Chapter Five

               Lord Rsabhadeva's Teachings to His Sons


   In this chapter there is a description of bhagavata-dharma, religious principles in devotional service that transcend religious principles for liberation and the mitigation of material misery. It is stated in this chapter that a human being should not work hard like dogs and hogs for sense gratification. The human life is especially meant for the revival of our relationship with the Supreme Lord, and to this end all kinds of austerities and penances should be accepted. By austere activities, one's heart can be cleansed of material contamination, and as a result one can be situated on the spiritual platform. To attain this perfection, one has to take shelter of a devotee and serve him. Then the door of liberation will be open. Those who are materially attached to women and sense gratification gradually become entangled in material consciousness and suffer the miseries of birth, old age, disease and death. Those who are engaged in the general welfare of all and who are not attached to children and family are called mahatmas. Those who are engaged in sense gratification. who act piously or impiously, cannot understand the purpose of the soul. Therefore they should approach a highly elevated devotee and accept him as a spiritual master. By his association, one will be able to understand the purpose of life. Under the instructions of such a spiritual master, one can attain devotional service to the Lord, detachment from material things, and tolerance of material misery and distress. One can then see all living entities equally, and one becomes very eager to know about transcendental subject matters. Endeavoring persistently for the satisfaction of Krsna, one becomes detached from wife, children and home. He is not interested in wasting time. In this way one becomes self-realized. A person advanced in spiritual knowledge does not engage anyone in material activity. And one who cannot deliver another person by instructing him in devotional service should not become a spiritual master, father, mother, demigod or husband. Instructing His one hundred sons, Lord Rsabhadeva advised them to accept their eldest brother. Bharata. as their guide and lord, and thereby serve him. Of all living entities, the brahmanas are the best, and above the brahmanas the Vaisnavas are situated in an even better position. Serving a Vaisnava means serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus Sukadeva Gosvami describes the characteristics of Bharata Maharaja and the sacrificial performance executed by Lord Rsabhadeva for the instruction of the general populace.


                                TEXT 1




                             rsabha uvaca

                    nayam deho deha-bhajam nrloke

                  kastan kaman arhate vid-bhujam ye

                   tapo divyam putraka yena sattvam

              suddhyed yasmad brahma-saukhyam tv anantam




   rsabhah uvaca--Lord Rsabhadeva said; na--not; ayam--this; dehah--body; deha-bhajam--of all living entities who have accepted material bodies; nr-loke--in this world; kastan--troublesome; kaman--sense gratification; arhate--deserves; vit-bhujam--of stool-eaters; ye--which; tapah--austerities and penances; divyam--divine; putrakah--My dear sons; yena--by which; sattvam--the heart; suddhyet--becomes purified; yasmat--from which; brahma-saukhyam--spiritual happiness; tu--certainly; anantam--unending.




   Lord Rsabhadeva told His sons: My dear boys, of all the living entities who have accepted material bodies in this world, one who has been awarded this human form should not work hard day and night simply for sense gratification, which is available even for dogs and hogs that eat stool. One should engage in penance and austerity to attain the divine position of devotional service. By such activity, one's heart is purified, and when one attains this position, he attains eternal, blissful life, which is transcendental to material happiness and which continues forever.




   In this verse Lord Rsabhadeva tells His sons about the importance of human life. The word deha-bhak refers to anyone who accepts a material body, but the living entity who is awarded the human form must act differently from animals. Animals like dogs and hogs enjoy sense gratification by eating stool. After undergoing severe hardships all day, human beings are trying to enjoy themselves at night by eating, drinking, having sex and sleeping. At the same time. they have to properly defend themselves. However, this is not human civilization. Human life means voluntarily practicing suffering for the advancement of spiritual life. There is, of course, suffering in the lives of animals and plants, which are suffering due to their past misdeeds. However, human beings should voluntarily accept suffering in the form of austerities and penances in order to attain the divine life. After attaining the divine life. one can enjoy happiness eternally. After all. every living entity is trying to enjoy happiness, but as long as one is encaged in the material body. he has to suffer different kinds of misery. A higher sense is present in the human form. We should act according to superior advice in order to attain eternal happiness and go back to Godhead.

   It is significant in this verse that the government and the natural guardian, the father, should educate subordinates and raise them to Krsna consciousness. Devoid of Krsna consciousness, every living being suffers in this cycle of birth and death perpetually. To relieve them from this bondage and enable them to become blissful and happy. bhakti-yoga should be taught. A foolish civilization neglects to teach people how to rise to the platform of bhakti-yoga. Without Krsna consciousness a person is no better than a hog or dog. The instructions of Rsabhadeva are very essential at the present moment. People are being educated and trained to work very hard for sense gratification. and there is no sublime aim in life. A man travels to earn his livelihood. leaving home early in the morning, catching a local train and being packed in a compartment. He has to stand for an hour or two in order to reach his place of business. Then again he takes a bus to get to the office. At the office he works hard from nine to five; then he takes two or three hours to return home. After eating, he has sex and goes to sleep. For all this hardship, his only happiness is a little sex. Yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham. Rsabhadeva clearly states that human life is not meant for this kind of existence, which is enjoyed even by dogs and hogs. Indeed, dogs and hogs do not have to work so hard for sex. A human being should try to live in a different way and should not try to imitate dogs and hogs. The alternative is mentioned. Human life is meant for tapasya, austerity and penance. By tapasya, one can get out of the material clutches. When one is situated in Krsna consciousness, devotional service, his happiness is guaranteed eternally. By taking to bhakti-yoga, devotional service, one's existence is purified. The living entity is seeking happiness life after life, but he can make a solution to all his problems simply by practicing bhakti-yoga. Then he immediately becomes eligible to return home, back to Godhead. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):


                       janma karma ca me divyam

                       evam yo vetti tattvatah

                      tyaktva deham punar janma

                       naiti mam eti so 'rjuna


   "One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna."


                                TEXT 2




                   mahat-sevam dvaram ahur vimuktes

                   tamo-dvaram yositam sangi-sangam

                   mahantas te sama-cittah prasanta

                    vimanyavah suhrdah sadhavo ye




   mahat-sevam--service to the spiritually advanced persons called mahatmas; dvaram--the way; ahuh--they say; vimukteh--of liberation; tamah-dvaram--the way to the dungeon of a dark, hellish condition of life; yositam--of women; sangi--of associates; sangam--association; mahantah--highly advanced in spiritual understanding; te--they; sama-cittah--persons who see everyone in a spiritual identity; prasantah--very peaceful, situated in Brahman or Bhagavan; vimanyavah--without anger (one must distribute Krsna consciousness to persons who are hostile without becoming angry at them); suhrdah--well-wishers of everyone; sadhavah--qualified devotees, without abominable behavior; ye--they who.




   One can attain the path of liberation from material bondage only by rendering service to highly advanced spiritual personalities. These personalities are impersonalists and devotees. Whether one wants to merge into the Lord's existence or wants to associate with the Personality of Godhead, one should render service to the mahatmas. For those who are not interested in such activities, who associate with people fond of women and sex, the path to hell is wide open. The mahatmas are equipoised. They do not see any difference between one living entity and another. They are very peaceful and are fully engaged in devotional service. They are devoid of anger, and they work for the benefit of everyone. They do not behave in any abominable way. Such people are known as mahatmas.




   The human body is like a junction. One may either take the path of liberation or the path leading to a hellish condition. How one can take these paths is described herein. On the path of liberation, one associate; with mahatmas, and on the path of bondage one associates with those attached to sense gratification and women. There are two types of mahatmas--the impersonalist and the devotee. Although their ultimate goal is different, the process of emancipation is almost the same. Both want eternal happiness. One seeks happiness in impersonal Brahman, and the other seeks happiness in the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As described in the first verse: brahma-saukhyam. Brahman means spiritual or eternal; both the impersonalist and the devotee seek eternal blissful life. In any case, it is advised that one become perfect. In the words of Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.87):


                asat-sanga-tyaga,----ei vaisnava-acara

            'stri-sangi'----eka asadhu, 'krsnabhakta' ara


   To remain unattached to the modes of material nature, one should avoid associating with those who are asat, materialistic. There are two kinds of materialists. One is attached to women and sense gratification, and the other is simply a nondevotee. On the positive side is association with mahatmas, and on the negative side is the avoidance of nondevotees and women-hunters.


                                TEXT 3




                    ye va mayise krta-sauhrdartha

                     janesu dehambhara-vartikesu

                      grhesu jayatmaja-ratimatsu

                 na priti-yukta yavad-arthas ca loke




   ye--those who; va--or; mayi--unto Me; ise--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krta-sauhrda-arthah--very eager to develop love (in a relationship of dasya, sakhya, vatsalya or madhurya); janesu--to people; dehambhara-vartikesu--who are interested only in maintaining the body, not in spiritual salvation; grhesu--to the home; jaya--wife; atma-ja--children; rati--wealth or friends; matsu--consisting of; na--not; priti-yuktah--very attached; yavat-arthah--who live by collecting only as much as required; ca--and; loke--in the material world.




   Those who are interested in reviving Krsna consciousness and increasing their love of Godhead do not like to do anything that is not related to Krsna. They are not interested in mingling with people who are busy maintaining their bodies, eating, sleeping, mating and defending. They are not attached to their homes, although they may be householders. Nor are they attached to wives, children, friends or wealth. At the same time, they are not indifferent to the execution of their duties. Such people are interested in collecting only enough money to keep the body and soul together.




   Whether he is an impersonalist or a devotee, one who is actually interested in advancing spiritually should not mingle with those who are simply interested in maintaining the body by means of the so-called advancement of civilization. Those who are interested in spiritual life should not be attached to homely comforts in the company of wife. children, friends and so forth. Even if one is a grhastha and has to earn his livelihood, he should be satisfied by collecting only enough money to maintain body and soul together. One should not have more than that nor less than that. As indicated herein, a householder should endeavor to earn money for the execution of bhakti-yoga--sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam. arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. A householder should lead such a life that he gets full opportunity to hear and chant. He should worship the Deity at home. observe festivals, invite friends in and give them prasada. A householder should earn money for this purpose, not for sense gratification.


