Chapter Eight

         Lord Krsna Shows the Universal Form Within His Mouth


   The summary of the Eighth Chapter is as follows. This chapter describes the ceremony of giving a name to Krsna. It also describes His crawling, His playing with the cows, and His eating earth and again showing the universal form to His mother.

   One day, Vasudeva sent for Gargamuni, the family priest of the yadu-vamsa, and thus Gargamuni went to the house of Nanda Maharaja, who received him very well and requested him to give names to Krsna and Balarama. Gargamuni, of course, reminded Nanda Maharaja that Kamsa was looking for the son of Devaki and said that if he performed the ceremony very gorgeously, the ceremony would come to the notice of Kamsa, who would then suspect that Krsna was the son of Devaki. Nanda Maharaja therefore requested Gargamuni to perform this ceremony without anyone's knowledge, and Gargamuni did so. Because Balarama, the son of Rohini, increases the transcendental bliss of others, His name is Rama, and because of His extraordinary strength, He is called Baladeva. He attracts the Yadus to follow His instructions, and therefore His name is Sankarsana. Krsna, the son of Yasoda, previously appeared in many other colors, such as white, red and yellow, and He had now assumed the color black. Because He was sometimes the son of Vasudeva, His name is Vasudeva. According to His various activities and qualities, He has many other names. After thus informing Nanda Maharaja and completing the name-giving ceremony, Gargamuni advised Nanda Maharaja to protect his son very carefully and then departed.

   Sukadeva Gosvami next described how the two children crawled, walked on Their small legs, played with the cows and calves, stole butter and other milk products and broke the butter pots. In this way, he described many naughty activities of Krsna and Balarama. The most wonderful of these occurred when Krsna's playmates complained to mother Yasoda that Krsna was eating earth. Mother Yasoda wanted to open Krsna's mouth to see the evidence so that she could chastise Him. Sometimes she assumed the position of a chastising mother, and at the next moment she was overwhelmed with maternal love. After describing all this to Maharaja Pariksit, Sukadeva Gosvami, at Maharaja Pariksit's request, praised the fortune of mother Yasoda and Nanda. Nanda and Yasoda were formerly Drona and Dhara, and by the order of Brahma they came to this earth and had the Supreme Personality of Godhead as their son.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        gargah purohito rajan

                         yadunam sumaha-tapah

                        vrajam jagama nandasya





   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; gargah--Gargamuni; purohitah--the priest; rajan--O King Pariksit; yadunam--of the Yadu dynasty; su-maha-tapah--highly elevated in austerity and penance; vrajam--to the village known as Vrajabhumi; jagama--went; nandasya--of Maharaja Nanda; vasudeva-pracoditah--being inspired by Vasudeva.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: O Maharaja Pariksit, the priest of the Yadu dynasty, namely Gargamuni, who was highly elevated in austerity and penance, was then inspired by Vasudeva to go see Nanda Maharaja at his home.


                                TEXT 2




                       tam drstva parama-pritah

                       pratyutthaya krtanjalih






   tam--him (Gargamuni); drstva--after seeing; parama-pritah--Nanda Maharaja was very much pleased; pratyutthaya--standing up to receive him; krta-anjalih--with folded hands; anarca--worshiped; adhoksaja-dhiya--although Gargamuni was visible to the senses, Nanda Maharaja maintained a very high respect for him; pranipata-purahsaram--Nanda Maharaja fell down before him and offered obeisances.




   When Nanda Maharaja saw Gargamuni present at his home, Nanda was so pleased that he stood up to receive him with folded hands. Although seeing Gargamuni with his eyes, Nanda Maharaja could appreciate that Gargamuni was adhoksaja; that is, he was not an ordinary person seen by material senses.


                                TEXT 3




                        supavistam krtatithyam

                         gira sunrtaya munim

                       nandayitvabravid brahman

                        purnasya karavama kim




   su-upavistam--when Gargamuni was seated very comfortably; krta-atithyam--and he had been properly received as a guest; gira--by words; sunrtaya--very sweet; munim--Gargamuni; nandayitva--pleasing him in this way; abravit--said; brahman--O brahmana; purnasya--of one who is full in everything; karavama kim--what can I do for you (kindly order me).




   When Gargamuni had been properly received as a guest and was very comfortably seated, Nanda Maharaja submitted with gentle and submissive words: Dear sir, because you are a devotee, you are full in everything. Yet my duty is to serve you. Kindly order me. What can I do for you?


                                TEXT 4




                        mahad-vicalanam nrnam

                         grhinam dina-cetasam

                        nihsreyasaya bhagavan

                       kalpate nanyatha kvacit




   mahat-vicalanam--the movement of great personalities; nrnam--in the houses of ordinary persons; grhinam--especially householders; dina-cetasam--who are very simple-minded, being engaged in family maintenance and nothing more; nihsreyasaya--a great personality has no reason to go to the grhastha but to benefit him; bhagavan--O most powerful devotee; kalpate--is to be taken that way; na anyatha--not for any other purpose; kvacit--at any time.




   O my lord, O great devotee, persons like you move from one place to another not for their own interests but for the sake of poor-hearted grhasthas [householders]. Otherwise they have no interest in going from one place to another.




   As factually stated by Nanda Maharaja, Gargamuni, being a devotee, had no needs. Similarly, when Krsna comes He has no needs, for He is purna, atmarama. Nonetheless, He descends to this material world to protect the devotees and vanquish miscreants (paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam). This is the mission of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and devotees also have the same mission. One who executes this mission of para-upakara, performing welfare activities for people in general, is recognized by Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as being very, very dear to Him (na ca tasman manusyesu kascin me priya-krttamah). Similarly, Caitanya Mahaprabhu has advised this para-upakara, and He has especially advised the inhabitants of India:


               bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara

                janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara


   "One who has taken his birth as a human being in the land of India [Bharata-varsa] should make his life successful and work for the benefit of all other people." (Cc. Adi 9.41) On the whole, the duty of a pure Vaisnava devotee is to act for the welfare of others.

   Nanda Maharaja could understand that Gargamuni had come for this purpose and that his own duty now was to act according to Gargamuni's advice. Thus he said, "Please tell me what is my duty." This should be the attitude of everyone, especially the householder. The varnasrama society is organized into eight divisions: brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacarya, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. Nanda Maharaja represented himself as grhinam, a householder. A brahmacari factually has no needs, but grhi, householders, are engaged in sense gratification. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.44), bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam tayapahrta-cetasam. Everyone has come to this material world for sense gratification, and the position of those who are too attached to sense gratification and who therefore accept the grhastha-asrama is very precarious. Since everyone in this material world is searching for sense gratification, grhasthas are required to be trained as mahat, great mahatmas. Therefore Nanda Maharaja specifically used the word mahad-vicalanam. Gargamuni had no interest to serve by going to Nanda Maharaja, but Nanda Maharaja, as a grhastha, was always perfectly ready to receive instructions from a mahatma to gain the real benefit in life. Thus he was ready to execute Gargamuni's order.


                                TEXT 5




                        jyotisam ayanam saksad

                      yat taj jnanam atindriyam

                        pranitam bhavata yena

                         puman veda paravaram




   jyotisam--knowledge of astrology (along with other aspects of culture in human society, and specifically in civilized society, there must be knowledge of astrology); ayanam--the movements of the stars and planets in relationship to human society; saksat--directly; yat tat jnanam--such knowledge; ati-indriyam--which an ordinary person cannot understand because it is beyond his vision; pranitam bhavata--you have prepared a perfect book of knowledge; yena--by which; puman--any person; veda--can understand; para-avaram--the cause and effect of destiny.




   O great saintly person, you have compiled the astrological knowledge by which one can understand past and present unseen things. By the strength of this knowledge, any human being can understand what he has done in his past life and how it affects his present life. This is known to you.




   The word "destiny" is now defined. Unintelligent persons who do not understand the meaning of life are just like animals. Animals do not know the past, present and future of life, nor are they able to understand it. But a human being can understand this, if he is sober. Therefore, as stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.13), dhiras tatra na muhyati: a sober person is not bewildered. The simple truth is that although life is eternal, in this material world one changes from one body to another. Foolish people, especially in this age, do not understand this simple truth. Krsna says:


                       dehino 'smin yatha dehe

                        kaumaram yauvanam jara

                       tatha dehantara-praptir

                       dhiras tatra na muhyati


   "As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." (Bg. 2.13) Krsna, the greatest authority, says that the body will change. And as soon as the body changes, one's whole program of work changes also. Today I am a human being or a great personality, but with a little deviation from nature's law, I shall have to accept a different type of body. Today I am a human being, but tomorrow I may become a dog, and then whatever activities I have performed in this life will be a failure. This simple truth is now rarely understood, but one who is a dhira can understand this. Those in this material world for material enjoyment should know that because their present position will cease to exist, they must be careful in how they act. This is also stated by Rsabhadeva. Na sadhu manye yata atmano 'yam asann api klesada asa dehah (Bhag. 5.5.4). Although this body is temporary, as long as we have to live in this body we must suffer. Whether one has a short life or a long life, one must suffer the threefold miseries of material life. Therefore any gentleman, dhira, must be interested in jyotisa, astrology.

   Nanda Maharaja was trying to take advantage of the opportunity afforded by Gargamuni's presence, for Gargamuni was a great authority in this knowledge of astrology, by which one can see the unseen events of past, present and future. It is the duty of a father to understand the astrological position of his children and do what is needed for their happiness. Now, taking advantage of the opportunity afforded by the presence of Gargamuni, Nanda Maharaja suggested that Gargamuni prepare a horoscope for Nanda's two sons, Krsna and Balarama.


                                TEXT 6




                    tvam hi brahma-vidam sresthah

                       samskaran kartum arhasi

                         balayor anayor nrnam

                        janmana brahmano guruh




   tvam--Your Holiness; hi--indeed; brahma-vidam--of all brahmanas, or persons who understand what is Brahman (brahma janatiti brahmanah); sresthah--you are the best; samskaran--ceremonies performed for reformation (because by these reformatory activities one takes one's second birth: samskarad bhaved dvijah); kartum arhasi--because you have kindly come here, kindly execute; balayoh--of these two sons (Krsna and Balarama); anayoh--of both of Them; nrnam--not only of Them, but of all human society; janmana--as soon as he takes birth; brahmanah--immediately the brahmana becomes; guruh--the guide. *




   My lord, you are the best of the brahmanas, especially because you are fully aware of the jyotih-sastra, the astrological science. Therefore you are naturally the spiritual master of every human being. This being so, since you have kindly come to my house, kindly execute the reformatory activities for my two sons.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, says in Bhagavad-gita (4.13), catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah: the four varnas--brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra--must be present in society. The brahmanas are required for the guidance of the whole society. If there is no such institution as varnasrama-dharma and if human society has no such guide as the brahmana, human society will be hellish. In Kali-yuga, especially at the present moment, there is no such thing as a real brahmana, and therefore society is in a chaotic condition. Formerly there were qualified brahmanas, but at present, although there are certainly persons who think themselves brahmanas, they actually have no ability to guide society. The Krsna consciousness movement is therefore very much eager to reintroduce the varnasrama system into human society so that those who are bewildered or less intelligent will be able to take guidance from qualified brahmanas.

