfying the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is valuable. The guru does not manufacture a new process to instruct the disciple. The disciple receives from the guru an authorized process received by the guru from his guru. This is called the system of disciplic succession (evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh). This is the bona fide Vedic system of receiving the process of devotional service, by which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is pleased. Therefore, to approach a bona fide guru, or spiritual master, is essential. The bona fide spiritual master is he who has received the mercy of his guru, who in turn is bona fide because he has received the mercy of his guru. This is called the parampara system. Unless one follows this parampara system, the mantra one receives will be chanted for no purpose. Nowadays there are so many rascal gurus who manufacture their mantras as a process for material advancement, not spiritual advancement. Still, the mantra cannot be successful if it is manufactured. Mantras and the process of devotional service have special power, provided they are received from the authorized person.


                               TEXT 25




                        phalgunasyamale pakse

                        dvadasaham payo-vratam

                         arcayed aravindaksam

                        bhaktya paramayanvitah




   phalgunasya--of the month of Phalguna (February and March); amale--during the bright; pakse--fortnight; dvadasa-aham--for twelve days, ending with Dvadasi, the day after Ekadasi; payah-vratam--accepting the vow of taking only milk; arcayet--one should worship; aravinda-aksam--the lotus-eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhaktya--with devotion; paramaya--unalloyed; anvitah--surcharged.




   In the bright fortnight of the month of Phalguna [February and March], for twelve days ending with Dvadasi, one should observe the vow of subsisting only on milk and should worship the lotus-eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead with all devotion.




   Worshiping the Supreme Lord Visnu with devotion means following arcana-marga.


                       sravanam kirtanam visnoh

                        smaranam pada-sevanam

                       arcanam vandanam dasyam

                        sakhyam atma-nivedanam


   One should install the Deity of Lord Visnu or Krsna and worship Him nicely by dressing Him, decorating Him with flower garlands, and offering Him all kinds of fruits, flowers and cooked food, nicely prepared with ghee, sugar and grains. One should also offer a flame, incense and so on, while ringing a bell, as prescribed. This is called worship of the Lord. Here it is recommended that one observe the vow of subsisting only by drinking milk. This is called payo-vrata. As we generally perform devotional service on Ekadasi by not eating grains, it is generally recommended that on Dvadasi one not consume anything but milk. payo-vrata and arcana devotional service to the Supreme Lord should be performed with a pure devotional attitude (bhaktya). Without bhakti, one cannot worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah. If one wants to know the Supreme Personality of Godhead and be directly connected with Him, knowing what He wants to eat and how He is satisfied, one must take to the process of bhakti. As recommended here also, bhaktya paramayanvitah: one should be surcharged with unalloyed devotional service.


                               TEXT 26




                         sinivalyam mrdalipya

                        snayat kroda-vidirnaya

                      yadi labhyeta vai srotasy

                        etam mantram udirayet




   sinivalyam--on the dark-moon day; mrda--with dirt; alipya--smearing the body; snayat--one should bathe; kroda-vidirnaya--dug up by the tusk of a boar; yadi--if; labhyeta--it is available; vai--indeed; srotasi--in a flowing river; etam mantram--this mantra; udirayet--one should chant.




   If dirt dug up by a boar is available, on the day of the dark moon one should smear this dirt on his body and then bathe in a flowing river. While bathing, one should chant the following mantra.


                               TEXT 27




                        tvam devy adi-varahena

                       rasayah sthanam icchata

                       uddhrtasi namas tubhyam

                        papmanam me pranasaya




   tvam--you; devi--O mother earth; adi-varahena--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of a boar; rasayah--from the bottom of the universe; sthanam--a place; icchata--desiring; uddhrta asi--you have been raised; namah tubhyam--I offer my respectful obeisances unto you; papmanam--all sinful activities and their reactions; me--of me; pranasaya--please undo.




   O mother earth, you were raised by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of a boar because of your desiring to have a place to stay. I pray that you kindly vanquish all the reactions of my sinful life. I offer my respectful obeisances unto you.