                                TEXT 4




                    nunam pramattah kurute vikarma

                     yad indriya-pritaya aprnoti

                   na sadhu manye yata atmano 'yam

                     asann api klesada asa dehah




   nunam--indeed; pramattah--mad; kurute--performs; vikarma--sinful activities forbidden in the scriptures; yat--when; indriya-pritaye--for sense gratification; aprnoti--engages; na--not; sadhu--befitting; manye--I think; yatah--by which; atmanah--of the soul; ayam--this; asan--being temporary; api--although; klesa-dah--giving misery; asa--became possible; dehah--the body.




   When a person considers sense gratification the aim of life, he certainly becomes mad after materialistic living and engages in all kinds of sinful activity. He does not know that due to his past misdeeds he has already received a body which, although temporary, is the cause of his misery. Actually the living entity should not have taken on a material body, but he has been awarded the material body for sense gratification. Therefore I think it not befitting an intelligent man to involve himself again in the activities of sense gratification by which he perpetually gets material bodies one after another.




   Begging, borrowing and stealing to live for sense gratification is condemned in this verse because such consciousness leads one to a dark, hellish condition. The four sinful activities are illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling. These are the means by which one gets another material body that is full of miseries. In the Vedas it is said: asango hy ayam purusah. The living entity is not really connected with this material world, but due to his tendency to enjoy the material senses. he is put into the material condition. One should perfect his life by associating with devotees. He should not become further implicated in the material body.


                                TEXT 5




                     parabhavas tavad abodha-jato

                   yavan na jijnasata atma-tattvam

                   yavat kriyas tavad idam mano vai

                   karmatmakam yena sarira-bandhah




   parabhavah--defeat, misery; tavat--so long; abodha-jatah--produced from ignorance; yavat--as long as; na--not; jijnasate--inquires about; atma-tattvam--the truth of the self; yavat--as long as; kriyah--fruitive activities; tavat--so long; idam--this; manah--mind; vai--indeed; karma-atmakam--absorbed in material activities; yena--by which; sarira-bandhah--bondage in this material body.




   As long as one does not inquire about the spiritual values of life, one is defeated and subjected to miseries arising from ignorance. Be it sinful or pious, karma has its resultant actions. If a person is engaged in any kind of karma, his mind is called karmatmaka, colored with fruitive activity. As long as the mind is impure, consciousness is unclear, and as long as one is absorbed in fruitive activity, he has to accept a material body.




   Generally people think that one should act very piously in order to be relieved from misery, but this is not a fact. Even though one engages in pious activity and speculation. he is nonetheless defeated. His only aim should be emancipation from the clutches of maya and all material activities. Speculative knowledge and pious activity do not solve the problems of material life. One should be inquisitive to understand his spiritual position. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.37):


                     yathaidhamsi samiddho 'gnir

                       bhasmasat kurute 'rjuna

                       jnanagnih sarva-karmani

                        bhasmasat kurute tatha


   "As a blazing fire turns firewood to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge burn to ashes all reactions to material activities."

   Unless one understands the self and its activities, one has to be considered in material bondage. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32) it is also said: ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah. A person who doesn't have knowledge of devotional service may think himself liberated, but actually he is not. Aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah: such people may approach the impersonal Brahman effulgence, but they fall down again into material enjoyment because they have no knowledge of devotional service. As long as one is interested in karma and jnana, he continues enduring the miseries of material life--birth, old age, disease and death. Karmis certainly take on one body after another. As far as jnanis are concerned, unless they are promoted to the topmost understanding, they must return to the material world. As explained in Bhagavad-gita (7.19): bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate. The point is to know Krsna, Vasudeva, as everything and surrender unto Him. Karmis do not know this, but a devotee who is one hundred percent engaged in the devotional service of the Lord knows fully what is karma and jnana; therefore a pure devotee is no longer interested in karma or jnana. Anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam. The real bhakta is untouched by any tinge of karma and jnana. His only purpose in life is to serve the Lord.


                                TEXT 6




                   evam manah karma-vasam prayunkte

                      avidyayatmany upadhiyamane

                    pritir na yavan mayi vasudeve

                     na mucyate deha-yogena tavat




   evam--thus; manah--the mind; karma-vasam--subjugated by fruitive activities; prayunkte--acts; avidyaya--by ignorance; atmani--when the living entity; upadhiyamane--is covered; pritih--love; na--not; yavat--as long as; mayi--unto Me; vasudeve--Vasudeva, Krsna; na--not; mucyate--is delivered; deha-yogena--from contact with the material body; tavat--so long.




   When the living entity is covered by the mode of ignorance, he does not understand the individual living being and the supreme living being, and his mind is subjugated to fruitive activity. Therefore, until one has love for Lord Vasudeva, who is none other than Myself, he is certainly not delivered from having to accept a material body again and again.




   When the mind is polluted by fruitive activity, the living entity wants to be elevated from one material position to another. Generally everyone is involved in working hard day and night to improve his economic condition. Even when one understands the Vedic rituals, he becomes interested in promotion to heavenly planets, not knowing that one's real interest lies in returning home, back to Godhead. By acting on the platform of fruitive activity, one wanders throughout the universe in different species and forms. Unless he comes in contact with a devotee of the Lord, a guru, he does not become attached to the service of Lord Vasudeva. Knowledge of Vasudeva requires many births to understand. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (7.19): vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah. After struggling for existence for many births one may take shelter at the lotus feet of Vasudeva, Krsna. When this happens. one actually becomes wise and surrenders unto Him. That is the only way to stop the repetition of birth and death. This is confirmed in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 19.151) in the instructions given by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Srila Rupa Gosvami at Dasasvamedha-ghata.


                brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva

               guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija


   The living entity wanders throughout different planets in different forms and bodies, but if by chance he comes in contact with a bona fide spiritual master, by the grace of the spiritual master he receives Lord Krsna's shelter, and his devotional life begins.


                                TEXT 7




                    yada na pasyaty ayatha guneham

                  svarthe pramattah sahasa vipascit

                   gata-smrtir vindati tatra tapan

                    asadya maithunyam agaram ajnah




   yada--when; na--not; pasyati--sees; ayatha--unnecessary; guna-iham--endeavor to satisfy the senses; sva-arthe--in self-interest; pramattah--mad; sahasa--very soon; vipascit--even one advanced in knowledge; gata-smrtih--being forgetful; vindati--gets; tatra--there; tapan--material miseries; asadya--getting; maithunyam--based on sexual intercourse; agaram--a home; ajnah--being foolish.




   Even though one may be very learned and wise, he is mad if he does not understand that the endeavor for sense gratification is a useless waste of time. Being forgetful of his own interest, he tries to be happy in the material world, centering his interests around his home, which is based on sexual intercourse and which brings him all kinds of material miseries. In this way one is no better than a foolish animal.




   In the lowest stage of devotional life, one is not an unalloyed devotee. Anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam: to be an unalloyed devotee, one must be freed from all material desires and untouched by fruitive activity and speculative knowledge. On the lower platform, one may sometimes be interested in philosophical speculation with a tinge of devotion. However, at that stage one is still interested in sense gratification and is contaminated by the modes of material nature. The influence of maya is so strong that even a person advanced in knowledge actually forgets that he is Krsna's eternal servant. Therefore he remains satisfied in his householder life, which is centered around sexual intercourse. Conceding to a life of sex, he agrees to suffer all kinds of material miseries. Due to ignorance, one is thus bound by the chain of material laws.


                                TEXT 8




                  pumsah striya mithuni-bhavam etam

                   tayor mitho hrdaya-granthim ahuh

                   ato grha-ksetra-sutapta-vittair

                    janasya moho 'yam aham mameti




   pumsah--of a male; striyah--of a female; mithuni-bhavam--attraction for sexual life; etam--this; tayoh--of both of them; mithah--between one another; hrdaya-granthim--the knot of the hearts; ahuh--they call; atah--thereafter; grha--by home; ksetra--field; suta--children; apta--relatives; vittaih--and by wealth; janasya--of the living being; mohah--illusion; ayam--this; aham--I; mama--mine; iti--thus.




   The attraction between male and female is the basic principle of material existence. On the basis of this misconception, which ties together the hearts of the male and female, one becomes attracted to his body, home, property, children, relatives and wealth. In this way one increases life's illusions and thinks in terms of "I and mine."




   Sex serves as the natural attraction between man and woman, and when they are married, their relationship becomes more involved. Due to the entangling relationship between man and woman, there is a sense of illusion whereby one thinks, "This man is my husband," or "This woman is my wife." This is called hrdaya-granthi, "the hard knot in the heart." This knot is very difficult to undo, even though a man and woman separate either for the principles of varnasrama or simply to get a divorce. In any case, the man always thinks of the woman, and the woman always thinks of the man. Thus a person becomes materially attached to family, property and children, although all of these are temporary. The possessor unfortunately identifies with his property and wealth. Sometimes, even after renunciation, one becomes attached to a temple or to the few things that constitute the property of a sannyasi, but such attachment is not as strong as family attachment. The attachment to the family is the strongest illusion. In the Satya-samhita, it is stated:


                       brahmadya yajnavalkadya

                       mucyante stri-sahayinah

                        bodhyante kecanaitesam

                        visesam ca vido viduh


   Sometimes it is found among exalted personalities like Lord Brahma that the wife and children are not a cause of bondage. On the contrary, the wife actually helps further spiritual life and liberation. Nonetheless, most people are bound by the knots of the marital relationship, and consequently they forget their relationship with Krsna.


                                TEXT 9




                    yada mano-hrdaya-granthir asya

                    karmanubaddho drdha aslatheta

                   tada janah samparivartate 'smad

                   muktah param yaty atihaya hetum




   yada--when; manah--the mind; hrdaya-granthih--the knot in the heart; asya--of this person; karma-anubaddhah--bound by the results of his past deeds; drdhah--very strong; aslatheta--becomes slackened; tada--at that time; janah--the conditioned soul; samparivartate--turns away; asmat--from this attachment for sex life; muktah--liberated; param--to the transcendental world; yati--goes; atihaya--giving up; hetum--the original cause.