   Brahmana means Vaisnava. After one becomes a brahmana, the next stage of development in human society is to become a Vaisnava. People in general must be guided to the destination or goal of life, and therefore they must understand Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The whole system of Vedic knowledge is based on this principle, but people have lost the clue (na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum), and they are simply pursuing sense gratification, with the risk of gliding down to a lower grade of life (mrtyu-samsara-vartmani). It doesn't matter whether one is born a brahmana or not. No one is born a brahmana; everyone is born a sudra. But by the guidance of a brahmana and by samskara, one can become dvija, twice-born, and then gradually become a brahmana. Brahmanism is not a system meant to create a monopoly for a particular class of men. Everyone should be educated so as to become a brahmana. At least there must be an opportunity to allow everyone to attain the destination of life. Regardless of whether one is born in a brahmana family, a ksatriya family or a sudra family, one may be guided by a proper brahmana and be promoted to the highest platform of being a Vaisnava. Thus the Krsna consciousness movement affords an opportunity to develop the right destiny for human society. Nanda Maharaja took advantage of the opportunity of Gargamuni's presence by requesting him to perform the necessary reformatory activities for his sons to guide Them toward the destination of life.


                                TEXT 7




                           sri-garga uvaca

                         yadunam aham acaryah

                       khyatas ca bhuvi sarvada

                       sutam maya samskrtam te

                         manyate devaki-sutam




   sri-gargah uvaca--Gargamuni said; yadunam--of the Yadu dynasty; aham--I am; acaryah--the priestly guide, or purohita; khyatah ca--this is already known; bhuvi--everywhere; sarvada--always; sutam--the son; maya--by me; samskrtam--having undergone the purificatory process; te--of you; manyate--would be considered; devaki-sutam--the son of Devaki.




   Gargamuni said: My dear Nanda Maharaja, I am the priestly guide of the Yadu dynasty. This is known everywhere. Therefore, if I perform the purificatory process for your sons, Kamsa will consider Them the sons of Devaki.




   Gargamuni indirectly disclosed that Krsna was the son of Devaki, not of Yasoda. Since Kamsa was already searching for Krsna, if the purificatory process were undertaken by Gargamuni, Kamsa might be informed, and that would create a catastrophe. It may be argued that although Gargamuni was the priest of the Yadu dynasty, Nanda Maharaja also belonged to that dynasty. Nanda Maharaja, however, was not acting as a ksatriya. Therefore Gargamuni said, "If I act as your priest, this will confirm that Krsna is the son of Devaki."


                              TEXTS 8-9




                      kamsah papa-matih sakhyam

                         tava canakadundubheh

                        devakya astamo garbho

                       na stri bhavitum arhati


                       iti sancintayan chrutva

                         devakya darika-vacah

                         api hanta gatasankas

                      tarhi tan no 'nayo bhavet




   kamsah--King Kamsa; papa-matih--very, very sinful, having a polluted mind; sakhyam--friendship; tava--your; ca--also; anaka-dundubheh--of Vasudeva; devakyah--of Devaki; astamah garbhah--the eighth pregnancy; na--not; stri--a woman; bhavitum arhati--is possible to be; iti--in this way; sancintayan--considering; srutva--and hearing (this news); devakyah--of Devaki; darika-vacah--the message from the daughter; api--although there was; hanta gata-asankah--there is a possibility that Kamsa would take steps to kill this child; tarhi--therefore; tat--that incident; nah--for us; anayah bhavet--may not be very good.




   Kamsa is both a great diplomat and a very sinful man. Therefore, having heard from Yogamaya, the daughter of Devaki, that the child who will kill him has already been born somewhere else, having heard that the eighth pregnancy of Devaki could not bring forth a female child, and having understood your friendship with Vasudeva, Kamsa, upon hearing that the purificatory process has been performed by me, the priest of the Yadu dynasty, may certainly consider all these points and suspect that Krsna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva. Then he might take steps to kill Krsna. That would be a catastrophe.




   Kamsa knew very well that Yogamaya was, after all, the maidservant of Krsna and Visnu and that although Yogamaya had appeared as the daughter of Devaki, she might have been forbidden to disclose this fact. Actually this was what had happened. Gargamuni argued very soberly that his taking part in performing the reformatory process for Krsna would give rise to many doubts, so that Kamsa might take very severe steps to kill the child. Kamsa had already sent many demons to attempt to kill this child, but none of them had survived. If Gargamuni were to perform the purificatory process, Kamsa's suspicions would be fully confirmed, and he would take very severe steps. Gargamuni gave this warning to Nanda Maharaja.


                               TEXT 10




                           sri-nanda uvaca

                        alaksito 'smin rahasi

                        mamakair api go-vraje

                        kuru dvijati-samskaram





   sri-nandah uvaca--Nanda Maharaja said (to Gargamuni); alaksitah--without Kamsa's knowledge; asmin--in this cow shed; rahasi--in a very solitary place; mamakaih--even by my relatives; api--a still more secluded place; go-vraje--in the cow shed; kuru--just execute; dvijati-samskaram--the purificatory process of second birth (samskarad bhaved dvijah); svasti-vacana-purvakam--by chanting the Vedic hymns to perform the purificatory process.




   Nanda Maharaja said: My dear great sage, if you think that your performing this process of purification will make Kamsa suspicious, then secretly chant the Vedic hymns and perform the purifying process of second birth here in the cow shed of my house, without the knowledge of anyone else, even my relatives, for this process of purification is essential.




   Nanda Maharaja did not like the idea of avoiding the purificatory process. Despite the many obstacles, he wanted to take advantage of Gargamuni's presence and do what was needed. The purificatory process is essential specifically for brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas. Therefore, since Nanda Maharaja presented himself as a vaisya, this process of purification was essential. Formerly, such institutional activities were compulsory. Catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah (Bg. 4.13). Without these activities of purification, the society would be considered a society of animals. To take advantage of Gargamuni's presence, Nanda Maharaja wanted to perform the nama-karana ceremonies, even secretly, without any gorgeous arrangements. Therefore, the opportunity for purification should be regarded as the essential duty of human society. In Kali-yuga, however, people have forgotten the essence. Mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah (Bhag. 1.1.10). In this age, people are all bad and unfortunate, and they do not accept Vedic instructions to make their life successful. Nanda Maharaja, however, did not want to neglect anything. To keep intact a happy society advanced in spiritual knowledge, he took full advantage of Gargamuni's presence to do what was necessary. How degraded society has become within five thousand years. Mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagyah. The human life is obtained after many, many millions of births, and it is intended for purification. Previously, a father was eager to give all kinds of help to elevate his children, but at present, because of being misguided, people are prepared even to kill to avoid the responsibility of raising children.


                               TEXT 11




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       evam samprarthito viprah

                        sva-cikirsitam eva tat

                         cakara nama-karanam

                         gudho rahasi balayoh




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--in this way; samprarthitah--being eagerly requested; viprah--the brahmana Gargamuni; sva-cikirsitam eva--which he already desired to do and for which he had gone there; tat--that; cakara--performed; nama-karanam--the name-giving ceremony; gudhah--confidentially; rahasi--in a secluded place; balayoh--of the two boys (Krsna and Balarama).




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Having thus been especially requested by Nanda Maharaja to do that which he already desired to do, Gargamuni performed the name-giving ceremony for Krsna and Balarama in a solitary place.


                               TEXT 12




                           sri-garga uvaca

                         ayam hi rohini-putro

                        ramayan suhrdo gunaih

                         akhyasyate rama iti

                       baladhikyad balam viduh

                        yadunam aprthag-bhavat

                        sankarsanam usanty api




   sri-gargah uvaca--Gargamuni said; ayam--this; hi--indeed; rohini-putrah--the son of Rohini; ramayan--pleasing; suhrdah--all His friends and relatives; gunaih--by transcendental qualities; akhyasyate--will be called; ramah--by the name Rama, the supreme enjoyer; iti--in this way; bala-adhikyat--because of extraordinary strength; balam viduh--will be known as Balarama; yadunam--of the Yadu dynasty; aprthak-bhavat--because of not being separated from you; sankarsanam--by the name Sankarsana, or uniting two families; usanti--attracts; api--also.




   Gargamuni said: This child, the son of Rohini, will give all happiness to His relatives and friends by His transcendental qualities. Therefore He will be known as Rama. And because He will manifest extraordinary bodily strength, He will also be known as Bala. Moreover, because He unites two families--Vasudeva's family and the family of Nanda Maharaja--He will be known as Sankarsana.




   Baladeva was actually the son of Devaki, but He was transferred from Devaki's womb to that of Rohini. This fact was not disclosed. According to a statement in the Hari-vamsa:


                        pratyuvaca tato ramah

                     sarvams tan abhitah sthitan

                         yadavesv api sarvesu

                       bhavanto mama vallabhah


   Gargamuni did disclose to Nanda Maharaja that Balarama would be known as Sankarsana because of uniting two families--the yadu-vamsa and the vamsa of Nanda Maharaja--one of which was known as ksatriya and the other as vaisya. Both families had the same original forefather, the only difference being that Nanda Maharaja was born of a vaisya wife whereas Vasudeva was born of a ksatriya wife. Later, Nanda Maharaja married a vaisya wife, and Vasudeva married a ksatriya wife. So although the families of Nanda Maharaja and Vasudeva both came from the same father, they were divided as ksatriya and vaisya. Now Baladeva united them, and therefore He was known as Sankarsana.


                               TEXT 13




                      asan varnas trayo hy asya

                        grhnato 'nuyugam tanuh

                       suklo raktas tatha pita

                        idanim krsnatam gatah




   asan--were assumed; varnah trayah--three colors; hi--indeed; asya--of your son Krsna; grhnatah--accepting; anuyugam tanuh--transcendental bodies according to the different yugas; suklah--sometimes white; raktah--sometimes red; tatha--as well as; pitah--sometimes yellow; idanim krsnatam gatah--at the present moment He has assumed a blackish color.




   Your son Krsna appears as an incarnation in every millennium. In the past, He assumed three different colors--white, red and yellow--and now He has appeared in a blackish color. [In another Dvapara-yuga, He appeared (as Lord Ramacandra) in the color of suka, a parrot. All such incarnations have now assembled in Krsna.]