                               TEXT 28





                        devam arcet samahitah

                       arcayam sthandile surye

                        jale vahnau gurav api




   nirvartita--finished; atma-niyamah--the daily duties of washing, chanting other mantras and so on, according to one's practice; devam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; arcet--one should worship; samahitah--with full attention; arcayam--unto the Deities; sthandile--unto the altar; surye--unto the sun; jale--unto the water; vahnau--unto the fire; gurau--unto the spiritual master; api--indeed.




   Thereafter, one should perform his daily spiritual duties and then, with great attention, offer worship to the Deity of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and also to the altar, the sun, water, fire and the spiritual master.


                               TEXT 29




                       namas tubhyam bhagavate

                          purusaya mahiyase


                          vasudevaya saksine




   namah tubhyam--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; bhagavate--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purusaya--the Supreme Person; mahiyase--the best of all personalities; sarva-bhuta-nivasaya--the person who lives in everyone's heart; vasudevaya--the Lord who lives everywhere; saksine--the witness of everything.




   O Supreme Personality of Godhead, greatest of all, who lives in everyone's heart and in whom everyone lives, O witness of everything, O Vasudeva, supreme and all-pervading person, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.


                               TEXT 30




                       namo 'vyaktaya suksmaya

                         pradhana-purusaya ca






   namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; avyaktaya--who are never seen by material eyes; suksmaya--transcendental; pradhana-purusaya--the Supreme Person; ca--also; catuh-vimsat--twenty-four; guna-jnaya--the knower of the elements; guna-sankhyana--of the sankhya-yoga system; hetave--the original cause.




   I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, the Supreme Person. Being very subtle, You are never visible to material eyes. You are the knower of the twenty-four elements, and You are the inaugurator of the sankhya-yoga system.




   Catur-vimsad-guna, the twenty-four elements, are the five gross elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), the three subtle elements (mind, intelligence and false ego), the ten senses (five for working and five for acquiring knowledge), the five sense objects, and contaminated consciousness. These are the subject matter of sankhya-yoga, which was inaugurated by Lord Kapiladeva. This sankhya-yoga was again propounded by another Kapila, but he was an atheist, and his system is not accepted as bona fide.


                               TEXT 31




                       namo dvi-sirsne tri-pade

                        catuh-srngaya tantave

                        sapta-hastaya yajnaya

                        trayi-vidyatmane namah




   namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; dvi-sirsne--who have two heads; tri-pade--who have three legs; catuh-srngaya--who have four horns; tantave--who expand; sapta-hastaya--who have seven hands; yajnaya--unto the yajna-purusa, the supreme enjoyer; trayi--the three modes of Vedic ritualistic ceremonies; vidya-atmane--the Personality of Godhead, the embodiment of all knowledge; namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.




   I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have two heads [prayaniya and udayaniya], three legs [savana-traya], four horns [the four Vedas] and seven hands [the seven chandas, such as Gayatri]. I offer my obeisances unto You, whose heart and soul are the three Vedic rituals [karma-kanda, jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda] and who expand these rituals in the form of sacrifice.


                               TEXT 32




                         namah sivaya rudraya

                        namah sakti-dharaya ca


                        bhutanam pataye namah




   namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; sivaya--the incarnation named Lord Siva; rudraya--the expansion named Rudra; namah--obeisances; sakti-dharaya--the reservoir of all potencies; ca--and; sarva-vidya-adhipataye--the reservoir of all knowledge; bhutanam--of the living entities; pataye--the supreme master; namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.




   I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, Lord Siva, or Rudra, who are the reservoir of all potencies, the reservoir of all knowledge, and the master of everyone.




   It is the system for one to offer obeisances unto the expansion or incarnation of the Lord. Lord Siva is the incarnation of ignorance, one of the material modes of nature.


                               TEXT 33




                         namo hiranyagarbhaya

                         pranaya jagad-atmane


                         namas te yoga-hetave




   namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; hiranyagarbhaya--situated as the four-headed Hiranyagarbha, Brahma; pranaya--the source of everyone's life; jagat-atmane--the Supersoul of the entire universe; yoga-aisvarya-sariraya--whose body is full of opulences and mystic power; namah te--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; yoga-hetave--the original master of all mystic power.