   When the strong knot in the heart of a person implicated in material life due to the results of past action is slackened, one turns away from his attachment to home, wife and children. In this way, one gives up the basic principle of illusion [I and mine] and becomes liberated. Thus one goes to the transcendental world.




   When, by associating with sadhus and engaging in devotional service. one is gradually freed from the material conception due to knowledge. practice and detachment, the knot of attachment in the heart is slackened. Thus one can get freed from conditional life and become eligible to return home, back to Godhead.


                             TEXTS 10-13




                   hamse gurau mayi bhaktyanuvrtya

                    vitrsnaya dvandva-titiksaya ca

                    sarvatra jantor vyasanavagatya

                     jijnasaya tapaseha-nivrttya


                 mat-karmabhir mat-kathaya ca nityam

                   mad-deva-sangad guna-kirtanan me

                     nirvaira-samyopasamena putra

                    jihasaya deha-gehatma-buddheh


                    adhyatma-yogena vivikta-sevaya

                   pranendriyatmabhijayena sadhryak

                 sac-chraddhaya brahmacaryena sasvad

                      asampramadena yamena vacam


                    sarvatra mad-bhava-vicaksanena

                      jnanena vijnana-virajitena

                   yogena dhrty-udyama-sattva-yukto

                  lingam vyapohet kusalo 'ham-akhyam




   hamse--who is a paramahamsa, or the most exalted. spiritually advanced person; gurau--to the spiritual master; mayi--unto Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhaktya--by devotional service; anuvrtya--by following; vitrsnaya--by detachment from sense gratification; dvandva--of the dualities of the material world; titiksaya--by tolerance; ca--also; sarvatra--everywhere; jantoh--of the living entity; vyasana--the miserable condition of life; avagatya--by realizing; jijnasaya--by inquiring about the truth; tapasa--by practicing austerities and penances; iha-nivrttya--by giving up the endeavor for sense enjoyment; mat-karmabhih--by working for Me; mat-kathaya--by hearing topics about Me; ca--also; nityam--always; mat-deva-sangat--by association with My devotees; guna-kirtanat me--by chanting and glorifying My transcendental qualities; nirvaira--being without enmity; samya--seeing everyone equally by spiritual understanding; upasamena--by subduing anger, lamentation and so on; putrah--O sons; jihasaya--by desiring to give up; deha--with the body; geha--with the home; atma-buddheh--identification of the self; adhyatma-yogena--by study of the revealed scriptures; vivikta-sevaya--by living in a solitary place; prana--the life air; indriya--the senses; atma--the mind; abhijayena--by controlling; sadhryak--completely; sat-sraddhaya--by developing faith in the scriptures; brahmacaryena--by observing celibacy; sasvat--always; asampramadena--by not being bewildered; yamena--by restraint; vacam--of words; sarvatra--everywhere; mat-bhava--thinking of Me; vicaksanena--by observing; jnanena--by development of knowledge; vijnana--by practical application of knowledge; virajitena--illumined; yogena--by practice of bhakti-yoga; dhrti--patience; udyama--enthusiasm; sattva--discretion; yuktah--endowed with; lingam--the cause of material bondage; vyapohet--one can give up; kusalah--in full auspiciousness; aham-akhyam--false ego, false identification with the material world.




   O My sons, you should accept a highly elevated paramahamsa, a spiritually advanced spiritual master. In this way, you should place your faith and love in Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. You should detest sense gratification and tolerate the duality of pleasure and pain, which are like the seasonal changes of summer and winter. Try to realize the miserable condition of living entities, who are miserable even in the higher planetary systems. Philosophically inquire about the truth. Then undergo all kinds of austerities and penances for the sake of devotional service. Give up the endeavor for sense enjoyment and engage in the service of the Lord. Listen to discussions about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and always associate with devotees. Chant about and glorify the Supreme Lord, and look upon everyone equally on the spiritual platform. Give up enmity and subdue anger and lamentation. Abandon identifying the self with the body and the home, and practice reading the revealed scriptures. Live in a secluded place and practice the process by which you can completely control your life air, mind and senses. Have full faith in the revealed scriptures, the Vedic literatures, and always observe celibacy. Perform your prescribed duties and avoid unnecessary talks. Always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, acquire knowledge from the right source. Thus practicing bhakti-yoga, you will patiently and enthusiastically be elevated in knowledge and will be able to give up the false ego.




   In these four verses, Rsabhadeva tells His sons how they can be freed from the false identification arising from false ego and material conditional life. One gradually becomes liberated by practicing as mentioned above. All these prescribed methods enable one to give up the material body (lingam vyapohet) and be situated in his original spiritual body. First of all one has to accept a bona fide spiritual master. This is advocated by Srila Rupa Gosvami in his Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu: sri-guru-padasrayah. To be freed from the entanglement of the material world, one has to approach a spiritual master. Tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet. By questioning the spiritual master and by serving him, one can advance in spiritual life. When one engages in devotional service, naturally the attraction for personal comfort--for eating, sleeping and dressing--is reduced. By associating with the devotee, a spiritual standard is maintained. The word mad-deva-sangat is very important. There are many so-called religions devoted to the worship of various demigods, but here good association means association with one who simply accepts Krsna as his worshipable Deity.

   Another important item is dvandva-titiksa. As long as one is situated in the material world, there must be pleasure and pain arising from the material body. As Krsna advises in Bhagavad-gita, tams titiksasva bharata. One has to learn how to tolerate the temporary pains and pleasures of this material world. One must also be detached from his family and practice celibacy. Sex with one's wife according to the scriptural injunctions is also accepted as brahmacarya (celibacy), but illicit sex is opposed to religious principles, and it hampers advancement in spiritual consciousness. Another important word is vijnana-virajita. Everything should be done very scientifically and consciously. One should be a realized soul. In this way, one can give up the entanglement of material bondage.

   As Sri Madhvacarya points out, the sum and substance of these four slokas is that one should refrain from acting out of a desire for sense gratification and should instead always engage in the Lord's loving service. In other words, bhakti-yoga is the acknowledged path of liberation. Srila Madhvacarya quotes from the Adhyatma:


                        atmano 'vihitam karma


                         kamasya ca parityago

                        nirihety ahur uttamah


   One should perform activities only for the benefit of the soul; any other activity should be given up. When a person is situated in this way, he is said to be desireless. Actually a living entity cannot be totally desireless, but when he desires the benefit of the soul and nothing else, he is said to be desireless.

   Spiritual knowledge is jnana-vijnana-samanvitam. When one is fully equipped with jnana and vijnana, he is perfect. Jnana means that one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, to be the Supreme Being. Vijnana refers to the activities that liberate one from the ignorance of material existence. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.31): jnanam parama-guhyam me yad vijnana-samanvitam. Knowledge of the Supreme Lord is very confidential, and the supreme knowledge by which one understands Him furthers the liberation of all living entities. This knowledge is vijnana. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):


                       janma karma ca me divyam

                       evam yo vetti tattvatah

                      tyaktva deham punar janma

                       naiti mam eti so 'rjuna


   "One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna."


                               TEXT 14




                  karmasayam hrdaya-granthi-bandham

                      avidyayasaditam apramattah

                      anena yogena yathopadesam

                    samyag vyapohyoparameta yogat




   karma-asayam--the desire for fruitive activities; hrdaya-granthi--the knot in the heart; bandham--bondage; avidyaya--because of ignorance; asaditam--brought about; apramattah--not being covered by ignorance or illusion, very careful; anena--by this; yogena--practice of yoga; yatha-upadesam--as advised; samyak--completely; vyapohya--becoming free from; uparameta--one should desist; yogat--from the practice of yoga, the means of liberation.




   As I have advised you, My dear sons, you should act accordingly. Be very careful. By these means you will be freed from the ignorance of the desire for fruitive activity, and the knot of bondage in the heart will be completely severed. For further advancement, you should also give up the means. That is, you should not become attached to the process of liberation itself.




   The process of liberation is brahma jijnasa, the search for the Absolute Truth. Generally brahma jijnasa is called neti neti, the process by which one analyzes existence to search out the Absolute Truth. This method continues as long as one is not situated in his spiritual life. Spiritual life is brahma-bhuta, the self-realized state. In the words of Bhagavad-gita (18.54):


                      brahma-bhutah prasannatma

                        na socati na kanksati

                        samah sarvesu bhutesu

                      mad-bhaktim labhate param


   "One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires to have anything; he is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state. he attains pure devotional service unto Me."

   The idea is to enter into the para bhakti, the transcendental devotional service of the Supreme Lord. To attain this, one must analyze ones existence, but when one is actually engaged in devotional service, he should not bother seeking out knowledge. By simply engaging in devotional service undeviatingly, one will always remain in the liberated condition.


                       mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena

                         bhakti-yogena sevate

                        sa gunan samatityaitan

                        brahma-bhuyaya kalpate


   (Bg. 14.26)


   The unflinching execution of devotional service is in itself brahma-bhuta. Another important feature in this connection is anena yogena yathopadesam. The instructions received from the spiritual master must be followed immediately. One should not deviate from or surpass the instructions of the spiritual master. One should not be simply intent on consulting books but should simultaneously execute the spiritual master's order (yathopadesam). Mystic power should be achieved to enable one to give up the material conception, but when one actually engages in devotional service, one does not need to practice the mystic yoga system. The point is that one can give up the practice of yoga, but devotional service cannot be given up. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.10):


                         atmaramas ca munayo

                       nirgrantha apy urukrame

                      kurvanty ahaitukim bhaktim

                       ittham-bhuta-guno harih


   Even those who are liberated (atmarama) must always engage in devotional service. One may give up the practice of yoga when one is self-realized, but at no stage can one give up devotional service. All other activities for self-realization, including yoga and philosophical speculation, may be given up, but devotional service must be retained at all times.