   Partially explaining the position of Lord Krsna and partially covering the facts, Gargamuni indicated, "Your son is a great personality, and He can change the color of His body in different ages." The word grhnatah indicates that Krsna is free to make His choice. In other words, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and may therefore do whatever He desires. In Vedic literature the different colors assumed by the Personality of Godhead in different millenniums are stated, and therefore when Gargamuni said, "Your son has assumed these colors," he indirectly said, "He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Because of Kamsa's atrocities, Gargamuni tried to avoid disclosing this fact, but he indirectly informed Nanda Maharaja that Krsna, his son, was the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

   It may be noted that Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his book Krama-sandarbha, has enunciated the purport of this verse. In every millennium, Krsna appears in a different form, either as white, red or yellow, but this time He personally appeared in His original, blackish form and, as predicted by Gargamuni, exhibited the power of Narayana. Because in this form the Supreme personality of Godhead exhibits Himself fully, His name is Sri Krsna, the all-attractive.

   Factually, Krsna is the source of all avataras, and therefore all the different features of the different avataras are present in Krsna. When Krsna incarnates, all the features of other incarnations are already present within Him. Other incarnations are partial representations of Krsna, who is the full-fledged incarnation of the Supreme Being. It is to be understood that the Supreme Being, whether appearing as sukla, rakta or pita (white, red or yellow), is the same person. When He appears in different incarnations, He appears in different colors, just like the sunshine, which contains seven colors. Sometimes the colors of sunshine are represented separately; otherwise the sunshine is observed mainly as bright light. The different avataras, such as the manvantara-avataras, lila-avataras and dasa-avataras, are all included in the krsna-avatara. When Krsna appears, all the avataras appear with Him. As described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.26):


                        avatara hy asankhyeya

                      hareh sattva-nidher dvijah

                        yathavidasinah kulyah

                       sarasah syuh sahasrasah


   The avataras incessantly appear, like incessantly flowing water. No one can count how many waves there are in flowing water, and similarly there is no limitation of the avataras. And Krsna is the full representation of all avataras because He is the source of all avataras. Krsna is amsi, whereas others are amsa, part of Krsna. All living entities, including us, are amsas (mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah). These amsas are of different magnitude. Human beings (who are minute amsas) and the demigods, visnu-tattva and all other living beings are all part of the Supreme. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13). Krsna is the full representation of all living entities, and when Krsna is present, all avataras are included in Him.

   The Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam describes the incarnations for each yuga in chronological order. The Bhagavatam says, krte suklas catur-bahuh, tretayam rakta-varno'sau, dvapare bhagavan syamah and krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam. We actually see that in Kali-yuga, Bhagavan has appeared in pita-varna, or a yellow color, as Gaurasundara, although the Bhagavatam speaks of krsna-varnam. To adjust all these statements, one should understand that although in some yugas some of the colors are prominent, in every yuga, whenever Krsna appears, all the colors are present. Krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam: although Caitanya Mahaprabhu appears without krsna, or a blackish color, He is understood to be Krsna Himself. Idanim krsnatam gatah. The same original Krsna who appears in different varnas has now appeared. The word asan indicates that He is always present. Whenever the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears in His full feature, He is understood to be krsna-varnam, although He appears in different colors. Prahlada Maharaja states that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is channa; that is, although He is Krsna, He is covered by a yellow color. Thus the Gaudiya Vaisnavas accept the conclusion that although Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in pita color, He is Krsna.


                       krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam


                      yajnaih sankirtana-prayair

                        yajanti hi sumedhasah


   (Bhag. 11.5.32)


                               TEXT 14




                        prag ayam vasudevasya

                       kvacij jatas tavatmajah

                         vasudeva iti sriman

                        abhijnah sampracaksate




   prak--before; ayam--this child; vasudevasya--of Vasudeva; kvacit--sometimes; jatah--was born; tava--your; atmajah--Krsna, who has taken birth as your child; vasudevah--therefore He may be given the name Vasudeva; iti--thus; sriman--very beautiful; abhijnah--those who are learned; sampracaksate--also say that Krsna is Vasudeva.




   For many reasons, this beautiful son of yours sometimes appeared previously as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore, those who are learned sometimes call this child Vasudeva.




   Gargamuni indirectly disclosed, "This child was originally born as the son of Vasudeva, although He is acting as your child. Generally He is your child, but sometimes He is the son of Vasudeva."


                               TEXT 15




                         bahuni santi namani

                         rupani ca sutasya te


                       tany aham veda no janah




   bahuni--various; santi--there are; namani--names; rupani--forms; ca--also; sutasya--of the son; te--your; guna-karma-anu-rupani--according to His attributes and activities; tani--them; aham--I; veda--know; no janah--not ordinary persons.




   For this son of yours there are many forms and names according to His transcendental qualities and activities. These are known to me, but people in general do not understand them.




   Bahuni: the Lord has many names. Advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam adyam purana-purusam nava-yauvanam ca. As stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.33), the Lord is one, but He has many forms and many names. It was not that because Gargamuni gave the child the name Krsna, that was His only name. He has other names, such as Bhaktavatsala, Giridhari, Govinda and Gopala. If we analyze the nirukti, or semantic derivation, of the word "Krsna," we find that na signifies that He stops the repetition of birth and death, and krs means sattartha, or "existence." (Krsna is the whole of existence.) Also, krs means "attraction," and na means ananda, or "bliss." Krsna is known as Mukunda because He wants to give everyone spiritual, eternal, blissful life. Unfortunately, because of the living entity's little independence, the living entity wants to "deprogram" the program of Krsna. This is the material disease. Nonetheless, because Krsna wants to give transcendental bliss to the living entities, He appears in various forms. Therefore He is called Krsna. Because Gargamuni was an astrologer, he knew what others did not know. Yet Krsna has so many names that even Gargamuni did not know them all. It is to be concluded that Krsna, according to His transcendental activities, has many names and many forms.


                               TEXT 16




                        esa vah sreya adhasyad


                         anena sarva-durgani

                        yuyam anjas tarisyatha




   esah--this child; vah--for all of you people; sreyah--the most auspicious; adhasyat--will act all-auspiciously; gopa-gokula-nandanah--just like a cowherd boy, born in a family of cowherd men as the son of the estate of Gokula; anena--by Him; sarva-durgani--all kinds of miserable conditions; yuyam--all of you; anjah--easily; tarisyatha--will overcome.




   To increase the transcendental bliss of the cowherd men of Gokula, this child will always act auspiciously for you. And by His grace only, you will surpass all difficulties.




   For the cowherd men and the cows, Krsna is the supreme friend. Therefore He is worshiped by the prayer namo brahmanya-devaya go-brahmana-hitaya ca. His pastimes in Gokula, His dhama, are always favorable to the brahmanas and the cows. His first business is to give all comfort to the cows and the brahmanas. In fact, comfort for the brahmanas is secondary, and comfort for the cows is His first concern. Because of His presence, all people would overcome all difficulties and always be situated in transcendental bliss.


                               TEXT 17




                         puranena vraja-pate

                        sadhavo dasyu-piditah

                          arajake raksyamana

                       jigyur dasyun samedhitah




   pura--formerly; anena--by Krsna; vraja-pate--O King of Vraja; sadhavah--those who were honest; dasyu-piditah--being disturbed by rogues and thieves; arajake--when there was an irregular government; raksyamanah--were protected; jigyuh--conquered; dasyun--the rogues and thieves; samedhitah--flourished.




   O Nanda Maharaja, as recorded in history, when there was an irregular, incapable government, Indra having been dethroned, and people were being harassed and disturbed by thieves, this child appeared in order to protect the people and enable them to flourish, and He curbed the rogues and thieves.




   Indra is the king of the universe. Demons, thieves and rogues always disturb Indra (indrari-vyakulam lokam), but when indraris, the enemies of Indra, become prominent, Krsna appears. Krsnas tu bhagavan svayam. indrari-vyakulam lokam mrdayanti yuge yuge (Bhag. 1.3.28).


                               TEXT 18




                        ya etasmin maha-bhagah

                       pritim kurvanti manavah

                       narayo 'bhibhavanty etan

                        visnu-paksan ivasurah




   ye--those persons who; etasmin--unto this child; maha-bhagah--very fortunate; pritim--affection; kurvanti--execute; manavah--such persons; na--not; arayah--the enemies; abhibhavanti--do overcome; etan--those who are attached to Krsna; visnu-paksan--the demigods, who always have Lord Visnu on their side; iva--like; asurah--the demons.




   Demons [asuras] cannot harm the demigods, who always have Lord Visnu on their side. Similarly, any person or group attached to Krsna is extremely fortunate. Because such persons are very much affectionate toward Krsna, they cannot be defeated by demons like the associates of Kamsa [or by the internal enemies, the senses].


                               TEXT 19




                      tasman nandatmajo 'yam te

                         narayana-samo gunaih

                        sriya kirtyanubhavena

                         gopayasva samahitah




   tasmat--therefore; nanda--O Nanda Maharaja; atmajah--your son; ayam--this; te--of you; narayana-samah--is as good as Narayana (Narayana Himself showing transcendental qualities); gunaih--by qualities; sriya--by opulence; kirtya--especially by His name and fame; anubhavena--and by His influence; gopayasva--just raise this child; samahitah--with great attention and precaution.




   In conclusion, therefore, O Nanda Maharaja, this child of yours is as good as Narayana. In His transcendental qualities, opulence, name, fame and influence, He is exactly like Narayana. You should all raise this child very carefully and cautiously.




   In this verse, the word narayana-samah is significant. Narayana has no equal. He is asamaurdhva: no one is equal to Him, and no one is greater than He is. As stated in sastra:


                        yas tu narayanam devam


                         samatvenaiva vikseta

                      sa pasandi bhaved dhruvam


   One who equates Narayana even with great exalted demigods like Lord Siva or Lord Brahma is a pasandi, an agnostic. No one can equal Narayana. Nonetheless, Gargamuni used the word sama, meaning "equal," because he wanted to treat Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead who had become Nanda Maharaja's son. Gargamuni wanted to impress upon the mind of Nanda Maharaja, "Your worshipable Deity, Narayana, is so pleased with you that He has sent you a son almost equal to Him in qualifications. Therefore you may designate your son with a similar name, such as Mukunda or Madhusudana. But you must always remember that whenever you want to do something very good, there will be many hindrances. Therefore you should raise and protect this child with great care. If you can protect this child very cautiously, as Narayana always protects you, the child will be as good as Narayana." Gargamuni also indicated that although the child was exaltedly qualified like Narayana, He would enjoy more than Narayana as rasa-vihari, the central enjoyer of the rasa dance. As stated in the Brahma-samhita, laksmi-sahasra-sata-sambhrama-sevyamanam: He would be served by many gopis, who would all be as good as the goddess of fortune.