   I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, who are situated as Hiranyagarbha, the source of life, the Supersoul of every living entity. Your body is the source of the opulence of all mystic power. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.


                               TEXT 34




                         namas ta adi-devaya

                        saksi-bhutaya te namah

                           narayanaya rsaye

                         naraya haraye namah




   namah te--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; adi-devaya--who are the original Personality of Godhead; saksi-bhutaya--the witness of everything within the heart of everyone; te--unto You; namah-- I offer my respectful obeisances; narayanaya--who take the incarnation of Narayana; rsaye--the sage; naraya--the incarnation of a human being; haraye--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; namah--I offer my respectful obeisances.




   I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, who are the original Personality of Godhead, the witness in everyone's heart, and the incarnation of Nara-Narayana Rsi in the form of a human being. O Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.


                               TEXT 35




                         namo marakata-syama-

                        vapuse 'dhigata-sriye

                        kesavaya namas tubhyam

                         namas te pita-vasase




   namah--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; marakata-syama-vapuse--whose bodily hue is blackish like the marakata gem; adhigata-sriye--under whose control is mother Laksmi, the goddess of fortune; kesavaya--Lord Kesava, who killed the Kesi demon; namah tubhyam--I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; namah te--again I offer my respectful obeisances unto You; pita-vasase--whose garment is yellow.




   My Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, who are dressed in yellow garments, whose bodily hue resembles the marakata gem, and who have full control over the goddess of fortune. O my Lord Kesava, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.


                               TEXT 36




                      tvam sarva-varadah pumsam

                         varenya varadarsabha

                        atas te sreyase dhirah

                          pada-renum upasate




   tvam--You; sarva-vara-dah--who can give all kinds of benedictions; pumsam--to all living entities; varenya--O most worshipable; vara-da-rsabha--O most powerful of all givers of benediction; atah--for this reason; te--Your; sreyase--the source of all auspiciousness; dhirah--the most sober; pada-renum upasate--worship the dust of the lotus feet.




   O most exalted and worshipable Lord, best of those who bestow benediction, You can fulfill the desires of everyone, and therefore those who are sober, for their own welfare, worship the dust of Your lotus feet.


                               TEXT 37




                        anvavartanta yam devah

                      sris ca tat-pada-padmayoh

                         sprhayanta ivamodam

                        bhagavan me prasidatam




   anvavartanta--engaged in devotional service; yam--unto whom; devah--all the demigods; srih ca--and the goddess of fortune; tat-pada-padmayoh--of the lotus feet of His Lordship; sprhayantah--desiring; iva--exactly; amodam--celestial bliss; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; me--upon me; prasidatam--may be pleased.




   All the demigods, as well as the goddess of fortune, engage in the service of His lotus feet. Indeed, they respect the fragrance of those lotus feet. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead be pleased with me.


                               TEXT 38




                       etair mantrair hrsikesam


                      arcayec chraddhaya yuktah





   etaih mantraih--by chanting all these mantras; hrsikesam--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all senses; avahana--calling; puraskrtam--honoring Him in all respects; arcayet--one should worship; sraddhaya--with faith and devotion; yuktah--engaged; padya-upasparsana-adibhih--with the paraphernalia of worship (padya, arghya, etc.).




   Kasyapa Muni continued: By chanting all these mantras, welcoming the Supreme Personality of Godhead with faith and devotion, and offering Him items of worship [such as padya and arghya], one should worship Kesava, Hrsikesa, Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 39




                      arcitva gandha-malyadyaih

                        payasa snapayed vibhum


                       padyopasparsanais tatah

                      gandha-dhupadibhis carced





   arcitva--worshiping in this way; gandha-malya-adyaih--with incense, flower garlands, etc.; payasa--with milk; snapayet--should bathe; vibhum--the Lord; vastra--dress; upavita--sacred thread; abharana--ornaments; padya--water for washing the lotus feet; upasparsanaih--touching; tatah--thereafter; gandha--fragrance; dhupa--incense; adibhih--with all of these; ca--and; arcet--should worship; dvadasa-aksara-vidyaya--with the mantra of twelve syllables.




