Chapter Twelve

       Conversation Between Maharaja Rahugana and Jada Bharata


   Because Maharaja Rahugana was still doubtful about his enlightenment, he asked the brahmana Jada Bharata to repeat his instructions and clarify ideas he could not understand. In this chapter, Maharaja Rahugana offers his respectful obeisances to Jada Bharata, who was concealing his real position. The King could understand by his speech how exalted and advanced he was in spiritual knowledge. He very much regretted his offense against him. Maharaja Rahugana was bitten by the serpent of ignorance, but was cured by the nectarean words of Jada Bharata. Later, because he was doubtful about the subjects discussed, he made further inquiries, one question after another. First he wanted to be released from the offense he had committed at the lotus feet of Jada Bharata.

   Maharaja Rahugana was somewhat unhappy at not being able to grasp Jada Bharata's instructions, which were full of meaning that could not be understood by a materialistic person. Therefore Jada Bharata repeated his instructions more clearly. He said that on the surface of the globe all living entities, moving and unmoving, were but transformations of the earth in different ways. The King was very proud of his king's body, but that body was simply another transformation of the earth. Out of his false prestige, the King was misbehaving toward the palanquin carrier. as a master toward a servant, and he was actually very unkind to other living entities. Consequently King Rahugana was unfit to give protection to the citizens, and because he was ignorant, he was unfit to be counted among advanced philosophers. Everything in the material world is but a transformation of the earth, although things have different names according to their transformations. Actually the varieties are one and the same, and ultimately all these varieties are vanquished into atoms. Nothing is permanent in this material world. The variety of things and their distinctions are simply mental concoctions. The Absolute Truth is beyond illusion and is manifest in three features--impersonal Brahman, localized Paramatma and the Supreme personality of Godhead. Ultimate realization of the Absolute Truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, called Vasudeva by His devotees. Unless one is blessed with the dust from the feet of a pure devotee on his head, one cannot possibly become a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

   Jada Bharata also told about his own previous birth and informed the King that by the grace of the Lord he still remembered all the incidents of his past life. Due to the activities of his past life, Jada Bharata was being very cautious and was therefore assuming the characteristics of a deaf and dumb man to avoid mingling with the material world. Association with the material modes of nature is very powerful. The bad association of materialistic men can be avoided only in the association of devotees. In the association of devotees, one is given an opportunity to render devotional service in nine different ways--sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. In this way, in the association of devotees, one can pass over material association, cross over the ocean of nescience and return home, back to Godhead.


                                TEXT 1




                            rahugana uvaca

                     namo namah karana-vigrahaya


                  namo 'vadhuta dvija-bandhu-linga-

                    nigudha-nityanubhavaya tubhyam




   rahuganah uvaca--King Rahugana said; namah--my respectful obeisances; namah--obeisances; karana-vigrahaya--to one whose body emanates from the Supreme Person, the cause of all causes; svarupa-tucchikrta-vigrahaya--who has completely removed all the contradictions of the scriptures by manifesting his true self; namah--respectful obeisances; avadhuta--O master of all mystic power; dvija-bandhu-linga--by the characteristics of a person born in a brahmana family but not executing the duties of a brahmana; nigudha--covered; nitya-anubhavaya--to him whose eternal self-realization; tubhyam--to you.




   King Rahugana said: O most exalted personality, you are not different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By the influence of your true self, all kinds of contradiction in the sastras have been removed. In the dress of a friend of a brahmana, you are hiding your transcendental blissful position. I offer my respectful obeisances unto you.




   From the Brahma-samhita we understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of all causes (sarva-karana-karanam). Rsabhadeva was the direct incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the cause of all causes. His son, Bharata Maharaja, who was now acting as the brahmana Jada Bharata, had received his body from the cause of all causes. Therefore he is addressed as karana-vigrahaya.


                                TEXT 2




                    jvaramayartasya yathagadam sat

                  nidagha-dagdhasya yatha himambhah


                 brahman vacas te 'mrtam ausadham me




   jvara--of a fever; amaya--by the disease; artasya--of a distressed person; yatha--just as; agadam--the medicine; sat--right; nidagha-dagdhasya--of one scorched by the heat of the sun; yatha--just as; hima-ambhah--very cold water; ku-deha--in this body made of matter and full of dirty things such as stool and urine; mana--of pride; ahi--by the serpent; vidasta--bitten; drsteh--of one whose vision; brahman--O best of the brahmanas; vacah--words; te--your; amrtam--nectar; ausadham--medicine; me--for me.




   O best of the brahmanas, my body is filled with dirty things, and my vision has been bitten by the serpent of pride. Due to my material conceptions, I am diseased. Your nectarean instructions are the proper medicine for one suffering from such a fever, and they are cooling waters for one scorched by the heat.




   The conditioned soul has a body full of dirty things--bones, blood, urine, stool and so forth. Nonetheless, the most intelligent men in this material world think they are these combinations of blood, bone, urine and stool. If this is so, why can't other intelligent men be made with these ingredients, which are so readily available? The entire world is going on under the bodily conception and creating a hellish condition unfit for any gentleman's living. The instructions given to King Rahugana by Jada Bharata are very valuable. They are like the medicine that can save one from a snakebite. The Vedic instructions are like nectar and cool water for one suffering from scorching heat.