                               TEXT 20




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        ity atmanam samadisya

                       garge ca sva-grham gate

                        nandah pramudito mene

                        atmanam purnam asisam




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; atmanam--about the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Soul; samadisya--after fully instructing; garge--when Gargamuni; ca--also; sva-grham--to his own abode; gate--had departed; nandah--Maharaja Nanda; pramuditah--became extremely pleased; mene--considered; atmanam--his own self; purnam asisam--full of all good fortune.




   Srila Sukadeva Gosvami continued: After Gargamuni, having instructed Nanda Maharaja about Krsna, departed for his own home, Nanda Maharaja was very pleased and considered himself full of all good fortune.




   Krsna is the Supersoul, and Nanda Maharaja is the individual soul. By the instructions of Gargamuni, both of them were blessed. Nanda Maharaja was thinking of Krsna's safety from the hands of demons like Putana and Sakatasura, and because he possessed such a son, he thought of himself as most fortunate.


                               TEXT 21




                         kalena vrajatalpena

                         gokule rama-kesavau

                       janubhyam saha panibhyam

                        ringamanau vijahratuh




   kalena--of time; vrajata--passing; alpena--a very small duration; gokule--in Gokula, Vraja-dhama; rama-kesavau--both Balarama and Krsna; janubhyam--by the strength of Their knees; saha panibhyam--resting on Their hands; ringamanau--crawling; vijahratuh--enjoyed childhood play.




   After a short time passed, both brothers, Rama and Krsna, began to crawl on the ground of Vraja with the strength of Their hands and knees and thus enjoy Their childhood play.




   One brahmana devotee says:


    srutim apare smrtim itare bharatam anye bhajantu bhava-bhitah

            aham iha nandam vande yasyalinde param brahma


   "Let others, fearing material existence, worship the Vedas, the Vedic supplementary puranas and the Mahabharata, but I shall worship Nanda Maharaja, in whose courtyard the Supreme Brahman is crawling." For a highly exalted devotee, kaivalya, merging into the existence of the Supreme, appears no better than hell (narakayate). But here one can simply think of the crawling of Krsna and Balarama in the courtyard of Nanda Maharaja and always merge in transcendental happiness. As long as one is absorbed in thoughts of krsna-lila, especially Krsna's childhood pastimes, as Pariksit Maharaja desired to be, one is always merged in actual kaivalya. Therefore Vyasadeva compiled Srimad-Bhagavatam. Lokasyajanato vidvams cakre satvata-samhitam (Bhag. 1.7.6). Vyasadeva compiled Srimad-Bhagavatam, under the instruction of Narada, so that anyone can take advantage of this literature, think of Krsna's pastimes and always be liberated.


    srutim apare smrtim itare bharatam anye bhajantu bhava-bhitah

            aham iha nandam vande yasyalinde param brahma


                               TEXT 22




               tav anghri-yugmam anukrsya sarisrpantau

                ghosa-praghosa-ruciram vraja-kardamesu

                tan-nada-hrsta-manasav anusrtya lokam

               mugdha-prabhitavad upeyatur anti matroh




   tau--Krsna and Balarama; anghri-yugmam anukrsya--dragging Their legs; sarisrpantau--crawling like snakes; ghosa-praghosa-ruciram--producing a sound with Their ankle bells that was very, very sweet to hear; vraja-kardamesu--in the mud created by cow dung and cow urine on the earth of Vrajabhumi; tat-nada--by the sound of those ankle bells; hrsta-manasau--being very much pleased; anusrtya--following; lokam--other persons; mugdha--thus being enchanted; prabhita-vat--then again being afraid of them; upeyatuh--immediately returned; anti matroh--toward Their mothers.




   When Krsna and Balarama, with the strength of Their legs, crawled in the muddy places created in Vraja by cow dung and cow urine, Their crawling resembled the crawling of serpents, and the sound of Their ankle bells was very charming. Very much pleased by the sound of other people's ankle bells, They used to follow these people as if going to Their mothers, but when They saw that these were other people, They became afraid and returned to Their real mothers, Yasoda and Rohini.




   When Krsna and Balarama were crawling about Vrajabhumi, They were enchanted by the sound of ankle bells. Thus They sometimes followed other people, who would enjoy the crawling of Krsna and Balarama and exclaim, "Oh, see how Krsna and Balarama are crawling!" Upon hearing this, Krsna and Balarama could understand that these were not Their mothers They were following, and They would return to Their actual mothers. Thus the crawling of Krsna and Balarama was enjoyed by the people of the neighborhood, as well as by mother Yasoda and Rohini and the two children Themselves.


                               TEXT 23




              tan-matarau nija-sutau ghrnaya snuvantyau

               pankanga-raga-rucirav upagrhya dorbhyam

             dattva stanam prapibatoh sma mukham niriksya

               mugdha-smitalpa-dasanam yayatuh pramodam




   tat-matarau--Their mothers (Rohini and Yasoda); nija-sutau--their own respective sons; ghrnaya--with great affection; snuvantyau--allowed to suck the flowing milk from their breasts very happily; panka-anga-raga-rucirau--whose beautiful transcendental bodies were covered with muddy cow dung and urine; upagrhya--taking care of; dorbhyam--by their arms; dattva--delivering Them; stanam--the breast; prapibatoh--when the babies were sucking; sma--indeed; mukham--the mouth; niriksya--and seeing; mugdha-smita-alpa-dasanam--smiling with little teeth coming out of Their mouths (they were more and more attracted); yayatuh--and enjoyed; pramodam--transcendental bliss.




   Dressed with muddy earth mixed with cow dung and cow urine, the babies looked very beautiful, and when They went to Their mothers, both Yasoda and Rohini picked Them up with great affection, embraced Them and allowed Them to suck the milk flowing from their breasts. While sucking the breast, the babies smiled, and Their small teeth were visible. Their mothers, upon seeing those beautiful teeth, enjoyed great transcendental bliss.




   As the mothers cared for their respective babies, by the arrangement of yogamaya the babies thought, "Here is My mother," and the mothers thought, "Here is my son." Because of affection, milk naturally flowed from the mothers' breasts, and the babies drank it. When the mothers saw small teeth coming in, they would count them and be happy, and when the babies saw Their mothers allowing Them to drink their breast milk, the babies also felt transcendental pleasure. As this transcendental affection continued between Rohini and Balarama and Yasoda and Krsna, they all enjoyed transcendental bliss.


                               TEXT 24




                 yarhy angana-darsaniya-kumara-lilav

              antar-vraje tad abalah pragrhita-pucchaih

                vatsair itas tata ubhav anukrsyamanau

              preksantya ujjhita-grha jahrsur hasantyah




   yarhi--when; angana-darsaniya--visible only to the ladies within the house; kumara-lilau--the pastimes Sri Krsna and Balarama exhibited as children; antah-vraje--within the inside of Vraja, in the house of Nanda Maharaja; tat--at that time; abalah--all the ladies; pragrhita-pucchaih--the ends of their tails having been caught by Krsna and Balarama; vatsaih--by the calves; itah tatah--here and there; ubhau--both Krsna and Balarama; anukrsyamanau--being dragged; preksantyah--seeing such things; ujjhita--given up; grhah--their household affairs; jahrsuh--enjoyed very much; hasantyah--while laughing.




   Within the house of Nanda Maharaja, the cowherd ladies would enjoy seeing the pastimes of the babies Rama and Krsna. The babies would catch the ends of the calves' tails, and the calves would drag Them here and there. When the ladies saw these pastimes, they certainly stopped their household activities and laughed and enjoyed the incidents.




   While crawling in curiosity, Krsna and Balarama would sometimes catch the ends of the tails of calves. The calves, feeling that someone had caught them, would begin to flee here and there, and the babies would hold on very tightly, being afraid of how the calves were moving. The calves, seeing that the babies were holding them tightly, would also become afraid. Then the ladies would come to rescue the babies and gladly laugh. This was their enjoyment.


                               TEXT 25





               krida-parav aticalau sva-sutau niseddhum

               grhyani kartum api yatra na taj-jananyau

                 sekata apatur alam manaso 'navastham




   srngi--with the cows; agni--fire; damstri--monkeys and dogs; asi--swords; jala--water; dvija--birds; kantakebhyah--and thorns; krida-parau ati-calau--the babies, being too restless, engaged in play; sva-sutau--their own two sons; niseddhum--just to stop Them; grhyani--household duties; kartum api--by executing; yatra--when; na--not; tat-jananyau--Their mothers (Rohini and Yasoda); sekate--able; apatuh--obtained; alam--indeed; manasah--of the mind; anavastham--equilibrium.




   When mother Yasoda and Rohini were unable to protect the babies from calamities threatened by horned cows, by fire, by animals with claws and teeth such as monkeys, dogs and cats, and by thorns, swords and other weapons on the ground, they were always in anxiety, and their household engagements were disturbed. At that time, they were fully equipoised in the transcendental ecstasy known as the distress of material affection, for this was aroused within their minds.




   All these pastimes of Krsna, and the great enjoyment exhibited by the mothers, are transcendental; nothing about them is material. They are described in the Brahma-samhita as ananda-cinmaya-rasa. In the spiritual world there is anxiety, there is crying, and there are other feelings similar to those of the material world, but because the reality of these feelings is in the transcendental world, of which this world is only an imitation, mother Yasoda and Rohini enjoyed them transcendentally.


                               TEXT 26




                         kalenalpena rajarse

                        ramah krsnas ca gokule

                       aghrsta-janubhih padbhir

                         vicakramatur anjasa




   kalena alpena--within a very short time; rajarse--O King (Maharaja Pariksit); ramah krsnah ca--both Rama and Krsna; gokule--in the village of Gokula; aghrsta-janubhih--without the help of crawling on Their knees; padbhih--by Their legs alone; vicakramatuh--began to walk; anjasa--very easily.




   O King Pariksit, within a very short time both Rama and Krsna began to walk very easily in Gokula on Their legs, by Their own strength, without the need to crawl.




   Instead of crawling with Their knees, the babies could now stand up by holding on to something and walk little by little, without difficulty, by the strength of Their legs.


                               TEXT 27




                       tatas tu bhagavan krsno

                       vayasyair vraja-balakaih

                       saha-ramo vraja-strinam

                        cikride janayan mudam




   tatah--thereafter; tu--but; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsnah--Lord Krsna; vayasyaih--with Their playmates; vraja-balakaih--with other small children in Vraja; saha-ramah--along with Balarama; vraja-strinam--of all the ladies of Vraja; cikride--played very happily; janayan--awakening; mudam--transcendental bliss.