   In the beginning, the devotee should chant the dvadasaksara-mantra and offer flower garlands, incense and so on. After worshiping the Lord in this way, one should bathe the Lord with milk and dress Him with proper garments, a sacred thread, and ornaments. After offering water to wash the Lord's feet, one should again worship the Lord with fragrant flowers, incense and other paraphernalia.




   The dvadasaksara-mantra is om namo bhagavate vasudevaya. While worshiping the Deity, one should ring a bell with his left hand and offer padya, arghya, vastra, gandha, mala, abharana, bhusana and so on. In this way, one should bathe the Lord with milk, dress Him and again worship Him with all paraphernalia.


                               TEXT 40




                        srtam payasi naivedyam

                       saly-annam vibhave sati

                       sasarpih sagudam dattva

                         juhuyan mula-vidyaya




   srtam--cooked; payasi--in milk; naivedyam--offering to the Deity; sali-annam--fine rice; vibhave--if available; sati--in this way; sa-sarpih--with ghee (clarified butter); sa-gudam--with molasses; dattva--offering Him; juhuyat--should offer oblations in the fire; mula-vidyaya--with chanting of the same dvadasaksara-mantra




   If one can afford to, one should offer the Deity fine rice boiled in milk with clarified butter and molasses. While chanting the same original mantra, one should offer all this to the fire.


                               TEXT 41




                        niveditam tad-bhaktaya

                      dadyad bhunjita va svayam

                        dattvacamanam arcitva

                        tambulam ca nivedayet




   niveditam--this offering of prasada; tat-bhaktaya--unto His devotee; dadyat--should be offered; bhunjita--one should take; va--either; svayam--personally; dattva acamanam--giving water to wash the hands and mouth; arcitva--in this way worshiping the Deity; tambulam--betel nuts with spices; ca--also; nivedayet--one should offer.




   One should offer all the prasada to a Vaisnava or offer him some of the prasada and then take some oneself. After this, one should offer the Deity acamana and then betel nut and then again worship the Lord.


                               TEXT 42




                        japed astottara-satam

                      stuvita stutibhih prabhum

                       krtva pradaksinam bhumau

                        pranamed dandavan muda




   japet--should silently murmur; astottara-satam--108 times; stuvita--should offer prayers; stutibhih--by various prayers of glorification; prabhum--unto the Lord; krtva--thereafter doing; pradaksinam--circumambulation; bhumau--on the ground; pranamet--should offer obeisances; dandavat--straight, with the whole body; muda--with great satisfaction.




   Thereafter, one should silently murmur the mantra 108 times and offer prayers to the Lord for His glorification. Then one should circumambulate the Lord and finally, with great delight and satisfaction, offer obeisances, falling straight like a rod [dandavat].


                               TEXT 43




                       krtva sirasi tac-chesam

                        devam udvasayet tatah

                      dvy-avaran bhojayed vipran

                         payasena yathocitam




   krtva--taking; sirasi--on the head; tat-sesam--all the remnants (the water and flowers offered to the Deity); devam--unto the Deity; udvasayet--should be thrown into a sacred place; tatah--thereafter; dvi-avaran--a minimum of two; bhojayet--should feed; vipran--brahmanas; payasena--with sweet rice; yatha-ucitam--as each deserves.




   After touching to one's head all the flowers and water offered to the Deity, one should throw them into a sacred place. Then one should feed at least two brahmanas with sweet rice.


                             TEXTS 44-45




                       bhunjita tair anujnatah

                       sestah sesam sabhajitaih

                     brahmacary atha tad-ratryam

                       svo bhute prathame 'hani


                       snatah sucir yathoktena

                         vidhina susamahitah

                        payasa snapayitvarced

                        yavad vrata-samapanam




   bhunjita--should take the prasada; taih--by the brahmanas; anujnatah--being permitted; sa-istah--with friends and relatives; sesam--the remnants; sabhajitaih--properly honored; brahmacari--observance of celibacy; atha--of course; tat-ratryam--at night; svah bhute--at the end of the night, when the morning comes; prathame ahani--on the first day; snatah--bathing; sucih--becoming purified; yatha-uktena--as stated before; vidhina--by following the regulative principles; su-samahitah--with great attention; payasa--with milk; snapayitva--bathing the Deity; arcet--should offer worship; yavat--as long as; vrata-samapanam--the period of worship is not over.