                               TEXT 15




                 putrams ca sisyams ca nrpo gurur va

                   mal-loka-kamo mad-anugraharthah

                 ittham vimanyur anusisyad ataj-jnan

                   na yojayet karmasu karma-mudhan

                  kam yojayan manujo 'rtham labheta

                    nipatayan nasta-drsam hi garte




   putran--the sons; ca--and; sisyan--the disciples; ca--and; nrpah--the king; guruh--the spiritual master; va--or; mat-loka-kamah--desiring to go to My abode; mat-anugraha-arthah--thinking that to achieve My mercy is the aim of life; ittham--in this manner; vimanyuh--free from anger; anusisyat--should instruct; a-tat-jnan--bereft of spiritual knowledge; na--not; yojayet--should engage; karmasu--in fruitive activities; karma-mudhan--simply engaged in pious or impious activities; kam--what; yojayan--engaging; manu-jah--a man; artham--benefit; labheta--can achieve; nipatayan--causing to fall; nasta-drsam--one who is already bereft of his transcendental sight; hi--indeed; garte--in the hole.




   If one is serious about going back home, back to Godhead, he must consider the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead the summum bonum and chief aim of life. If he is a father instructing his sons, a spiritual master instructing his disciples, or a king instructing his citizens, he must instruct them as I have advised. Without being angry, he should continue giving instructions, even if his disciple, son or citizen is sometimes unable to follow his order. Ignorant people who engage in pious and impious activities should be engaged in devotional service by all means. They should always avoid fruitive activity. If one puts into the bondage of karmic activity his disciple, son or citizen who is bereft of transcendental vision, how will one profit? It is like leading a blind man to a dark well and causing him to fall in.




   It is stated in Bhagavad-gita (3.26):


                       na buddhi-bhedam janayed

                        ajnanam karma-sanginam

                        josayet sarva-karmani

                       vidvan yuktah samacaran


   "Let not the wise disrupt the minds of the ignorant who are attached to fruitive action. They should be encouraged not to refrain from work, but to work in the spirit of devotion."


                               TEXT 16




                  lokah svayam sreyasi nasta-drstir

                   yo 'rthan samiheta nikama-kamah

                   anyonya-vairah sukha-lesa-hetor

                   ananta-duhkham ca na veda mudhah




   lokah--people; svayam--personally; sreyasi--of the path of auspiciousness; nasta-drstih--who have lost sight; yah--who; arthan--things meant for sense gratification; samiheta--desire; nikama-kamah--having too many lusty desires for sense enjoyment; anyonya-vairah--being envious of one another; sukha-lesa-hetoh--simply for temporary material happiness; ananta-duhkham--unlimited sufferings; ca--also; na--do not; veda--know; mudhah--foolish.




   Due to ignorance, the materialistic person does not know anything about his real self-interest, the auspicious path in life. He is simply bound to material enjoyment by lusty desires, and all his plans are made for this purpose. For temporary sense gratification, such a person creates a society of envy, and due to this mentality, he plunges into the ocean of suffering. Such a foolish person does not even know about this.




   The word nasta-drstih, meaning "one who has no eyes to see the future," is very significant in this verse. Life goes on from one body to another, and the activities performed in this life are enjoyed or suffered in the next life, if not later in this life. One who is unintelligent, who has no eyes to see the future, simply creates enmity and fights with others for sense gratification. As a result, one suffers in the next life, but due to being like a blind man, he continues to act in such a way that he suffers unlimitedly. Such a person is a mudha, one who simply wastes his time and does not understand the Lord's devotional service. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.25):


                       naham prakasah sarvasya


                        mudho 'yam nabhijanati

                        loko mam ajam avyayam


   "I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency [yogamaya]; and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible."

   In the Katha Upanisad it is also said: avidyayam antare vartamanah svayam dhirah panditam manyamanah. Although ignorant, people still go to other blind men for leadership. As a result. both are subjected to miserable conditions. The blind lead the blind into the ditch.


                               TEXT 17




                 kas tam svayam tad-abhijno vipascid

                     avidyayam antare vartamanam

                 drstva punas tam saghrnah kubuddhim

                   prayojayed utpathagam yathandham




   kah--who is that person; tam--him; svayam--personally; tat-abhijnah--knowing spiritual knowledge; vipascit--a learned scholar; avidyayam antare--in ignorance; vartamanam--existing; drstva--seeing; punah--again; tam--him; sa-ghrnah--very merciful; ku-buddhim--who is addicted to the path of samsara; prayojayet--would engage; utpatha-gam--who is proceeding on the wrong path; yatha--like; andham--a blind man.




   If someone is ignorant and addicted to the path of samsara, how can one who is actually learned, merciful and advanced in spiritual knowledge engage him in fruitive activity and thus further entangle him in material existence? If a blind man is walking down the wrong path, how can a gentleman allow him to continue on his way to danger? How can he approve this method? No wise or kind man can allow this.


                               TEXT 18




                 gurur na sa syat sva-jano na sa syat

                  pita na sa syaj janani na sa syat

                daivam na tat syan na patis ca sa syan

                    na mocayed yah samupeta-mrtyum




   guruh--a spiritual master; na--not; sah--he; syat--should become; sva-janah--a relative; na--not; sah--such a person; syat--should become; pita--a father; na--not; sah--he; syat--should become; janani--a mother; na--not; sa--she; syat--should become; daivam--the worshipable deity; na--not; tat--that; syat--should become; na--not; patih--a husband; ca--also; sah--he; syat--should become; na--not; mocayet--can deliver; yah--who; samupeta-mrtyum--one who is on the path of repeated birth and death.




   "One who cannot deliver his dependents from the path of repeated birth and death should never become a spiritual master, a father, a husband, a mother or a worshipable demigod.




   There are many spiritual masters, but Rsabhadeva advises that one should not become a spiritual master if he is unable to save his disciple from the path of birth and death. Unless one is a pure devotee of Krsna. he cannot save himself from the path of repeated birth and death. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so'rjuna. One can stop birth and death only by returning home, back to Godhead. However. who can go back to Godhead unless he understands the Supreme Lord in truth? Janma karma ca me divyam evam yo vetti tattvatah.

   We have many instances in history illustrating Rsabhadeva's instructions. Sukracarya was rejected by Bali Maharaja due to his inability to save Bali Maharaja from the path of repeated birth and death. Sukracarya was not a pure devotee, he was more or less inclined to fruitive activity, and he objected when Bali Maharaja promised to give everything to Lord Visnu. Actually one is supposed to give everything to the Lord because everything belongs to the Lord. Consequently, the Supreme Lord advises in Bhagavad-gita (9.27):


                        yat karosi yad asnasi

                        yaj juhosi dadasi yat

                        yat tapasyasi kaunteya

                       tat kurusva mad-arpanam


   "O son of Kunti, all that you do, all that you eat, all that you offer and give away, as well as all austerities that you may perform, should be done as an offering unto Me." This is bhakti. Unless one is devoted, he cannot give everything to the Supreme Lord. Unless one can do so, he cannot become a spiritual master, husband, father or mother. Similarly, the wives of the brahmanas who were performing sacrifices gave up their relatives just to satisfy Krsna. This is an example of a wife rejecting a husband who cannot deliver her from the impending dangers of birth and death. Similarly, Prahlada Maharaja rejected his father, and Bharata Maharaja rejected his mother (janani na sa syat). The word daivam indicates a demigod or one who accepts worship from a dependent. Ordinarily, the spiritual master, husband, father, mother or superior relative accepts worship from an inferior relative, but here Rsabhadeva forbids this. First the father, spiritual master or husband must be able to release the dependent from repeated birth and death. If he cannot do this, he plunges himself into the ocean of reproachment for his unlawful activities. Everyone should be very responsible and take charge of his dependents just as a spiritual master takes charge of his disciple or a father takes charge of his son. All these responsibilities cannot be discharged honestly unless one can save the dependent from repeated birth and death.


                               TEXT 19




                    idam sariram mama durvibhavyam

                 sattvam hi me hrdayam yatra dharmah

                   prsthe krto me yad adharma arad

                   ato hi mam rsabham prahur aryah




   idam--this; sariram--transcendental body, sac-cid-ananda-vigraha; mama--My; durvibhavyam--inconceivable; sattvam--with no tinge of the material modes of nature; hi--indeed; me--My; hrdayam--heart; yatra--wherein; dharmah--the real platform of religion, bhakti-yoga; prsthe--on the back; krtah--made; me--by Me; yat--because; adharmah--irreligion; arat--far away; atah--therefore; hi--indeed; mam--Me; rsabham--the best of the living beings; prahuh--call; aryah--those who are advanced in spiritual life, or the respectable superiors.




   My transcendental body [sac-cid-ananda-vigraha] looks exactly like a human form, but it is not a material human body. It is inconceivable. I am not forced by nature to accept a particular type of body; I take on a body by My own sweet will. My heart is also spiritual, and I always think of the welfare of My devotees. Therefore within My heart can be found the process of devotional service, which is meant for the devotees. Far from My heart have I abandoned irreligion [adharma] and nondevotional activities. They do not appeal to Me. Due to all these transcendental qualities, people generally pray to Me as Rsabhadeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the best of all living entities.




   In this verse the words idam sariram mama durvibhavyam are very significant. Generally we experience two energies--material energy and spiritual energy. We have some experience of the material energy (earth. water, air, fire, ether, mind, intelligence and ego) because in the material world everyone's body is composed of these elements. Within the material body is the spirit soul, but we cannot see it with the material eyes. When we see a body full of spiritual energy, it is very difficult for us to understand how the spiritual energy can have a body. It is said that Lord Rsabhadeva's body is completely spiritual; therefore for a materialistic person, it is very difficult to understand. For a materialistic person, the completely spiritual body is inconceivable. We have to accept the version of the Vedas when our experimental perception cannot understand a subject. As stated in Brahma-samhita: isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah. The Supreme Lord has a body with form, but that body is not composed of material elements. It is made of spiritual bliss, eternity and living force. By the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Lord can appear before us in His original spiritual body, but because we have no experience of the spiritual body, we are sometimes bewildered and see the form of the Lord as material. The Mayavadi philosophers are completely unable to conceive of a spiritual body. They say that the spirit is always impersonal, and whenever they see something personal, they take it for granted that it is material. In Bhagavad-gita (9.11) it is said:


                         avajananti mam mudha

                        manusim tanum asritam

                        param bhavam ajananto

                        mama bhuta-mahesvaram


   "Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be."