   Thereafter, Lord Krsna, along with Balarama, began to play with the other children of the cowherd men, thus awakening the transcendental bliss of the cowherd women.




   The word saha-ramah, meaning "along with Balarama," is significant in this verse. In such transcendental pastimes, Krsna is the chief hero, and Balarama provides additional help.


                               TEXT 28




                        krsnasya gopyo ruciram

                        viksya kaumara-capalam

                      srnvantyah kila tan-matur

                         iti hocuh samagatah




   krsnasya--of Krsna; gopyah--all the gopis; ruciram--very attractive; viksya--observing; kaumara-capalam--the restlessness of the childish pastimes; srnvantyah--just to hear them again and again; kila--indeed; tat-matuh--in the presence of His mother; iti--thus; ha--indeed; ucuh--said; samagatah--assembled there.




   Observing the very attractive childish restlessness of Krsna, all the gopis in the neighborhood, to hear about Krsna's activities again and again, would approach mother Yasoda and speak to her as follows.




   Krsna's activities are always very attractive to devotees. Therefore the neighbors, who were friends of mother Yasoda, informed mother Yasoda of whatever they saw Krsna doing in the neighborhood. Mother Yasoda, just to hear about the activities of her son, stopped her household duties and enjoyed the information given by the neighborhood friends.


                               TEXT 29




           vatsan muncan kvacid asamaye krosa-sanjata-hasah

      steyam svadv atty atha dadhi-payah kalpitaih steya-yogaih

       markan bhoksyan vibhajati sa cen natti bhandam bhinnatti

            dravyalabhe sagrha-kupito yaty upakrosya tokan




   vatsan--the calves; muncan--releasing; kvacit--sometimes; asamaye--at odd times; krosa-sanjata-hasah--after this, when the head of the house is angry, Krsna begins to smile; steyam--obtained by stealing; svadu--very tasteful; atti--eats; atha--thus; dadhi-payah--pot of curd and milk; kalpitaih--devised; steya-yogaih--by some sort of stealing process; markan--to the monkeys; bhoksyan--giving to eat; vibhajati--divides their portion; sah--the monkey; cet--if; na--not; atti--eats; bhandam--the pot; bhinnatti--He breaks; dravya-alabhe--when eatables are unavailable or He cannot find such pots; sa-grha-kupitah--He becomes angry at the residents of the house; yati--He goes away; upakrosya--irritating and pinching; tokan--the small children.




   "Our dear friend Yasoda, your son sometimes comes to our houses before the milking of the cows and releases the calves, and when the master of the house becomes angry, your son merely smiles. Sometimes He devises some process by which He steals palatable curd, butter and milk, which He then eats and drinks. When the monkeys assemble, He divides it with them, and when the monkeys have their bellies so full that they won't take more, He breaks the pots. Sometimes, if He gets no opportunity to steal butter or milk from a house, He will be angry at the householders, and for His revenge He will agitate the small children by pinching them. Then, when the children begin crying, Krsna will go away.




   The narration of Krsna's naughty childhood activities would be presented to mother Yasoda in the form of complaints. Sometimes Krsna would enter the house of a neighbor, and if He found no one there, He would release the calves before the time for the cows to be milked. The calves are actually supposed to be released when their mothers are milked, but Krsna would release them before that time, and naturally the calves would drink all the milk from their mothers. When the cowherd men saw this, they would chase Krsna and try to catch Him, saying, "Here is Krsna doing mischief," but He would flee and enter another house, where He would again devise some means to steal butter and curd. Then the cowherd men would again try to capture Him, saying, "Here is the butter thief. Better capture Him!" And they would be angry. But Krsna would simply smile, and they would forget everything. Sometimes, in their presence, He would begin eating the curd and butter. There was no need for Krsna to eat butter, since His belly was always full, but He would try to eat it, or else He would break the pots and distribute the contents to the monkeys. In this way, Krsna was always engaged in mischief-making. If in any house He could not find any butter or curd to steal, He would go into a room and agitate the small children sleeping there by pinching them, and when they cried He would go away.


                               TEXT 30




           hastagrahye racayati vidhim pithakolukhaladyais

        chidram hy antar-nihita-vayunah sikya-bhandesu tad-vit

         dhvantagare dhrta-mani-ganam svangam artha-pradipam

            kale gopyo yarhi grha-krtyesu suvyagra-cittah




   hasta-agrahye--when the destination is out of the reach of His hands; racayati--He arranges to make; vidhim--a means; pithaka--by wooden planks piled together; ulukhala-adyaih--and by overturning the stone mortar for grinding spices; chidram--a hole; hi--indeed; antah-nihita--about the contents of the pot; vayunah--with such knowledge; sikya--hanging by a swing; bhandesu--in the pots; tat-vit--expert in that knowledge, or in full knowledge; dhvanta-agare--in a very dark room; dhrta-mani-ganam--because of being decorated with valuable jewels; sva-angam--His own body; artha-pradipam--is the light required for seeing in darkness; kale--after that, in due course of time; gopyah--the elderly gopis; yarhi--as soon as; grha-krtyesu--in discharging household affairs; su-vyagra-cittah--are busily engaged.




   "When the milk and curd are kept high on a swing hanging from the ceiling and Krsna and Balarama cannot reach it, They arrange to reach it by piling up various planks and turning upside down the mortar for grinding spices. Being quite aware of the contents of a pot, They pick holes in it. While the elderly gopis go about their household affairs, Krsna and Balarama sometimes go into a dark room, brightening the place with the valuable jewels and ornaments on Their bodies and taking advantage of this light by stealing.




   Formerly, in every household, yogurt and butter were kept for use in emergencies. But Krsna and Balarama would pile up planks so that They could reach the pots and would then pick holes in the pots with Their hands so that the contents would leak out and They could drink it. This was another means for stealing butter and milk. When the butter and milk were kept in a dark room, Krsna and Balarama would go there and make the place bright with the valuable jewels on Their bodies. On the whole, Krsna and Balarama engaged in stealing butter and milk from the neighborhood houses in many ways.


                               TEXT 31




            evam dharstyany usati kurute mehanadini vastau

            steyopayair viracita-krtih supratiko yathaste

         ittham stribhih sa-bhaya-nayana-sri-mukhalokinibhir

        vyakhyatartha prahasita-mukhi na hy upalabdhum aicchat




   evam--in this way; dharstyani--naughty activities; usati--in a neat and clean place; kurute--sometimes does; mehana-adini--passing stool and urine; vastau--in our houses; steya-upayaih--and by inventing different devices to steal butter and milk; viracita-krtih--is very expert; su-pratikah--is now sitting down here like a very good, well-behaved child; yatha aste--while staying here; ittham--all these topics of conversation; stribhih--by the gopis; sa-bhaya-nayana--just now sitting there with fearful eyes; sri-mukha--such a beautiful face; alokinibhih--by the gopis, who were enjoying the pleasure of seeing; vyakhyata-artha--and while complaining against Him before mother Yasoda; prahasita-mukhi--they were smiling and enjoying; na--not; hi--indeed; upalabdhum--to chastise and threaten (rather, she enjoyed how Krsna was sitting there as a very good boy); aicchat--she desired.




   "When Krsna is caught in His naughty activities, the master of the house will say to Him, 'Oh, You are a thief,' and artificially express anger at Krsna. Krsna will then reply, 'I am not a thief. You are a thief.' Sometimes, being angry, Krsna passes urine and stool in a neat, clean place in our houses. But now, our dear friend Yasoda, this expert thief is sitting before you like a very good boy." Sometimes all the gopis would look at Krsna sitting there, His eyes fearful so that His mother would not chastise Him, and when they saw Krsna's beautiful face, instead of chastising Him they would simply look upon His face and enjoy transcendental bliss. Mother Yasoda would mildly smile at all this fun, and she would not want to chastise her blessed transcendental child.




   Krsna's business in the neighborhood was not only to steal but sometimes to pass stool and urine in a neat, clean house. When caught by the master of the house, Krsna would chastise him, saying, "You are a thief." Aside from being a thief in His childhood affairs, Krsna acted as an expert thief when He was young by attracting young girls and enjoying them in the rasa dance. This is Krsna's business. He is also violent, as the killer of many demons. Although mundane people like nonviolence and other such brilliant qualities, God, the Absolute Truth, being always the same, is good in any activities, even so-called immoral activities like stealing, killing and violence. Krsna is always pure, and He is always the Supreme Absolute Truth. Krsna may do anything supposedly abominable in material life, yet still He is attractive. Therefore His name is Krsna, meaning "all-attractive." This is the platform on which transcendental loving affairs and service are exchanged. Because of the features of Krsna's face, the mothers were so attracted that they could not chastise Him. Instead of chastising Him, they smiled and enjoyed hearing of Krsna's activities. Thus the gopis remained satisfied, and Krsna enjoyed their happiness. Therefore another name of Krsna is Gopi-jana-vallabha because He invented such activities to please the gopis.


                               TEXT 32




                         ekada kridamanas te

                         ramadya gopa-darakah

                       krsno mrdam bhaksitavan

                         iti matre nyavedayan




   ekada--once upon a time; kridamanah--now Krsna, being still more grown up, was playing with other children of the same age; te--they; rama-adyah--Balarama and others; gopa-darakah--other boys born in the same neighborhood of the cowherd men; krsnah mrdam bhaksitavan--O Mother, Krsna has eaten earth (a complaint was lodged); iti--thus; matre--unto mother Yasoda; nyavedayan--they submitted.




   One day while Krsna was playing with His small playmates, including Balarama and other sons of the gopas, all His friends came together and lodged a complaint to mother Yasoda. "Mother," they submitted, "Krsna has eaten earth."




   Here is another of Krsna's transcendental activities invented to please the gopis. First a complaint was lodged with mother Yasoda about Krsna's stealing, but mother Yasoda did not chastise Him. Now, in an attempt to awaken mother Yasoda's anger so that she would chastise Krsna, another complaint was invented--that Krsna had eaten earth.


                               TEXT 33




                        sa grhitva kare krsnam

                         upalabhya hitaisini

                       yasoda bhaya-sambhranta-

                        preksanaksam abhasata




   sa--mother Yasoda; grhitva--taking; kare--within the hands (being anxious about what Krsna might have eaten); krsnam--Krsna; upalabhya--wanted to chastise Him; hita-esini--because she was anxious for the welfare of Krsna, she became very much agitated, thinking, "How is it that Krsna has eaten earth?"; yasoda--mother Yasoda; bhaya-sambhranta-preksana-aksam--began to look very carefully within Krsna's mouth in fear, to see if Krsna had eaten something dangerous; abhasata--began to address Krsna.