   One should perfectly honor the respectable brahmanas one has fed, and then, after taking their permission, one should take prasada with his friends and relatives. For that night, one should observe strict celibacy, and the next morning, after bathing again, with purity and attention one should bathe the Deity of Visnu with milk and worship Him according to the methods formerly stated in detail.


                               TEXT 46




                       payo-bhakso vratam idam

                       cared visnv-arcanadrtah

                        purvavaj juhuyad agnim

                       brahmanams capi bhojayet




   payah-bhaksah--one who drinks milk only; vratam idam--this process of worshiping with a vow; caret--one should execute; visnu-arcana-adrtah--worshiping Lord Visnu with great faith and devotion; purva-vat--as prescribed previously; juhuyat--one should offer oblations; agnim--into the fire; brahmanan--unto the brahmanas; ca api--as well as; bhojayet--should feed.




   Worshiping Lord Visnu with great faith and devotion and living only by drinking milk, one should follow this vow. One should also offer oblations to the fire and feed the brahmanas as mentioned before.


                               TEXT 47




                       evam tv ahar ahah kuryad

                        dvadasaham payo-vratam

                        harer aradhanam homam

                        arhanam dvija-tarpanam




   evam--in this way; tu--indeed; ahah ahah--day after day; kuryat--should execute; dvadasa-aham--until twelve days; payah-vratam--the observance of the vrata known as payo-vrata; hareh aradhanam--worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead; homam--by executing a fire sacrifice; arhanam--worshiping the Deity; dvija-tarpanam--and satisfying the brahmanas by feeding them.




   In this way, until twelve days have passed, one should observe this payo-vrata, worshiping the Lord every day, executing the routine duties, performing sacrifices and feeding the brahmanas.


                               TEXT 48




                        pratipad-dinam arabhya

                       yavac chukla-trayodasim

                      brahmacaryam adhah-svapnam

                       snanam tri-savanam caret




   pratipat-dinam--on the day of pratipat; arabhya--beginning; yavat--until; sukla--of the bright fortnight; trayodasim--the thirteenth day of the moon (the second day after Ekadasi); brahmacaryam--observing complete celibacy; adhah-svapnam--lying down on the floor; snanam--bathing; tri-savanam--three times (morning, evening and noon); caret--one should execute.




   From pratipat until the thirteenth day of the next bright moon [sukla-trayodasi], one should observe complete celibacy, sleep on the floor, bathe three times a day and thus execute the vow.


                               TEXT 49




                         varjayed asad-alapam

                       bhogan uccavacams tatha

                       ahimsrah sarva-bhutanam





   varjayet--one should give up; asat-alapam--unnecessary talk on material subject matters; bhogan--sense gratification; ucca-avacan--superior or inferior; tatha--as well as; ahimsrah--without being envious; sarva-bhutanam--of all living entities; vasudeva-parayanah--simply being a devotee of Lord Vasudeva.




   During this period, one should not unnecessarily talk of material subjects or topics of sense gratification, one should be completely free from envy of all living entities, and one should be a pure and simple devotee of Lord Vasudeva.


                               TEXT 50




                       trayodasyam atho visnoh

                      snapanam pancakair vibhoh

                       karayec chastra-drstena

                        vidhina vidhi-kovidaih




   trayodasyam--on the thirteenth day of the moon; atho--thereafter; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; snapanam--bathing; pancakaih--by pancamrta, five substances; vibhoh--the Lord; karayet--one should execute; sastra-drstena--enjoined in the scripture; vidhina--under regulative principles; vidhi-kovidaih--assisted by the priests who know the regulative principles.




   Thereafter, following the directions of the sastra with help from brahmanas who know the sastra, on the thirteenth day of the moon one should bathe Lord Visnu with five substances [milk, yogurt, ghee, sugar and honey].