   Unintelligent people think that the Supreme Lord accepts a body composed of the material energy. We can easily understand the material body, but we cannot understand the spiritual body. Therefore Rsabhadeva says: idam sariram mama durvibhavyam. In the spiritual world, everyone has a spiritual body. There is no conception of material existence there. In the spiritual world there is only service and the receiving of service. There is only sevya, seva, and sevaka--the person served, the process of service and the servant. These three items are completely spiritual, and therefore the spiritual world is called absolute. There is no tinge of material contamination there. Being completely transcendental to the material conception, Lord Rsabhadeva states that His heart is composed of dharma. Dharma is explained in Bhagavad-gita (18.66): sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja. In the spiritual world, every living entity is surrendered to the Supreme Lord and is completely on the spiritual platform. Although there are servitors, the served and service, all are spiritual and variegated. At the present moment, due to our material conception. everything is durvibhavya, inconceivable. Being the Supreme, the Lord is called Rsabha, the best. In terms of the Vedic language, nityo nityanam. We are also spiritual. but we are subordinate. Krsna, the Supreme Lord, is the foremost living entity. The word rsabha means "the chief," or "the supreme," and indicates the Supreme Being, or God Himself.


                               TEXT 20




                    tasmad bhavanto hrdayena jatah

                    sarve mahiyamsam amum sanabham

                 aklista-buddhya bharatam bhajadhvam

                   susrusanam tad bharanam prajanam




   tasmat--therefore (because I am the Supreme); bhavantah--you; hrdayena--from My heart; jatah--born; sarve--all; mahiyamsam--the best; amum--that; sa-nabham--brother; aklista-buddhya--with your intelligence, without material contamination; bharatam--Bharata; bhajadhvam--just try to serve; susrusanam--service; tat--that; bharanam prajanam--ruling over the citizens.




   My dear boys, you are all born of My heart, which is the seat of all spiritual qualities. Therefore you should not be like materialistic and envious men. You should accept your eldest brother, Bharata, who is exalted in devotional service. If you engage yourselves in Bharata's service, your service to him will include My service, and you will rule the citizens automatically.




   In this verse the word hrdaya indicates the heart, which is also called urah, the chest. The heart is situated within the chest, and although instrumentally the son is born with the aid of the genitals, he is actually born from within the heart. According to the heart's situation. the semen takes the form of a body. Therefore according to the Vedic system, when one begets a child his heart should be purified through the ritualistic ceremony known as garbhadhana. Rsabhadeva's heart was always uncontaminated and spiritual. Consequently all the sons born from the heart of Rsabhadeva were spiritually inclined. Nonetheless. Rsabhadeva suggested that His eldest son was superior, and He advised the others to serve him. All the brothers of Bharata Maharaja were advised by Rsabhadeva to adhere to Bharata's service. The question may be asked why one should be attached to family members, for in the beginning it was advised that one should not be attached to home and family. However, it is also advised, mahiyasam pada-rajo-'bhiseka--one has to serve the mahiyan, one who is very spiritually advanced. Mahat-sevam dvaram ahur vimukteh: by serving the mahat, the exalted devotee, one's path for liberation is open. The family of Rsabhadeva should not be compared to an ordinary materialistic family. Bharata Maharaja, Rsabhadeva's eldest son, was specifically very exalted. For this reason the other sons were advised to serve him for his pleasure. That was to be their duty.

   The Supreme Lord was advising Bharata Maharaja to be the chief ruler of the planet. This is the real plan of the Supreme Lord. In the Battle of Kuruksetra, we find that Lord Krsna wanted Maharaja Yudhisthira to be the supreme emperor of this planet. He never wanted Duryodhana to take the post. As stated in the previous verse, Lord Rsabhadeva's heart is hrdayam yatra dharmah. The characteristic dharma is also explained in Bhagavad-gita: surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To protect dharma (paritranaya sadhunam). the Lord always wants the ruler of the earth to be a devotee. Then everything goes on nicely for the benefit of everyone. As soon as a demon rules the earth, everything becomes chaotic. At the present moment, the world is inclined toward the democratic process, but the people in general are all contaminated by the modes of passion and ignorance. Consequently they cannot select the right person to head the government. The president is selected by the votes of ignorant sudras; therefore another sudra is elected, and immediately the entire government becomes polluted. If people strictly followed the principles of Bhagavad-gita, they would elect a person who is the Lord's devotee. Then automatically there would be good government. Rsabhadeva therefore recommended Bharata Maharaja as the emperor of this planet. Serving a devotee means serving the Supreme Lord, for a devotee always represents the Lord. When a devotee is in charge, the government is always congenial and beneficial for everyone.


                             TEXTS 21-22




                    bhutesu virudbhya uduttama ye

                    sarisrpas tesu sabodha-nisthah

                   tato manusyah pramathas tato 'pi

                   gandharva-siddha vibudhanuga ye


                    devasurebhyo maghavat-pradhana

                   daksadayo brahma-sutas tu tesam

                 bhavah parah so 'tha virinca-viryah

                  sa mat-paro 'ham dvija-deva-devah




   bhutesu--among things generated (with and without symptoms of life); virudbhyah--than the plants; uduttamah--far superior; ye--those who; sarisrpah--moving entities like worms and snakes; tesu--of them; sa-bodha-nisthah--those who have developed intelligence; tatah--than them; manusyah--the human beings; pramathah--the ghostly spirits; tatah api--better than them; gandharva--the inhabitants of Gandharvaloka (appointed singers in the planets of the demigods); siddhah--the inhabitants of Siddhaloka, who have all mystic powers; vibudha-anugah--the Kinnaras; ye--those who; deva--the demigods; asurebhyah--than the asuras; maghavat-pradhanah--headed by Indra; daksa-adayah--beginning with Daksa; brahma-sutah--the direct sons of Brahma; tu--then; tesam--of them; bhavah--Lord Siva; parah--the best; sah--he (Lord Siva); atha--moreover; virinca-viryah--producing from Lord Brahma; sah--he (Brahma); mat-parah--My devotee; aham--I; dvija-deva-devah--a worshiper of the brahmanas, or the Lord of the brahmanas.




   Of the two energies manifest [spirit and dull matter], beings possessing living force [vegetables, grass, trees and plants] are superior to dull matter [stone, earth, etc.]. Superior to nonmoving plants and vegetables are worms and snakes, which can move. Superior to worms and snakes are animals that have developed intelligence. Superior to animals are human beings, and superior to human beings are ghosts because they have no material bodies. Superior to ghosts are the Gandharvas, and superior to them are the Siddhas. Superior to the Siddhas are the Kinnaras, and superior to them are the asuras. Superior to the asuras are the demigods, and of the demigods, Indra, the King of heaven, is supreme. Superior to Indra are the direct sons of Lord Brahma, sons like King Daksa, and supreme among Brahma's sons is Lord Siva. Since Lord Siva is the son of Lord Brahma, Brahma is considered superior, but Brahma is also subordinate to Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because I am inclined to the brahmanas, the brahmanas are best of all.




   In this verse the brahmanas are given a position superior to that of the Supreme Lord. The idea is that the government should be conducted under the guidance of the brahmanas. Although Rsabhadeva recommended His eldest son, Bharata, as emperor of the earth, he still had to follow the instructions of the brahmanas in order to govern the world perfectly. The Lord is worshiped as brahmanya-deva. The Lord is very fond of devotees, or brahmanas. This does not refer to so-called caste brahmanas, but to qualified brahmanas. A brahmana should be qualified with the eight qualities mentioned in text 24, such as sama, dama, satya and titiksa. The brahmanas should always be worshiped. and under their guidance the ruler should discharge his duty and rule the citizens. Unfortunately, in this age of Kali, the executive is not selected by very intelligent people, nor is he guided by qualified brahmanas. Consequently, chaos results. The mass of people should be educated in Krsna consciousness so that according to the democratic process they can select a first-class devotee like Bharata Maharaja to head the government. If the head of the state is headed by qualified brahmanas, everything is completely perfect.

   In this verse, the evolutionary process is indirectly mentioned. The modern theory that life evolves from matter is to some extent supported in this verse because it is stated, bhutesu virudbhyah. That is, the living entities evolve from vegetables, grass, plants and trees, which are superior to dull matter. In other words, matter also has the potency to manifest living entities in the form of vegetables. In this sense, life comes out of matter, but matter also comes out of life. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (10.8), aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate: "I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me."

   There are two energies--material and spiritual--and both originally come from Krsna. Krsna is the supreme living being. Although it may be said that in the material world a living force is generated from matter, it must be admitted that originally matter is generated from the supreme living being. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam. The conclusion is that everything, both material and spiritual, is generated from the Supreme Being. From the evolutionary point of view, perfection is reached when the living entity attains the platform of a brahmana. A brahmana is a worshiper of the Supreme Brahman, and the Supreme Brahman worships the brahmana. In other words, the devotee is subordinate to the Supreme Lord, and the Lord is inclined to see to the satisfaction of His devotee. A brahmana is called dvija-deva, and the Lord is called dvija-deva-deva. He is the Lord of brahmanas.

   The evolutionary process is also explained in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya, Chapter Nineteen), wherein it is said that there are two types of living entities--moving and nonmoving. Among moving entities. there are birds, beasts. aquatics, human beings and so on. Of these. the human beings are supposed to be the best, but they are few. Of these small numbers of human beings, there are many low-class human beings like mlecchas, Pulindas, bauddhas and sabaras. The human being elevated enough to accept the Vedic principles is superior. Among those who accept the Vedic principles generally known as varnasrama (presently known as the Hindu system), few actually follow these principles. Of those who actually follow the Vedic principles, most perform fruitive activity or pious activity for elevation to a high position. Manusyanam sahasresu kascid yatati siddhaye: out of many attached to fruitive activity, one may be a jnani--that is, one philosophically inclined and superior to the karmis. Yatatam api siddhanam kascin mam vetti tattvatah: out of many jnanis, one may be liberated from material bondage, and out of many millions of liberated jnanis, one may become a devotee of Krsna.