   Upon hearing this from Krsna's playmates, mother Yasoda, who was always full of anxiety over Krsna's welfare, picked Krsna up with her hands to look into His mouth and chastise Him. Her eyes fearful, she spoke to her son as follows.


                               TEXT 34




                       kasman mrdam adantatman

                       bhavan bhaksitavan rahah

                        vadanti tavaka hy ete

                      kumaras te 'grajo 'py ayam




   kasmat--why; mrdam--dirt; adanta-atman--You restless boy; bhavan--You; bhaksitavan--have eaten; rahah--in a solitary place; vadanti--are lodging this complaint; tavakah--Your friends and playmates; hi--indeed; ete--all of them; kumarah--boys; te--Your; agrajah--older brother; api--also (confirms); ayam--this.




   Dear Krsna, why are You so restless that You have eaten dirt in a solitary place? This complaint has been lodged against You by all Your playmates, including Your elder brother, Balarama. How is this?




   Mother Yasoda was agitated by Krsna's restless misbehavior. Her house was full of sweetmeats. Why then should the restless boy eat dirt in a solitary place? Krsna replied, "My dear mother, they have plotted together and lodged a complaint against Me so that you will punish Me. My elder brother, Balarama, has joined them. Actually, I have not done this. Take My words as true. Do not be angry and chastise Me."


                               TEXT 35




                        naham bhaksitavan amba

                       sarve mithyabhisamsinah

                        yadi satya-giras tarhi

                       samaksam pasya me mukham




   na--not; aham--I; bhaksitavan--have eaten dirt; amba--My dear mother; sarve--all of them; mithya-abhisamsinah--all liars, simply complaining against Me so that you may chastise Me; yadi--if it is actually a fact; satya-girah--that they have spoken the truth; tarhi--then; samaksam--directly; pasya--see; me--My; mukham--mouth.




   Lord Sri Krsna replied: My dear mother, I have never eaten dirt. All My friends complaining against Me are liars. If you think they are being truthful, you can directly look into My mouth and examine it.




   Krsna presented Himself as an innocent child to increase the transcendental ecstasy of maternal affection. As described in the sastra, tadana-bhayan mithyoktir vatsalya-rasa-posika. This means that sometimes a small child speaks lies. For example, he may have stolen something or eaten something and yet deny that he has done so. We ordinarily see this in the material world, but in relation to Krsna it is different; such activities are meant to endow the devotee with transcendental ecstasy. The Supreme Personality of Godhead was playing as a liar and accusing all the other devotees of being liars. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.12.11), krta-punya-punjah: a devotee may attain such an ecstatic position after many, many births of devotional service. Persons who have amassed the results of a vast amount of pious activities can attain the stage of associating with Krsna and playing with Him like ordinary playmates. One should not consider these transactions of transcendental service to be untruthful accusations. One should never accuse such devotees of being ordinary boys speaking lies, for they attained this stage of associating with Krsna by great austerities (tapasa brahmacaryena samena ca damena ca).


                               TEXT 36




                       yady evam tarhi vyadehi-

                      ty uktah sa bhagavan harih






   yadi--if; evam--it is so; tarhi--then; vyadehi--open Your mouth wide (I want to see); iti uktah--in this way ordered by mother Yasoda; sah--He; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih--the Supreme Lord; vyadatta--opened His mouth; avyahata-aisvaryah--without minimizing any potencies of absolute opulence (aisvaryasya samagrasya); krida--pastimes; manuja-balakah--exactly like the child of a human being.




   Mother Yasoda challenged Krsna, "If You have not eaten earth, then open Your mouth wide." When challenged by His mother in this way, Krsna, the son of Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda, to exhibit pastimes like a human child, opened His mouth. Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, who is full of all opulences, did not disturb His mother's parental affection, His opulence was automatically displayed, for Krsna's opulence is never lost at any stage, but is manifest at the proper time.




   Without disturbing the ecstasy of His mother's affection, Krsna opened His mouth and displayed His own natural opulences. When a person is given varieties of food, there may be a hundred and one varieties, but if one likes ordinary saka, spinach, he prefers to eat that. Similarly, although Krsna was full of opulences, now, by the order of mother Yasoda, He opened wide His mouth like a human child and did not neglect the transcendental humor of maternal affection.


                             TEXTS 37-39




                        sa tatra dadrse visvam

                     jagat sthasnu ca kham disah




                       jyotis-cakram jalam tejo

                        nabhasvan viyad eva ca


                       mano matra gunas trayah


                    etad vicitram saha-jiva-kala-


                    sunos tanau viksya vidaritasye

                    vrajam sahatmanam avapa sankam




   sa--mother Yasoda; tatra--within the wide-open mouth of Krsna; dadrse--saw; visvam--the whole universe; jagat--moving entities; sthasnu--maintenance of nonmoving entities; ca--and; kham--the sky; disah--the directions; sa-adri--with the mountains; dvipa--islands; abdhi--and oceans; bhu-golam--the surface of the earth; sa-vayu--with the blowing wind; agni--fire; indu--the moon; tarakam--stars; jyotih-cakram--the planetary systems; jalam--water; tejah--light; nabhasvan--outer space; viyat--the sky; eva--also; ca--and; vaikarikani--creation by transformation of ahankara; indriyani--the senses; manah--mind; matrah--sense perception; gunah trayah--the three material qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas); etat--all these; vicitram--varieties; saha--along with; jiva-kala--the duration of life of all living entities; svabhava--natural instinct; karma-asaya--resultant action and desire for material enjoyment; linga-bhedam--varieties of bodies according to desire; sunoh tanau--in the body of her son; viksya--seeing; vidarita-asye--within the wide-open mouth; vrajam--Vrndavana-dhama, Nanda Maharaja's place; saha-atmanam--along with herself; avapa--was struck; sankam--with all doubts and wonder.




   When Krsna opened His mouth wide by the order of mother Yasoda, she saw within His mouth all moving and nonmoving entities, outer space, and all directions, along with mountains, islands, oceans, the surface of the earth, the blowing wind, fire, the moon and the stars. She saw the planetary systems, water, light, air, sky, and creation by transformation of ahankara. She also saw the senses, the mind, sense perception, and the three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance. She saw the time allotted for the living entities, she saw natural instinct and the reactions of karma, and she saw desires and different varieties of bodies, moving and nonmoving. Seeing all these aspects of the cosmic manifestation, along with herself and Vrndavana-dhama, she became doubtful and fearful of her son's nature.




   All the cosmic manifestations that exist on the gross and subtle elements, as well as the means of their agitation, the three gunas, the living entity, creation, maintenance, annihilation and everything going on in the external energy of the Lord--all this comes from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda. Everything is within the control of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (9.10). Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram: everything in the material nature (prakrti) works under His control. Because all these manifestations come from Govinda, they could all be visible within the mouth of Govinda. Quite astonishingly, mother Yasoda was afraid because of intense maternal affection. She could not believe that within the mouth of her son such things could appear. Yet she saw them, and therefore she was struck with fear and wonder.


                               TEXT 40




                     kim svapna etad uta devamaya

                   kim va madiyo bata buddhi-mohah

                     atho amusyaiva mamarbhakasya

                   yah kascanautpattika atma-yogah




   kim--whether; svapnah--a dream; etat--all this; uta--or otherwise; deva-maya--an illusory manifestation by the external energy; kim va--or else; madiyah--my personal; bata--indeed; buddhi-mohah--illusion of intelligence; atho--otherwise; amusya--of such; eva--indeed; mama arbhakasya--of my child; yah--which; kascana--some; autpattikah--natural; atma-yogah--personal mystic power.




   [Mother Yasoda began to argue within herself:] Is this a dream, or is it an illusory creation by the external energy? Has this been manifested by my own intelligence, or is it some mystic power of my child?




   When mother Yasoda saw this wonderful manifestation within the mouth of her child, she began to argue within herself about whether it was a dream. Then she considered, "I am not dreaming, because my eyes are open. I am actually seeing what is happening. I am not sleeping, nor am I dreaming. Then maybe this is an illusion created by devamaya. But that is also not possible. What business would the demigods have showing such things to me? I am an insignificant woman with no connection with the demigods. Why should they take the trouble to put me into devamaya? That also is not possible." Then mother Yasoda considered whether the vision might be due to bewilderment: "I am fit in health; I am not diseased. Why should there be any bewilderment? It is not possible that my brain is deranged, since I am ordinarily quite fit to think. Then this vision must be due to some mystic power of my son, as predicted by Gargamuni." Thus she finally concluded that the vision was due to her son's activities, and nothing else.


                               TEXT 41




                   atho yathavan na vitarka-gocaram

                   ceto-manah-karma-vacobhir anjasa

                   yad-asrayam yena yatah pratiyate

                 sudurvibhavyam pranatasmi tat-padam




   atho--therefore she decided to surrender unto the Supreme Lord; yatha-vat--as perfectly as one can perceive; na--not; vitarka-gocaram--beyond all arguments, reason and sense perception; cetah--by consciousness; manah--by mind; karma--by activities; vacobhih--or by words; anjasa--taking all of them together, we cannot understand them; yat-asrayam--under whose control; yena--by whom; yatah--from whom; pratiyate--can be conceived only that from Him everything emanates; su-durvibhavyam--beyond our sense perception or consciousness; pranata asmi--let me surrender; tat-padam--at His lotus feet.




   Therefore let me surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead and offer my obeisances unto Him, who is beyond the conception of human speculation, the mind, activities, words and arguments, who is the original cause of this cosmic manifestation, by whom the entire cosmos is maintained, and by whom we can conceive of its existence. Let me simply offer my obeisances, for He is beyond my contemplation, speculation and meditation. He is beyond all of my material activities.




   One simply has to realize the greatness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should not try to understand Him by any material means, subtle or gross. Mother Yasoda, being a simple woman, could not find out the real cause of the vision; therefore, out of maternal affection, she simply offered obeisances unto the Supreme Lord to protect her child. She could do nothing but offer obeisances to the Lord. It is said, acintyah khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet (Mahabharata, Bhisma parva 5.22). One should not try to understand the supreme cause by argument or reasoning. When we are beset by some problem for which we can find no reason, there is no alternative than to surrender to the Supreme Lord and offer Him our respectful obeisances. Then our position will be secure. This was the means adopted in this instance also by mother Yasoda. Whatever happens, the original cause is the Supreme Personality of Godhead (sarva-karana-karanam). When the immediate cause cannot be ascertained, let us simply offer our obeisances at the lotus feet of the Lord. Mother Yasoda concluded that the wonderful things she saw within the mouth of her child were due to Him, although she could not clearly ascertain the cause. Therefore when a devotee cannot ascertain the cause of suffering, he concludes:


                    tat te 'nukampam susamiksamano

                    bhunjana evatma-krtam vipakam

                 hrd-vag-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te

                  jiveta yo mukti-pade sa daya-bhak


   (Bhag. 10.14.8)


   The devotee accepts that it is due to his own past misdeeds that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has caused him some small amount of suffering. Thus he offers obeisances to the Lord again and again. Such a devotee is called mukti-pade sa daya-bhak; that is, he is guaranteed his liberation from this material world. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.14):


                      matra-sparsas tu kaunteya


                          agamapayino nityas

                       tams titiksasva bharata


   We should know that material suffering due to the material body will come and go. Therefore we must tolerate the suffering and proceed with discharging our duty as ordained by our spiritual master.