                             TEXTS 51-52




                       pujam ca mahatim kuryad


                         carum nirupya payasi

                         sipivistaya visnave


                         suktena tena purusam

                          yajeta susamahitah

                        naivedyam catigunavad

                        dadyat purusa-tustidam




   pujam--worship; ca--also; mahatim--very gorgeous; kuryat--should do; vitta-sathya--miserly mentality (not spending sufficient money); vivarjitah--giving up; carum--grains offered in the yajna; nirupya--seeing properly; payasi--with milk; sipivistaya--unto the Supersoul, who is situated in the heart of every living entity; visnave--unto Lord Visnu; suktena--by chanting the Vedic mantra known as purusa-sukta; tena--by that; purusam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yajeta--one should worship; su-samahitah--with great attention; naivedyam--food offered to the Deity; ca--and; ati-guna-vat--prepared very gorgeously with all varieties of taste; dadyat--should offer; purusa-tusti-dam--everything extremely pleasing to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   Giving up the miserly habit of not spending money, one should arrange for the gorgeous worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, who is situated in the heart of every living entity. With great attention, one must prepare an oblation of grains boiled in ghee and milk and must chant the Purusa-sukta mantra. The offerings of food should be of varieties of tastes. In this way, one should worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 53




                       acaryam jnana-sampannam


                        tosayed rtvijas caiva

                      tad viddhy aradhanam hareh




   acaryam--the spiritual master; jnana-sampannam--very advanced in spiritual knowledge; vastra-abharana-dhenubhih--with clothing, ornaments and many cows; tosayet--should satisfy; rtvijah--the priests recommended by the spiritual master; ca eva--as well as; tat viddhi--try to understand that; aradhanam--worship; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   One should satisfy the spiritual master [acarya], who is very learned in Vedic literature, and should satisfy his assistant priests [known as hota, udgata, adhvaryu and brahma]. One should please them by offering them clothing, ornaments and cows. This is the ceremony called visnu-aradhana, or worship of Lord Visnu.


                               TEXT 54




                        bhojayet tan gunavata

                        sad-annena suci-smite

                     anyams ca brahmanan chaktya

                        ye ca tatra samagatah




   bhojayet--should distribute prasada; tan--unto all of them; guna-vata--by rich foods; sat-annena--with food prepared with ghee and milk, which is supposed to be very pure; suci-smite--O most pious lady; anyan ca--others also; brahmanan--brahmanas; saktya--as far as possible; ye--all of them who; ca--also; tatra--there (at the ceremonies); samagatah--assembled.




   O most auspicious lady, one should perform all the ceremonies under the direction of learned acaryas and should satisfy them and their priests. By distributing prasada, one should also satisfy the brahmanas and others who have assembled.


                               TEXT 55




                        daksinam gurave dadyad

                      rtvigbhyas ca yatharhatah

                        annadyenasva-pakams ca

                         prinayet samupagatan




   daksinam--some contribution of money or gold; gurave--unto the spiritual master; dadyat--one should give; rtvigbhyah ca--and to the priests engaged by the spiritual master; yatha-arhatah--as far as possible; anna-adyena--by distributing prasada; asva-pakan--even to the candalas, persons habituated to eating the flesh of dogs; ca--also; prinayet--one should please; samupagatan--because they have assembled there for the ceremony.




   One should satisfy the spiritual master and assistant priests by giving them cloth, ornaments, cows and also some monetary contribution. And by distributing prasada one should satisfy everyone assembled, including even the lowest of men, the candalas [eaters of dog flesh].




   In the Vedic system, prasada is distributed, as recommended here, without discrimination as to who may take the prasada. Regardless of whether one be a brahmana, sudra, vaisya, ksatriya, or even the lowest of men, a candala, he should be welcome to accept prasada. However, when the candalas, the lower class or poorer class, are taking prasada, this does not mean that they have become Narayana or Visnu. Narayana is situated in everyone's heart, but this does not mean Narayana is a candala or poor man. The Mayavada philosophy of accepting a poor man as Narayana is the most envious and atheistic movement in Vedic culture. This mentality should be completely given up. Everyone should be given the opportunity to take prasada, but this does not mean that everyone has the right to become Narayana.