                               TEXT 23




                  na brahmanais tulaye bhutam anyat

                   pasyami viprah kim atah param tu

                 yasmin nrbhih prahutam sraddhayaham

                    asnami kamam na tathagni-hotre




   na--not; brahmanaih--with the brahmanas; tulaye--I count as equal; bhutam--entity; anyat--other; pasyami--I can see; viprah--O assembled brahmanas; kim--anything; atah--to the brahmanas; param--superior; tu--certainly; yasmin--through whom; nrbhih--by people; prahutam--food offered after ritualistic ceremonies are properly performed; sraddhaya--with faith and love; aham--I; asnami--eat; kamam--with full satisfaction; na--not; tatha--in that way; agni-hotre--in the fire sacrifice.




   O respectful brahmanas, as far as I am concerned, no one is equal or superior to the brahmanas in this world. I do not find anyone comparable to them. When people know My motive after performing rituals according to the Vedic principles, they offer food to Me with faith and love through the mouth of a brahmana. When food is thus offered unto Me, I eat it with full satisfaction. Indeed, I derive more pleasure from food offered in that way than from the food offered in the sacrificial fire.




   According to the Vedic system, after the sacrificial ceremony the brahmanas are invited to eat the remnants of the offered food. When the brahmanas eat the food, it is to be considered directly eaten by the Supreme Lord. Thus no one can be compared to qualified brahmanas. The perfection of evolution is to be situated on the brahminical platform. Any civilization not based on brahminical culture or guided by brahmanas is certainly a condemned civilization. Presently human civilization is based on sense gratification, and consequently more and more people are becoming addicted to different types of things. No one respects brahminical culture. Demoniac civilization is attached to ugra-karma, horrible activities. and big industries are created to satisfy unfathomable lusty desires. Consequently the people are greatly harassed by governmental taxation. The people are irreligious and do not perform the sacrifices recommended in Bhagavad-gita. Yajnad bhavati parjanyah: by the performance of sacrifice, clouds form and rain falls. Due to sufficient rainfall, there is sufficient production of food. Guided by the brahmanas, society should follow the principles of Bhagavad-gita. Then people will become very happy. Annad bhavanti bhutani: when animals and man are sufficiently fed with grains, they become stronger, their hearts become tranquil and their brains peaceful. They can then advance in spiritual life, life's ultimate destination.


                               TEXT 24




                     dhrta tanur usati me purani

                   yeneha sattvam paramam pavitram

                    samo damah satyam anugrahas ca

                    tapas titiksanubhavas ca yatra




   dhrta--maintained by transcendental education; tanuh--body; usati--free from material contamination; me--My; purani--eternal; yena--by whom; iha--in this material world; sattvam--the mode of goodness; paramam--supreme; pavitram--purified; samah--control of the mind; damah--control of the senses; satyam--truthfulness; anugrahah--mercy; ca--and; tapah--austerity; titiksa--tolerance; anubhavah--realization of God and the living entity; ca--and; yatra--wherein.




   The Vedas are My eternal transcendental sound incarnation. Therefore the Vedas are sabda-brahma. In this world, the brahmanas thoroughly study all the Vedas, and because they assimilate the Vedic conclusions, they are also to be considered the Vedas personified. The brahmanas are situated in the supreme transcendental mode of nature--sattva-guna. Because of this, they are fixed in mind control [sama], sense control [dama], and truthfulness [satya]. They describe the Vedas in their original sense, and out of mercy [anugraha] they preach the purpose of the Vedas to all conditioned souls. They practice penance [tapasya] and tolerance [titiksa], and they realize the position of the living entity and the Supreme Lord [anubhava]. These are the eight qualifications of the brahmanas. Therefore among all living entities, no one is superior to the brahmanas.




   This is a true description of a brahmana. A brahmana is one who has assimilated the Vedic conclusions by practicing mind and sense control. He speaks the true version of all the Vedas. As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (15.15): vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah. By studying all the Vedas, one should come to understand the transcendental position of Lord Sri Krsna. One who actually assimilated the essence of the Vedas can preach the truth. He is compassionate to conditioned souls who are suffering the threefold miseries of this conditional world due to their not being Krsna conscious. A brahmana should take pity on the people and preach Krsna consciousness in order to elevate them. Sri Krsna Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, personally descends into this universe from the spiritual kingdom to teach conditioned souls about the values of spiritual life. He tries to induce them to surrender unto Him. Similarly, the brahmanas do the same thing. After assimilating the Vedic instructions, they assist the Supreme Lord in His endeavor to deliver conditioned souls. The brahmanas are very dear to the Supreme Lord due to their high sattva-guna qualities, and they also engage in welfare activities for all conditioned souls in the material world.


                               TEXT 25




                  matto 'py anantat paratah parasmat

                   svargapavargadhipater na kincit

                    yesam kim u syad itarena tesam

                    akincananam mayi bhakti-bhajam




   mattah--from Me; api--even; anantat--unlimited in strength and opulence; paratah parasmat--higher than the highest; svarga-apavarga-adhipateh--able to bestow happiness obtainable by living in the heavenly kingdom. by liberation, or by enjoyment of material comfort and then liberation; na--not; kincit--anything; yesam--of whom; kim--what need; u--oh; syat--can there be; itarena--with any other; tesam--of them; akincananam--without needs or without possessions; mayi--unto Me; bhakti-bhajam--executing devotional service.




   I am fully opulent, almighty and superior to Lord Brahma and Indra, the King of the heavenly planets. I am also the bestower of all happiness obtained in the heavenly kingdom and by liberation. Nonetheless, the brahmanas do not seek material comforts from Me. They are very pure and do not want to possess anything. They simply engage in My devotional service. What is the need of their asking for material benefits from anyone else?




   The perfect brahminical qualification is stated herein: akincananam mayi bhakti-bhajam. The brahmanas are always engaged in the devotional service of the Lord: consequently they have no material wants, nor do they possess material things. In Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 11.8), Caitanya Mahaprabhu explains the position of pure Vaisnavas who are anxious to return home, back to Godhead. Niskincanasya bhagavad-bhajanonmukhasya. Those who actually want to return back to Godhead are niskincana--that is, they have no desire for material comfort. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu advises, sandarsanam visayinam atha yositam ca ha hanta hanta visa-bhaksanato 'py asadhu: material opulence and sense gratification through the association of women are more dangerous than poison. Brahmanas who are pure Vaisnavas always engage in the Lord's service and are devoid of any desire for material gain. The brahmanas do not worship demigods like Lord Brahma, Indra or Lord Siva for any material comfort. They do not even ask the Supreme Lord for material profit; therefore it is concluded that the brahmanas are the supreme living entities of this world. Sri Kapiladeva also confirms this in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.29.33):


                       tasman mayy arpitasesa-

                       kriyarthatma nirantarah

                       mayy arpitatmanah pumso

                       mayi sannyasta-karmanah

                       na pasyami param bhutam

                        akartuh sama-darsanat


   The brahmanas are always dedicated to the Lord's service with their bodies, words and mind. There is no better person than a brahmana who thus engages himself and dedicates himself to the Supreme Lord.


                               TEXT 26




                  sarvani mad-dhisnyataya bhavadbhis

                     carani bhutani suta dhruvani

                     sambhavitavyani pade pade vo

                  vivikta-drgbhis tad u harhanam me




   sarvani--all; mat-dhisnyataya--because of being My sitting place; bhavadbhih--by you; carani--that move; bhutani--living entities; sutah--My dear sons; dhruvani--that do not move; sambhavitavyani--to be respected; pade pade--at every moment; vah--by you; vivikta-drgbhih--possessing clear vision and understanding (that the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramatma feature is situated everywhere); tat u--that indirectly; ha--certainly; arhanam--offering respect; me--unto Me.




   My dear sons, you should not envy any living entity--be he moving or nonmoving. Knowing that I am situated in them, you should offer respect to all of them at every moment. In this way, you offer respect to Me.




   In this verse the word vivikta-drgbhih, meaning without envy. is used. All living entities are the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramatma feature. As confirmed in Brahma-samhita: andantara-stham paramanu-cayantara-stham. The Lord is situated in this universe as Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu. He is also situated within every atom. According to the Vedic statement: isavasyam idam sarvam. The Supreme Lord is situated everywhere, and wherever He is situated is His temple. We even offer respects to a temple from a distant place, and all living entities should similarly be offered respect. This is different from the theory of pantheism, which holds that everything is God. Everything has a relationship with God because God is situated everywhere. We should not make any particular distinction between the poor and the rich like the foolish worshipers of daridra-narayana. Narayana is present in the rich as well as the poor. One should not simply think Narayana is situated among the poor. He is everywhere. An advanced devotee will offer respects to everyone--even to cats and dogs.



                        brahmane gavi hastini

                        suni caiva sva-pake ca

                        panditah sama-darsinah


   "The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste]." (Bg. 5.18) This sama-darsinah, equal vision, should not be mistaken to mean that the individual is the same as the Supreme Lord. They are always distinct. Every individual person is different from the Supreme Lord. It is a mistake to equate the individual living entity with the Supreme Lord on the plea of vivikta-drk, sama-drk. The Lord is always in an exalted position, even though He agrees to live everywhere. Srila Madhvacarya, quoting Padma Purana, states: vivikta-drsti jivanam dhisnyataya paramesvarasya bheda-drstih. "One who has clear vision and who is devoid of envy can see that the Supreme Lord is separate from all living entities, although He is situated in every living entity." Madhvacarya further quotes from Padma Purana:


                        upapadayet paratmanam

                        jivebhyo yah pade pade

                       bhedenaiva na caitasmat

                       priyo visnos tu kascana


   "One who sees the living entity and the Supreme Lord as always distinct is very dear to the Lord." Padma Purana also states, yo hares caiva jivanam bheda-vakta hareh priyah: "One who preaches that the living entities are separate from the Supreme Lord is very dear to Lord Visnu."


                               TEXT 27





                   saksat-krtam me paribarhanam hi

                     vina puman yena maha-vimohat

                    krtanta-pasan na vimoktum iset




   manah--mind; vacah--words; drk--sight; karana--of the senses; ihitasya--of all activities (for maintenance of body, society, friendship and so on); saksat-krtam--directly offered; me--of Me; paribarhanam--worship; hi--because; vina--without; puman--any person; yena--which; maha-vimohat--from the great illusion; krtanta-pasat--exactly like the stringent rope of Yamaraja; na--not; vimoktum--to become free; iset--becomes able.