                               TEXT 42




                    aham mamasau patir esa me suto

                   vrajesvarasyakhila-vittapa sati

                 gopyas ca gopah saha-godhanas ca me

                 yan-mayayettham kumatih sa me gatih




   aham--my existence ("I am something"); mama--my; asau--Nanda Maharaja; patih--husband; esah--this (Krsna); me sutah--is my son; vraja-isvarasya--of my husband, Nanda Maharaja; akhila-vitta-pa--I am the possessor of unlimited opulence and wealth; sati--because I am his wife; gopyah ca--and all the damsels of the cowherd men; gopah--all the cowherd men (are my subordinates); saha-godhanah ca--with the cows and calves; me--my; yat-mayaya--all such things addressed by me are, after all, given by the mercy of the Supreme; ittham--thus; kumatih--I am wrongly thinking they are my possessions; sah me gatih--He is therefore my only shelter (I am simply instrumental).




   It is by the influence of the Supreme Lord's maya that I am wrongly thinking that Nanda Maharaja is my husband, that Krsna is my son, and that because I am the queen of Nanda Maharaja, all the wealth of cows and calves are my possessions and all the cowherd men and their wives are my subjects. Actually, I also am eternally subordinate to the Supreme Lord. He is my ultimate shelter.




   Following in the footsteps of mother Yasoda, everyone should follow this mentality of renunciation. Whatever wealth, opulence or whatever else we may possess belongs not to us but to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the ultimate shelter of everyone and the ultimate owner of everything. As stated by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (5.29):


                       bhoktaram yajna-tapasam


                        suhrdam sarva-bhutanam

                      jnatva mam santim rcchati


   "The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attain peace from the pangs of material miseries."

   We should not be proud of our possessions. As expressed by mother Yasoda herein, "I am not the owner of possessions, the opulent wife of Nanda Maharaja. The estate, the possessions, the cows and calves and the subjects like the gopis and cowherd men are all given to me." One should give up thinking of "my possessions, my son and my husband" (janasya moho'yam aham mameti). Nothing belongs to anyone but the Supreme Lord. Only because of illusion do we wrongly think, "I am existing" or "Everything belongs to me." Thus mother Yasoda completely surrendered unto the Supreme Lord. For the moment, she was rather disappointed, thinking, "My endeavors to protect my son by charity and other auspicious activities are useless. The Supreme Lord has given me many things, but unless He takes charge of everything, there is no assurance of protection. I must therefore ultimately seek shelter of the Supreme personality of Godhead." As stated by Prahlada Maharaja (Bhag. 7.9.19), balasya neha saranam pitarau nrsimha: a father and mother cannot ultimately take care of their children. Ato grha-ksetra-sutapta-vittair janasya moho 'yam aham mameti (Bhag. 5.5.8). One's land, home, wealth and all of one's possessions belong to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although we wrongly think, "I am this" and "These things are mine."


                               TEXT 43




                       ittham vidita-tattvayam

                         gopikayam sa isvarah

                       vaisnavim vyatanon mayam

                       putra-snehamayim vibhuh




   ittham--in this way; vidita-tattvayam--when she understood the truth of everything philosophically; gopikayam--unto mother Yasoda; sah--the Supreme Lord; isvarah--the supreme controller; vaisnavim--visnumaya, or yogamaya; vyatanot--expanded; mayam--yogamaya; putra-sneha-mayim--very much attached because of maternal affection for her son; vibhuh--the Supreme Lord.




   Mother Yasoda, by the grace of the Lord, could understand the real truth. But then again, the supreme master, by the influence of the internal potency, yogamaya, inspired her to become absorbed in intense maternal affection for her son.




   Although mother Yasoda understood the whole philosophy of life, at the next moment she was overwhelmed by affection for her son by the influence of yogamaya. Unless she took care of her son Krsna, she thought, how could He be protected? She could not think otherwise, and thus she forgot all her philosophical speculations. This forgetfulness is described by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura as being inspired by the influence of yogamaya (mohana-sadharmyan mayam). Materialistic persons are captivated by mahamaya, whereas devotees, by the arrangement of the spiritual energy, are captivated by yogamaya.


                               TEXT 44




                       sadyo nasta-smrtir gopi

                         saropyaroham atmajam


                         hrdayasid yatha pura




   sadyah--after all these philosophical speculations, mother Yasoda fully surrendered to the Supreme personality of Godhead; nasta-smrtih--having gotten rid of the memory of seeing the universal form within Krsna's mouth; gopi--mother Yasoda; sa--she; aropya--seating; aroham--on the lap; atmajam--her son; pravrddha--increased; sneha--by affection; kalila--affected; hrdaya--the core of her heart; asit--became situated; yatha pura--as she was formerly.




   Immediately forgetting yogamaya's illusion that Krsna had shown the universal form within His mouth, mother Yasoda took her son on her lap as before, feeling increased affection in her heart for her transcendental child.




   Mother Yasoda regarded the vision of the universal form within Krsna's mouth as an arrangement of yogamaya, like a dream. As one forgets everything after a dream, mother Yasoda immediately forgot the entire incident. As her natural feeling of affection increased, she decided to herself, "Now let this incident be forgotten. I do not mind. Here is my son. Let me kiss Him."


                               TEXT 45




                       trayya copanisadbhis ca

                     sankhya-yogais ca satvataih


                        harim samanyatatmajam




   trayya--by studying the three Vedas (Sama, Yajur and Atharva); ca--also; upanisadbhih ca--and by studying the Vedic knowledge of the Upanisads; sankhya-yogaih--by reading the literature of sankhya-yoga; ca--and; satvataih--by the great sages and devotees, or by reading Vaisnava-tantra, Pancaratras; upagiyamana-mahatmyam--whose glories are worshiped (by all these Vedic literatures); harim--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sa--she; amanyata--considered (ordinary); atmajam--as her own son.




   The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are studied through the three Vedas, the Upanisads, the literature of Sankhya-yoga, and other Vaisnava literature, yet mother Yasoda considered that Supreme Person her ordinary child.




   As stated in Bhagavad-gita (15.15) by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, the purpose of studying the Vedas is to understand Him (vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah). Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu explained to Sanatana Gosvami that there are three purposes in the Vedas. One is to understand our relationship with Krsna (sambandha), another is to act according to that relationship (abhidheya), and the third is to reach the ultimate goal (prayojana). The word prayojana means "necessities," and the ultimate necessity is explained by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. prema pum-artho mahan: the greatest necessity for a human being is the achievement of love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Here we see that mother Yasoda is on the highest stage of necessity, for she is completely absorbed in love for Krsna.

   In the beginning, the Vedic purpose is pursued in three ways (trayi)--by karma-kanda, jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda. When one reaches the complete, perfect stage of upasana-kanda, one comes to worship Narayana, or Lord Visnu. When Parvati asked Lord Mahadeva, Lord Siva, what is the best method of upasana, or worship, Lord Siva answered, aradhananam sarvesam visnor aradhanam param. Visnupasana, or visnv-aradhana, worship of Lord Visnu, is the highest stage of perfection, as realized by Devaki. But here mother Yasoda performs no upasana, for she has developed transcendental ecstatic love for Krsna. Therefore her position is better than that of Devaki. In order to show this, Srila Vyasadeva enunciates this verse, trayya copanisadbhih etc.

   When a human being enters into the study of the Vedas to obtain vidya, knowledge, he begins to take part in human civilization. Then he advances further to study the Upanisads and gain brahma jnana, impersonal realization of the Absolute Truth, and then he advances still further, to sankhya-yoga, in order to understand the supreme controller, who is indicated in Bhagavad-gita (param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan.purusam sasvatam). When one understands that purusa, the supreme controller, to be Paramatma, one is engaged in the method of yoga (dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yoginah). But mother Yasoda has surpassed all these stages. She has come to the platform of loving Krsna as her beloved child, and therefore she is accepted to be on the highest stage of spiritual realization. The Absolute Truth is realized in three features (brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate), but she is in such ecstasy that she does not care to understand what is Brahman, what is Paramatma or what is Bhagavan. Bhagavan has personally descended to become her beloved child. Therefore there is no comparison to mother Yasoda's good fortune, as declared by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (ramya kacid upasana vrajavadhu-vargena ya kalpita). The Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, may be realized in different stages. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (4.11):


                       ye yatha mam prapadyante

                      tams tathaiva bhajamy aham

                        mama vartmanuvartante

                       manusyah partha sarvasah


   "As men surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha." One may be a karmi, a jnani, a yogi and then a bhakta or prema-bhakta. But the ultimate stage of realization is prema-bhakti, as actually demonstrated by mother Yasoda.


                               TEXT 46





                      nandah kim akarod brahman

                         sreya evam mahodayam

                         yasoda ca maha-bhaga

                      papau yasyah stanam harih




   sri-raja uvaca--Maharaja Pariksit further inquired (from Sukadeva Gosvami); nandah--Maharaja Nanda; kim--what; akarot--performed; brahman--O learned brahmana; sreyah--auspicious activities, like performing penances and austerities; evam--as exhibited by him; maha-udayam--from which they achieved the greatest perfection; yasoda--mother Yasoda; ca--also; maha-bhaga--most fortunate; papau--drank; yasyah--of whom; stanam--the breast milk; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   Having heard of the great fortune of mother Yasoda, Pariksit Maharaja inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O learned brahmana, mother Yasoda's breast milk was sucked by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. What past auspicious activities did she and Nanda Maharaja perform to achieve such perfection in ecstatic love?




   As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.16), catur-vidha bhajante mam janah sukrtino 'rjuna. Without sukrti, or pious activities, no one can come to the shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord is approached by four kinds of pious men (arto jijnasur artharthi jnani ca), but here we see that Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda surpassed all of them. Therefore Pariksit Maharaja naturally inquired, "What kind of pious activities did they perform in their past lives by which they achieved such a stage of perfection?" Of course, Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda are accepted as the father and mother of Krsna, yet mother Yasoda was more fortunate than Nanda Maharaja, Krsna's father, because Nanda Maharaja was sometimes separated from Krsna whereas Yasoda, Krsna's mother, was not separated from Krsna at any moment. From Krsna's babyhood to His childhood and from His childhood to His youth, mother Yasoda was always in association with Krsna. Even when Krsna was grown up, He would go to Vrndavana and sit on the lap of mother Yasoda. Therefore there is no comparison to the fortune of mother Yasoda, and Pariksit Maharaja naturally inquired, yasoda ca maha-bhaga.