                               TEXT 56




                        bhuktavatsu ca sarvesu


                      visnos tat prinanam vidvan

                       bhunjita saha bandhubhih




   bhuktavatsu--after feeding; ca--also; sarvesu--everyone present there; dina--very poor; andha--blind; krpana--those who are not brahmanas; adisu--and so on; visnoh--of Lord Visnu, who is situated in everyone's heart; tat--that (prasada); prinanam--pleasing; vidvan--one who understands this philosophy; bhunjita--should take prasada himself; saha--with; bandhubhih--friends and relatives.




   One should distribute visnu-prasada to everyone, including the poor man, the blind man, the nondevotee and the non-brahmana. Knowing that Lord Visnu is very pleased when everyone is sumptuously fed with visnu-prasada, the performer of yajna should then take prasada with his friends and relatives.


                               TEXT 57




                       nrtya-vaditra-gitais ca

                      stutibhih svasti-vacakaih

                       karayet tat-kathabhis ca

                       pujam bhagavato 'nvaham




   nrtya--by dancing; vaditra--by beating the drum; gitaih--and by singing; ca--also; stutibhih--by chanting auspicious mantras; svasti-vacakaih--by offering prayers; karayet--should execute; tat-kathabhih--by reciting the Bhagavatam, Bhagavad-gita and similar literature; ca--also; pujam--worship; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu; anvaham--every day (from pratipat to trayodasi).




   Every day from pratipat to trayodasi, one should continue the ceremony, to the accompaniment of dancing, singing, the beating of a drum, the chanting of prayers and all-auspicious mantras, and recitation of Srimad-Bhagavatam. In this way, one should worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 58




                        etat payo-vratam nama

                         purusaradhanam param


                         maya te samudahrtam




   etat--this; payah-vratam--ceremony known as payo-vrata; nama--by that name; purusa-aradhanam--the process of worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead; param--the best; pitamahena--by my grandfather, Lord Brahma; abhihitam--stated; maya--by me; te--unto you; samudahrtam--described in all details.




   This is the religious ritualistic ceremony known as payo-vrata, by which one may worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I received this information from Brahma, my grandfather, and now I have described it to you in all details.


                               TEXT 59




                        tvam canena maha-bhage

                        samyak cirnena kesavam

                        atmana suddha-bhavena

                        niyatatma bhajavyayam




   tvam ca--you also; anena--by this process; maha-bhage--O greatly fortunate one; samyak cirnena--executed properly; kesavam--unto Lord Kesava; atmana--by oneself; suddha-bhavena--in a pure state of mind; niyata-atma--controlling oneself; bhaja--go on worshiping; avyayam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is inexhaustible.




   O most fortunate lady, establishing your mind in a good spirit, execute this process of payo-vrata and thus worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kesava, who is inexhaustible.


                               TEXT 60




                      ayam vai sarva-yajnakhyah

                       sarva-vratam iti smrtam

                       tapah-saram idam bhadre

                        danam cesvara-tarpanam




   ayam--this; vai--indeed; sarva-yajna--all kinds of religious rituals and sacrifices; akhyah--called; sarva-vratam--all religious ceremonies; iti--thus; smrtam--understood; tapah-saram--the essence of all austerities; idam--this; bhadre--O good lady; danam--acts of charity; ca--and; isvara--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tarpanam--the process of pleasing.




   This payo-vrata is also known as sarva-yajna. In other words, by performing this sacrifice one can perform all other sacrifices automatically. This is also acknowledged to be the best of all ritualistic ceremonies. O gentle lady, it is the essence of all austerities, and it is the process of giving charity and pleasing the supreme controller.