   The true activity of the sense organs--mind, sight, words and all the knowledge-gathering and working senses--is to engage fully in My service. Unless his senses are thus engaged, a living entity cannot think of getting out of the great entanglement of material existence, which is exactly like Yamaraja's stringent rope.




   As stated in the Narada-pancaratra:



                        tat-paratvena nirmalam

                          hrsikena hrsikesa-

                        sevanam bhaktir ucyate


   This is the conclusion of bhakti. All the time, Lord Rsabhadeva has been stressing devotional service, and now He is concluding by saying that all the senses should be engaged in the Lord's service. There are five senses by which we gather knowledge and five senses with which we work. These ten senses and the mind should be fully engaged in the Lord's service. Without engaging them in this way, one cannot get out of the clutches of maya.


                               TEXT 28




                            sri-suka uvaca


evam anusasyatmajan svayam anusistan api lokanusasanartham mahanubhavah parama-suhrd bhagavan rsabhapadesa upasama-silanam uparata-karmanam maha-muninam bhakti-jnana-vairagya-laksanam paramahamsya-dharmam upasiksamanah sva-tanaya-sata-jyestham parama-bhagavatam bhagavaj-jana-parayanam bharatam dharani-palanayabhisicya svayam bhavana evorvarita-sarira-matra-parigraha unmatta iva gagana-paridhanah prakirna-kesa atmany aropitahavaniyo brahmavartat pravavraja.




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--in this way; anusasya--after instructing; atma-jan--His sons; svayam--personally; anusistan--highly educated in culture; api--although; loka-anusasana-artham--just to instruct the people; maha-anubhavah--the great personality; parama-suhrt--everyone's sublime well-wisher; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rsabha-apadesah--who is celebrated and known as Rsabhadeva; upasama-silanam--of persons who have no desire for material enjoyment; uparata-karmanam--who are no longer interested in fruitive activities; maha-muninam--who are sannyasis; bhakti--devotional service; jnana--perfect knowledge; vairagya--detachment; laksanam--characterized by; paramahamsya--of the best of human beings; dharmam--the duties; upasiksamanah--instructing; sva-tanaya--of His sons; sata--hundred; jyestham--the eldest; parama-bhagavatam--a topmost devotee of the Lord; bhagavat-jana-parayanam--a follower of the devotees of the Lord, brahmanas and Vaisnavas; bharatam--Bharata Maharaja; dharani-palanaya--with a view to ruling the world; abhisicya--placing on the throne; svayam--personally; bhavane--at home; eva--although; urvarita--remaining; sarira-matra--the body only; parigrahah--accepting; unmattah--a madman; iva--exactly like; gagana-paridhanah--taking the sky as His dress; prakirna-kesah--having scattered hair; atmani--in Himself; aropita--keeping; ahavaniyah--the Vedic fire; brahmavartat--from the place known as Brahmavarta; pravavraja--began to travel all over the world.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: Thus the great well-wisher of everyone, the Supreme Lord Rsabhadeva, instructed His own sons. Although they were perfectly educated and cultured, He instructed them just to set an example of how a father should instruct his sons before retiring from family life. Sannyasis, who are no longer bound by fruitive activity and who have taken to devotional service after all their material desires have been vanquished, also learn by these instructions. Lord Rsabhadeva instructed His one hundred sons, of whom the eldest, Bharata, was a very advanced devotee and a follower of Vaisnavas. In order to rule the whole world, the Lord enthroned His eldest son on the royal seat. Thereafter, although still at home, Lord Rsabhadeva lived like a madman, naked and with disheveled hair. Then the Lord took the sacrificial fire within Himself, and He left Brahmavarta to tour the whole world.




   Actually the instructions given to Lord Rsabhadeva's sons were not exactly meant for His sons because they were already educated and highly advanced in knowledge. Rather, these instructions were meant for sannyasis who intend to become advanced devotees. Sannyasis must abide by Lord Rsabhadeva's instructions while on the path of devotional service. Lord Rsabhadeva retired from family life and lived like a naked madman even while still with His family.


                               TEXT 29




jadandha-muka-badhira-pisaconmadakavad-avadhuta-veso 'bhibhasyamano 'pi jananam grhita-mauna-vratas tusnim babhuva.




   jada--idle; andha--blind; muka--dumb; badhira--deaf; pisaca--ghost; unmadaka--a madman; vat--like; avadhuta-vesah--appearing like an avadhuta (having no concern with the material world); abhibhasyamanah--being thus addressed (as deaf, dumb and blind); api--although; jananam--by the people; grhita--took; mauna--of silence; vratah--the vow; tusnim babhuva--He remained silent.




   After accepting the feature of avadhuta, a great saintly person without material cares, Lord Rsabhadeva passed through human society like a blind, deaf and dumb man, an idle stone, a ghost or a madman. Although people called Him such names, He remained silent and did not speak to anyone.




   The word avadhuta refers to one who does not care for social conventions, particularly the varnasrama-dharma. However, such a person may be situated fully within himself and be satisfied with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, on whom he meditates. In other words, one who has surpassed the rules and regulations of varnasrama-dharma is called avadhuta. Such a person has already surpassed the clutches of maya, and he lives completely separate and independent.


                               TEXT 30




tatra tatra pura-gramakara-kheta-vata-kharvata-sibira-vraja-ghosa-sartha-giri-vanasramadisv anupatham avanicarapasadaih paribhuyamano maksikabhir iva vana-gajas tarjana-tadanavamehana-sthivana-grava-sakrd-rajah-praksepa-puti-vata-duruktais tad aviganayann evasat-samsthana etasmin dehopalaksane sad-apadesa ubhayanubhava-svarupena sva-mahimavasthanenasamaropitaham-mamabhimanatvad avikhandita-manah prthivim eka-carah paribabhrama.




   tatra tatra--here and there; pura--cities; grama--villages; akara--mines; kheta--agricultural places; vata--gardens; kharvata--villages in valleys; sibira--military encampments; vraja--cow pens; ghosa--residential places of cowherd men; sartha--resting places for pilgrims; giri--hills; vana--forests; asrama--in the residential places of hermits; adisu--and so on; anupatham--as He passed through; avanicara-apasadaih--by undesirable elements, wicked persons; paribhuyamanah--being surrounded; maksikabhih--by flies; iva--like; vana-gajah--an elephant coming from the forest; tarjana--by threats; tadana--beating; avamehana--passing urine on the body; sthivana--spitting on the body; grava-sakrt--stones and stool; rajah--dust; praksepa--throwing; puti-vata--passing air over the body; duruktaih--and by bad words; tat--that; aviganayan--without caring about; eva--thus; asat-samsthane--habitat not fit for a gentleman; etasmin--in this; deha-upalaksane--in the shape of the material body; sat-apadese--called real; ubhaya-anubhava-svarupena--by understanding the proper situation of the body and the soul; sva-mahima--in His personal glory; avasthanena--by being situated; asamaropita-aham-mama-abhimanatvat--from not accepting the misconception of "I and mine"; avikhandita-manah--undisturbed in mind; prthivim--all over the world; eka-carah--alone; paribabhrama--He wandered.




   Rsabhadeva began to tour through cities, villages, mines, countrysides, valleys, gardens, military camps, cow pens, the homes of cowherd men, transient hotels, hills, forests and hermitages. Wherever He traveled, all bad elements surrounded Him, just as flies surround the body of an elephant coming from a forest. He was always being threatened, beaten, urinated upon and spat upon. Sometimes people threw stones, stool and dust at Him, and sometimes people passed foul air before Him. Thus people called Him many bad names and gave Him a great deal of trouble, but He did not care about this, for He understood that the body is simply meant for such an end. He was situated on the spiritual platform, and, being in His spiritual glory, He did not care for all these material insults. In other words, He completely understood that matter and spirit are separate, and He had no bodily conception. Thus, without being angry at anyone, He walked through the whole world alone.




   Narottama dasa Thakura says: deha-smrti nahi yara, samsara bandhana kahan tara. When a person fully realizes that the material body and world are temporary, he is not concerned with pain and pleasures of the body. As Sri Krsna advises in Bhagavad-gita (2.14):


                      matra-sparsas tu kaunteya


                         agamapayino 'nityas

                       tams titiksasva bharata


   "O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed."

   As far as Rsabhadeva is concerned, it has already been explained: idam sariram mama durvibhavyam. He did not at all possess a material body; and therefore He was tolerant of all the trouble offered to Him by the bad elements in society. Consequently He could tolerate people's throwing stool and dust upon Him and beating Him. His body was transcendental and consequently did not at all suffer pain. He was always situated in His spiritual bliss. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (18.61):


                        isvarah sarva-bhutanam

                       hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

                       bhramayan sarva-bhutani

                         yantrarudhani mayaya


   "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna. and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy."

   Since the Lord is situated in everyone's heart, He is in the heart of hogs and dogs also. If hogs and dogs in their material bodies live in filthy places, one should not think that the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramatma feature also lives in a filthy place. Although Lord Rsabhadeva was maltreated by the bad elements of the world. He was not at all affected. Therefore it is stated here. sva-mahima-avasthanena: "He was situated in His own glory." He was never saddened due to being insulted in the many ways described above.