                               TEXT 47




                        pitarau nanvavindetam


                        gayanty adyapi kavayo

                         yal loka-samalapaham




   pitarau--the actual father and mother of Krsna; na--not; anvavindetam--enjoyed; krsna--of Krsna; udara--magnanimous; arbhaka-ihitam--the childhood pastimes He performed; gayanti--are glorifying; adya api--even today; kavayah--great, great sages and saintly persons; yat--which is; loka-samala-apaham--by hearing of which the contamination of the whole material world is vanquished.




   Although Krsna was so pleased with Vasudeva and Devaki that He descended as their son, they could not enjoy Krsna's magnanimous childhood pastimes, which are so great that simply chanting about them vanquishes the contamination of the material world. Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda, however, enjoyed these pastimes fully, and therefore their position is always better than that of Vasudeva and Devaki.




   Krsna actually took birth from the womb of Devaki, but just after His birth He was transferred to the home of mother Yasoda. Devaki could not even have Krsna suck her breast. Therefore Pariksit Maharaja was astonished. How had mother Yasoda and Nanda Maharaja become so fortunate that they enjoyed the complete childhood pastimes of Krsna, which are still glorified by saintly persons? What had they done in the past by which they were elevated to such an exalted position?


                               TEXT 48




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        drono vasunam pravaro

                        dharaya bharyaya saha

                          karisyamana adesan

                        brahmanas tam uvaca ha




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; dronah--by the name Drona; vasunam--of the eight Vasus (a type of demigod); pravarah--who was the best; dharaya--with Dhara; bharyaya--His wife; saha--with; karisyamanah--just to execute; adesan--the orders; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; tam--unto him; uvaca--said; ha--in the past.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: To follow the orders of Lord Brahma, Drona, the best of the Vasus, along with his wife, Dhara, spoke to Lord Brahma in this way.




   As stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.37):



                 tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih

                 goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   When Krsna descends anywhere, He is accompanied by His own associates. These associates are not ordinary living beings. Krsna's pastimes are eternal, and when He descends, He comes with His associates. Therefore Nanda and mother Yasoda are the eternal father and mother of Krsna. This means that whenever Krsna descends, Nanda and Yasoda, as well as Vasudeva and Devaki, also descend as the Lord's father and mother. Their personalities are expansions of Krsna's personal body; they are not ordinary living beings. Maharaja Pariksit knew this, but he was curious to know from Sukadeva Gosvami whether it is possible for an ordinary human being to come to this stage by sadhana-siddhi. There are two kinds of perfection--nitya-siddhi and sadhana-siddhi. A nitya-siddha is one who is eternally Krsna's associate, an expansion of Krsna's personal body, whereas a sadhana-siddha is an ordinary human being who, by executing pious activities and following regulative principles of devotional service, also comes to that stage. Thus the purpose of Maharaja Pariksit's inquiry was to determine whether an ordinary human being can attain the position of mother Yasoda and Nanda Maharaja. Sukadeva Gosvami answered this question as follows.


                               TEXT 49




                         jatayor nau mahadeve

                        bhuvi visvesvare harau

                       bhaktih syat parama loke

                        yayanjo durgatim taret




   jatayoh--after we two have taken birth; nau--both husband and wife, Drona and Dhara; mahadeve--in the Supreme Person, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhuvi--on the earth; visva-isvare--in the master of all the planetary systems; harau--in the Supreme Lord; bhaktih--devotional service; syat--will be spread; parama--the ultimate goal of life; loke--in the world; yaya--by which; anjah--very easily; durgatim--miserable life; taret--one can avoid and be delivered.




   Drona and Dhara said: Please permit us to be born on the planet earth so that after our appearance, the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller and master of all planets, will also appear and spread devotional service, the ultimate goal of life, so that those born in this material world may very easily be delivered from the miserable condition of materialistic life by accepting this devotional service.




   This statement by Drona clearly indicates that Drona and Dhara are the eternal father and mother of Krsna. Whenever there is a necessity of Krsna's appearance, Drona and Dhara appear first, and then Krsna appears. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita that His birth is not ordinary (janma karma ca me divyam).


                        ajo 'pi sann avyayatma

                       bhutanam isvaro 'pi san

                       prakrtim svam adhisthaya

                        sambhavamy atma-mayaya


   "Although I am unborn and My transcendental body never deteriorates, and although I am the Lord of all sentient beings, I still appear in every millennium in My original transcendental form." (Bg. 4.6) Before Krsna's appearance, Drona and Dhara appear in order to become His father and mother. It is they who appear as Nanda Maharaja and his wife, Yasoda. In other words, it is not possible for a sadhana-siddha living being to become the father or mother of Krsna, for Krsna's father and mother are already designated. But by following the principles exhibited by Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda and their associates, the inhabitants of Vrndavana, ordinary living beings may attain such affection as exhibited by Nanda and Yasoda.

   When Drona and Dhara were requested to beget children, they chose to come to this world to have the Supreme Personality of Godhead as their son, Krsna. Krsna's appearance means paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam--the devotees are protected, and the miscreants are vanquished. Whenever Krsna comes, He distributes the highest goal of life, devotional service. He appears as Caitanya Mahaprabhu for the same purpose because unless one comes to devotional service, one cannot be delivered from the miseries of the material world (duhkhalayam asasvatam), where the living beings struggle for existence. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (15.7):


                         mamaivamso jiva-loke

                        jiva-bhutah sanatanah

                        manah sasthanindriyani

                        prakrti-sthani karsati


   "The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Because of conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." The living entities are struggling to become happy, but unless they take to the bhakti cult, their happiness is not possible. Krsna clearly says:


                         asraddadhanah purusa

                        dharmasyasya parantapa

                        aprapya mam nivartante



   "Those who are not faithful on the path of devotional service cannot attain Me, O conqueror of foes, but return to birth and death in this material world." (Bg. 9.3)

   Foolish persons do not know how risky life is here if one does not follow the instructions of Krsna. The Krsna consciousness movement, therefore, has been started so that by practicing Krsna consciousness one can avoid the risky life of this material existence. There is no question of accepting or not accepting Krsna consciousness. It is not optional; it is compulsory. If we do not take to Krsna consciousness, our life is very risky. Everything is explained in Bhagavad-gita. Therefore, to learn how to become free from the miserable condition of material existence, Bhagavad-gita As It Is is the preliminary study. Then, if one understands Bhagavad-gita, one can proceed to Srimad-Bhagavatam, and if one advances further, one may study Caitanya-caritamrta. We are therefore presenting these invaluable books to the whole world so that people may study them and be happy, being delivered from miserable conditional life.


                               TEXT 50




                      astv ity uktah sa bhagavan

                        vraje drono maha-yasah

                        jajne nanda iti khyato

                        yasoda sa dharabhavat




   astu--when Brahma agreed, "Yes, it is all right"; iti uktah--thus being ordered by him; sah--he (Drona); bhagavan--eternally the father of Krsna (Bhagavan's father is also Bhagavan); vraje--in Vrajabhumi, Vrndavana; dronah--Drona, the most powerful Vasu; maha-yasah--the very famous transcendentalist; jajne--appeared; nandah--as Nanda Maharaja; iti--thus; khyatah--is celebrated; yasoda--as mother Yasoda; sa--she; dhara--the same Dhara; abhavat--appeared.




   When Brahma said, "Yes, let it be so," the most fortune Drona, who was equal to Bhagavan, appeared in Vrajapura, Vrndavana, as the most famous Nanda Maharaja, and his wife, Dhara, appeared as mother Yasoda.




   Because whenever Krsna appears on this earth He superficially needs a father and mother, Drona and Dhara, His eternal father and mother, appeared on earth before Krsna as Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda. In contrast to Sutapa and Prsnigarbha, they did not undergo severe penances and austerities to become the father and mother of Krsna. This is the difference between nitya-siddha and sadhana-siddha.


                               TEXT 51




                        tato bhaktir bhagavati

                        putri-bhute janardane

                        dampatyor nitaram asid

                         gopa-gopisu bharata




   tatah--thereafter; bhaktih bhagavati--the cult of bhakti, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; putri-bhute--in the Lord, who had appeared as the son of mother Yasoda; janardane--in Lord Krsna; dam-patyoh--of both husband and wife; nitaram--continuously; asit--there was; gopa-gopisu--all the inhabitants of Vrndavana, the gopas and the gopis, associating with Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda and following in their footsteps; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit.




   Thereafter, O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Bharatas, when the Supreme Personality of Godhead became the son of Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda, they maintained continuous, unswerving devotional love in parental affection. And in their association, all the other inhabitants of Vrndavana, the gopas and gopis, developed the culture of krsna-bhakti.




   Although when the Supreme Personality of Godhead stole the butter, curd and milk of the neighboring gopas and gopis this teasing superficially seemed troublesome, in fact it was an exchange of affection in the ecstasy of devotional service. The more the gopas and gopis exchanged feelings with the Lord, the more their devotional service increased. Sometimes we may superficially see that a devotee is in difficulty because of being engaged in devotional service, but the fact is different. When a devotee suffers for Krsna, that suffering is transcendental enjoyment. Unless one becomes a devotee, this cannot be understood. When Krsna exhibited His childhood pastimes, not only did Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda increase their devotional affection, but those in their association also increased in devotional service. In other words, persons who follow the activities of Vrndavana will also develop devotional service in the highest perfection.


                               TEXT 52




                        krsno brahmana adesam

                      satyam kartum vraje vibhuh

                        saha-ramo vasams cakre

                       tesam pritim sva-lilaya




   krsnah--the Supreme Personality, Krsna; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; adesam--the order; satyam--truthful; kartum--to make; vraje--in Vrajabhumi, Vrndavana; vibhuh--the supreme powerful; saha-ramah--along with Balarama; vasan--residing; cakre--increased; tesam--of all the inhabitants of Vrndavana; pritim--the pleasure; sva-lilaya--by His transcendental pastimes.




   Thus the Supreme Personality, Krsna, along with Balarama, lived in Vrajabhumi, Vrndavana, just to substantiate the benediction of Brahma. By exhibiting different pastimes in His childhood, He increased the transcendental pleasure of Nanda and the other inhabitants of Vrndavana.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Tenth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled, "Lord Krsna Shows the Universal Form Within His Mouth."

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