   Aradhananam sarvesam visnor aradhanam param. This is a statement made by Lord Siva to Parvati. Worshiping Lord Visnu is the supreme process of worship. And how Lord Visnu is worshiped in this payo-vrata ceremony has now been fully described. The ultimate goal of life is to please Lord Visnu by varnasrama-dharma. The Vedic principles of four varnas and four asramas are meant for worship of Visnu (visnur aradhyate pumsam nanyat tat-tosa-karanam). The Krsna consciousness movement is also visnu-aradhanam, or worship of Lord Visnu, according to the age. The payo-vrata method of visnu-aradhanam was enunciated long, long ago by Kasyapa Muni to his wife, Aditi, in the heavenly planets, and the same process is bona fide on earth even now. Especially for this age of Kali, the process accepted by the Krsna consciousness movement is to open hundreds and thousands of Visnu temples (temples of Radha-Krsna, Jagannatha, Balarama, Sita-Rama, Gaura-Nitai and so on). Performing prescribed worship in such temples of Visnu and thus worshiping the Lord is as good as performing the payo-vrata ceremony recommended here. The payo-vrata ceremony is performed from the first to the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the moon, but in our Krsna consciousness movement Lord Visnu is worshiped in every temple according to a schedule of twenty-four hours of engagement in performing kirtana, chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, offering palatable food to Lord Visnu and distributing this food to Vaisnavas and others. These are authorized activities, and if the members of the Krsna consciousness movement stick to these principles, they will achieve the same result one gains by observing the payo-vrata ceremony. Thus the essence of all auspicious activities, such as performing yajna, giving in charity, observing vratas, and undergoing austerities, is included in the Krsna consciousness movement. The members of this movement should immediately and sincerely follow the processes already recommended. Of course, sacrifice is meant to please Lord Visnu. Yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah: in Kali-yuga, those who are intelligent perform the sankirtana-yajna. One should follow this process conscientiously.


                               TEXT 61




                        ta eva niyamah saksat

                         ta eva ca yamottamah

                       tapo danam vratam yajno

                       yena tusyaty adhoksajah




   te--that is; eva--indeed; niyamah--all regulative principles; saksat--directly; te--that is; eva--indeed; ca--also; yama-uttamah--the best process of controlling the senses; tapah--austerities; danam--charity; vratam--observing vows; yajnah--sacrifice; yena--by which process; tusyati--is very pleased; adhoksajah--the Supreme Lord, who is not perceived by material senses.




   This is the best process for pleasing the transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Adhoksaja. It is the best of all regulative principles, the best austerity, the best process of giving charity, and the best process of sacrifice.




   The Supreme Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (18.66):


                       sarva-dharman parityajya

                        mam ekam saranam vraja

                       aham tvam sarva-papebhyo

                        moksayisyami ma sucah


   "Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." Unless one pleases the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to His demand, no good result will come from any of his actions.


                     dharmah svanusthitah pumsam

                        visvaksena-kathasu yah

                        notpadayed yadi ratim

                         srama eva hi kevalam


   "The occupational activities a man performs according to his own position are only so much useless labor if they do not provoke attraction for the message of the Personality of Godhead." (Bhag. 1.2.8) If one is not interested in satisfying Lord Visnu, Vasudeva, all his so-called auspicious activities are fruitless. Moghasa mogha-karmano mogha-jnana vicetasah: because he is bewildered, he is baffled in his hopes, baffled in his activities, and baffled in his knowledge. In this regard, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti remarks, napumsakam anapumsakenety-adinaikatvam. One cannot equate the potent and the impotent. Among modern Mayavadis it has become fashionable to say that whatever one does or whatever path one follows is all right. But these are all foolish statements. Here it is forcefully affirmed that this is the only method for success in life. Isvara-tarpanam vina sarvam eva viphalam. Unless Lord Visnu is satisfied, all of one's pious activities, ritualistic ceremonies and yajnas are simply for show and have no value. Unfortunately, foolish people do not know the secret of success. Na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum. They do not know that real self-interest ends in pleasing Lord Visnu.


                               TEXT 62




                      tasmad etad vratam bhadre

                        prayata sraddhayacara

                        bhagavan paritustas te

                         varan asu vidhasyati




   tasmat--therefore; etat--this; vratam--observance of a vrata ceremony; bhadre--my dear gentle lady; prayata--by observing rules and regulations; sraddhaya--with faith; acara--execute; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; paritustah--being very satisfied; te--unto you; varan--benedictions; asu--very soon; vidhasyati--will bestow.




   Therefore, my dear gentle lady, follow this ritualistic vow, strictly observing the regulative principles. By this process, the Supreme Person will very soon be pleased with you and will satisfy all your desires.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Eighth Canto, Sixteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Executing the Payo-vrata Process of Worship."

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