                               TEXT 31




 ati-sukumara-kara-caranorah-sthala-vipula-bahv-amsa-gala-vadanady-avayava-vinyasah prakrti-sundara-svabhava-hasa-sumukho nava-nalina-dalayamana-sisira-tararunayata-nayana-rucirah sadrsa-subhaga-kapola-karna-kantha-naso vigudha-smita-vadana-mahotsavena pura-vanitanam manasi kusuma-sarasanam upadadhanah parag-avalambamana-kutila-jatila-kapisa-kesa-bhuri-bharo 'vadhuta-malina-nija-sarirena graha-grhita ivadrsyata.




   ati-su-kumara--very delicate; kara--hands; carana--feet; urah-sthala--chest; vipula--long; bahu--arms; amsa--shoulders; gala--neck; vadana--face; adi--and so on; avayava--limbs; vinyasah--properly situated; prakrti--by nature; sundara--lovely; sva-bhava--natural; hasa--with smiling; su-mukhah--His beautiful mouth; nava-nalina-dalayamana--appearing like the petals of a new lotus flower; sisira--taking away all miseries; tara--the irises; aruna--reddish; ayata--spread wide; nayana--with eyes; rucirah--lovely; sadrsa--such; subhaga--beauty; kapola--forehead; karna--ears; kantha--neck; nasah--His nose; vigudha-smita--by deep smiling; vadana--by His face; maha-utsavena--appearing like a festival; pura-vanitanam--of women within household life; manasi--in the heart; kusuma-sarasanam--Cupid; upadadhanah--awakening; parak--all around; avalambamana--spread; kutila--curly; jatila--matted; kapisa--brown; kesa--of hair; bhuri-bharah--possessing a great abundance; avadhuta--neglected; malina--dirty; nija-sarirena--by His body; graha-grhitah--haunted by a ghost; iva--as if; adrsyata--He appeared.




   Lord Rsabhadeva's hands, feet and chest were very long. His shoulders, face and limbs were all very delicate and symmetrically proportioned. His mouth was beautifully decorated with His natural smile, and He appeared all the more lovely with His reddish eyes spread wide like the petals of a newly grown lotus flower covered with dew in the early morning. The irises of His eyes were so pleasing that they removed all the troubles of everyone who saw Him. His forehead, ears, neck, nose and all His other features were very beautiful. His gentle smile always made His face beautiful, so much so that He even attracted the hearts of married women. It was as though they had been pierced by arrows of Cupid. About His head was an abundance of curly, matted brown hair. His hair was disheveled because His body was dirty and not taken care of. He appeared as if He were haunted by a ghost.




   Although Lord Rsabhadeva's body was very much neglected, His transcendental features were so attractive that even married women were attracted to Him. His beauty and dirtiness combined to make His beautiful body appear as though it were haunted by a ghost.


                               TEXT 32




yarhi vava sa bhagavan lokam imam yogasyaddha pratipam ivacaksanas tat-pratikriya-karma bibhatsitam iti vratam ajagaram-asthitah sayana evasnati pibati khadaty avamehati hadati sma cestamana uccarita adigdhoddesah.




   yarhi vava--when; sah--He; bhagavan--the Personality of Godhead; lokam--the people in general; imam--this; yogasya--to the performance of yoga; addha--directly; pratipam--antagonistic; iva--like; acaksanah--observed; tat--of that; pratikriya--for counteraction; karma--activity; bibhatsitam--abominable; iti--thus; vratam--the behavior; ajagaram--of a python (to stay in one place); asthitah--accepting; sayanah--lying down; eva--indeed; asnati--eats; pibati--drinks; khadati--chews; avamehati--passes urine; hadati--passes stool; sma--thus; cestamanah--rolling; uccarite--i n the stool and urine; adigdha-uddesah--His body thus smeared.




   When Lord Rsabhadeva saw that the general populace was very antagonistic to His execution of mystic yoga, He accepted the behavior of a python in order to counteract their opposition. Thus He stayed in one place and lay down. While lying down, He ate and drank, and He passed stool and urine and rolled in it. Indeed, He smeared His whole body with His own stool and urine so that opposing elements might not come and disturb Him.




   According to one's destiny, one enjoys allotted happiness and distress, even though one keeps himself in one place. This is the injunction of the sastras. When one is spiritually situated, he may stay in one place, and all his necessities will be supplied by the arrangement of the supreme controller. Unless one is a preacher, there is no need to travel all over the world. A person can stay in one place and execute devotional service suitably according to time and circumstance. When Rsabhadeva saw that He was simply being disturbed by traveling throughout the world, He decided to lie down in one place like a python. Thus He ate, drank, and He passed stool and urine and smeared His body with them so that people would not disturb Him.


                               TEXT 33




tasya ha yah purisa-surabhi-saugandhya-vayus tam desam dasa-yojanam samantat surabhim cakara.




   tasya--His; ha--indeed; yah--which; purisa--of the stool; surabhi--by the aroma; saugandhya--possessing a good fragrance; vayuh--the air; tam--that; desam--country; dasa--up to ten; yojanam--yojanas (one yojana equals eight miles); samantat--all around; surabhim--aromatic; cakara--made.




   Because Lord Rsabhadeva remained in that condition, the public did not disturb Him, but no bad aroma emanated from His stool and urine. Quite the contrary, His stool and urine were so aromatic that they filled eighty miles of the countryside with a pleasant fragrance.




   From this we can certainly assume that Lord Rsabhadeva was transcendentally blissful. His stool and urine were so completely different from material stool and urine that they were aromatic. Even in the material world, cow dung is accepted as purified and antiseptic. A person can keep stacks of cow dung in one place, and it will not create a bad odor to disturb anyone. We can take it for granted that in the spiritual world, stool and urine are also pleasantly scented. Indeed, the entire atmosphere became very pleasant due to Lord Rsabhadeva's stool and urine.


                               TEXT 34




evam go-mrga-kaka-caryaya vrajams tisthann asinah sayanah kaka-mrga-go-caritah pibati khadaty avamehati sma.




   evam--thus; go--of cows; mrga--deer; kaka--crows; caryaya--by the activities; vrajan--moving; tisthan--standing; asinah--sitting; sayanah--lying down; kaka-mrga-go-caritah--behaving exactly like the crows, deer and cows; pibati--drinks; khadati--eats; avamehati--passes urine; sma--He did so.




   In this way Lord Rsabhadeva followed the behavior of cows, deer and crows. Sometimes He moved or walked, and sometimes He sat down in one place. Sometimes He lay down, behaving exactly like cows, deer and crows. In that way, He ate, drank, passed stool and urine and cheated the people in this way.




   Being the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Rsabhadeva possessed a transcendental, spiritual body. Since the general public could not appreciate His behavior and mystic yoga practice. they began to disturb Him. To cheat them, He behaved like crows, cows and deer.


                               TEXT 35




iti nana-yoga-caryacarano bhagavan kaivalya-patir rsabho 'virata-parama-mahanandanubhava atmani sarvesam bhutanam atma-bhute bhagavati vasudeva atmano 'vyavadhanananta-rodara-bhavena siddha-samastartha-paripurno yogaisvaryani vaihayasa-mano-javantardhana-parakaya-pravesa-dura-grahanadini yadrcchayopagatani nanjasa nrpa hrdayenabhyanandat.




   iti--thus; nana--various; yoga--of mystic yoga; carya--performances; acaranah--practicing; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kaivalya-patih--the master of kaivalya, oneness, or the giver of sayujya-mukti; rsabhah--Lord Rsabha; avirata--incessantly; parama--supreme; maha--great; ananda-anubhavah--feeling transcendental bliss; atmani--in the Supreme Soul; sarvesam--of all; bhutanam--living entities; atma-bhute--situated in the heart; bhagavati--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudeve--Krsna, the son of Vasudeva; atmanah--of Himself; avyavadhana--by the nondifference of constitution; ananta--unlimited; rodara--like crying, laughing and shivering; bhavena--by the symptoms of love; siddha--completely perfect; samasta--all; artha--with desirable opulences; paripurnah--full; yoga-aisvaryani--the mystic powers; vaihayasa--flying in the sky; manah-java--traveling at the speed of mind; antardhana--the ability to disappear; parakaya-pravesa--the ability to enter another's body; dura-grahana--the ability to perceive things far, far away; adini--and others; yadrcchaya--without difficulty, automatically; upagatani--achieved; na--not; anjasa--directly; nrpa--O King Pariksit; hrdayena--within the heart; abhyanandat--accepted.




   O King Pariksit, just to show all the yogis the mystic process, Lord Rsabhadeva, the partial expansion of Lord Krsna, performed wonderful activities. Actually He was the master of liberation and was fully absorbed in transcendental bliss, which increased a thousandfold. Lord Krsna, Vasudeva, the son of Vasudeva, is the original source of Lord Rsabhadeva. There is no difference in Their constitution, and consequently Lord Rsabhadeva awakened the loving symptoms of crying, laughing and shivering. He was always absorbed in transcendental love. Due to this, all mystic powers automatically approached Him, such as the ability to travel in outer space at the speed of mind, to appear and disappear, to enter the bodies of others, and to see things far, far away. Although He could do all this, He did not exercise these powers.




   In the Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 19.149) it is said:


               krsna-bhakta----niskama, ataeva 'santa'

             bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kami----sakali 'asanta'


   The word santa means completely peaceful. Unless all one's desires are fulfilled, one cannot be peaceful. Everyone is trying to fulfill his aspirations and desires, be they material or spiritual. Those in the material world are asanta (without peace) because they have so many desires to fulfill. The pure devotee, however, is without desire. Anyabhilasita-sunya: a pure devotee is completely free from all kinds of material desire. Karmis, on the other hand, are simply full of desires because they try to enjoy sense gratification. They are not peaceful in this life, nor the next, during the past, present or future. Similarly. jnanis are always aspiring after liberation and trying to become one with the Supreme. Yogis are aspiring after many siddhis (powers)--anima, laghima, prapti, etc. However, a devotee is not at all interested in these things because he is fully dependent on the mercy of Krsna. Krsna is yogesvara, the possessor of all mystic powers (siddhis), and He is atmarama, fully self-satisfied. The yoga-siddhis are described in this verse. One can fly in outer space without the aid of a machine, and he can travel at the speed of mind. This means that as soon as a yogi desires to go somewhere within this universe or even beyond this universe, he can do so immediately. One cannot estimate the speed of mind, for within a second the mind can go many millions of miles. Sometimes yogis enter into the bodies of other people and act as they desire when their bodies are not working properly. When the body becomes old, a perfect yogi can find a young, able body. Giving up his old body, the yogi can enter into the young body and act as he pleases. Being a plenary expansion of Lord Vasudeva, Lord Rsabhadeva possessed all these mystic yoga powers, but He was satisfied with His devotional love of Krsna, which was evinced by the ecstatic symptoms, such as crying, laughing and shivering.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fifth Canto, Fifth Chapter of the  Srimad-Bhagavatam entitled "Lord Rsabhadeva's Teachings to His Sons."

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