                                TEXT 3




                  tasmad bhavantam mama samsayartham

                   praksyami pascad adhuna subodham

                   adhyatma-yoga-grathitam tavoktam

                     akhyahi kautuhala-cetaso me




   tasmat--therefore; bhavantam--to you; mama--of me; samsaya-artham--the subject matter that is not clear to me; praksyami--I shall submit; pascat--afterwards; adhuna--now; su-bodham--so that it can be clearly understood; adhyatma-yoga--of mystic instruction for self-realization; grathitam--as composed; tava--your; uktam--speech; akhyahi--please explain again; kautuhala-cetasah--whose mind is very inquisitive to understand the mystery of such statements; me--to me.




   Whatever doubts I have about a particular subject matter I shall ask you about later. For the time being, these mysterious yoga instructions you have given me for self-realization appear very difficult to understand. Please repeat them in a simple way so that I can understand them. My mind is very inquisitive, and I want to understand this clearly.




   The Vedic literature instructs: tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijnasuh sreya uttamam. An intelligent man must be very inquisitive to know the transcendental science deeply. Therefore one must approach a guru, a spiritual master. Although Jada Bharata explained everything to Maharaja Rahugana, it appears that his intelligence was not perfect enough to understand clearly. He therefore requested a further explanation. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.34): tad viddhi pranipatena pariprasnena sevaya. The student must approach a spiritual master and surrender unto him fully (pranipatena). He must also question him in order to understand his instructions (pariprasnena). One should not only surrender to the spiritual master but also render loving service unto him (sevaya) so that the spiritual master will be pleased with the student and explain the transcendental subject matter more clearly. A challenging spirit before the spiritual master should be avoided if one is at all interested in learning the Vedic instructions in depth.


                                TEXT 4




                     yad aha yogesvara drsyamanam

                   kriya-phalam sad-vyavahara-mulam

                   na hy anjasa tattva-vimarsanaya

                   bhavan amusmin bhramate mano me




   yat--that which; aha--have said; yoga-isvara--O master of mystic power; drsyamanam--being clearly seen; kriya-phalam--the results of moving the body here and there, such as feeling fatigue; sat--existing; vyavahara-mulam--whose basis is etiquette alone; na--not; hi--certainly; anjasa--on the whole, or in fact; tattva-vimarsanaya--for understanding the truth by consultation; bhavan--your good self; amusmin--in that explanation; bhramate--is bewildered; manah--mind; me--my.




   O master of yogic power, you said that fatigue resulting from moving the body here and there is appreciated by direct perception, but actually there is no fatigue. It simply exists as a matter of formality. By such inquiries and answers, no one can come to the conclusion of the Absolute Truth. Because of your presentation of this statement, my mind is a little disturbed.




   Formal inquiries and answers about the bodily conception do not constitute knowledge of the Absolute Truth. Knowledge of the Absolute Truth is quite different from the formal understanding of bodily pains and pleasures. In Bhagavad-gita Lord Krsna informs Arjuna that the pains and pleasures experienced in relation to the body are temporary; they come and go. One should not be disturbed by them but should tolerate them and continue with spiritual realization.


                              TEXTS 5-6




                            brahmana uvaca

                    ayam jano nama calan prthivyam

                  yah parthivah parthiva kasya hetoh

                tasyapi canghryor adhi gulpha-jangha-



                   amse 'dhi darvi sibika ca yasyam

                     sauvira-rajety apadesa aste

                   yasmin bhavan rudha-nijabhimano

                  rajasmi sindhusv iti durmadandhah




   brahmanah uvaca--the brahmana said; ayam--this; janah--person; nama--celebrated as such; calan--moving; prthivyam--on the earth; yah--who; parthivah--a transformation of the earth; parthiva--O King, who possesses a similar earthly body; kasya--for what; hetoh--reason; tasya api--of him also; ca--and; anghryoh--feet; adhi--above; gulpha--ankles; jangha--calves; janu--knees; uru--thighs; madhyora--waist; sirah-dhara--neck; amsah--shoulders; amse--shoulder; adhi--upon; darvi--made of wood; sibika--palanquin; ca--and; yasyam--on which; sauvira-raja--the King of Sauvira; iti--thus; apadesah--known as; aste--there is; yasmin--in which; bhavan--Your Lordship; rudha--imposed upon; nija-abhimanah--having a conception of false prestige; raja asmi--I am the King; sindhusu--in the state of Sindhu; iti--thus; durmada-andhah--captivated by false prestige.




   The self-realized brahmana Jada Bharata said: Among the various material combinations and permutations, there are various forms and earthly transformations. For some reason, these move on the surface of the earth and are called palanquin carriers. Those material transformations which do not move are gross material objects like stones. In any case, the material body is made of earth and stone in the form of feet, ankles, calves, knees, thighs, torso, throat and head. Upon the shoulders is the wooden palanquin, and within the palanquin is the so-called King of Sauvira. The body of the King is simply another transformation of earth, but within that body Your Lordship is situated and falsely thinking that you are the King of the state of Sauvira.




   After analyzing the material bodies of the palanquin carrier and the palanquin passenger, Jada Bharata concludes that the real living force is the living entity. The living entity is the offshoot or offspring of Lord Visnu; therefore within this material world, among moving and nonmoving things, the real principle is Lord Visnu. Due to His presence, everything is working, and there are actions and reactions. One who understands Lord Visnu as the original cause of everything is to be understood to be perfectly situated in knowledge. Although he was falsely proud of being a king, King Rahugana was not really situated in knowledge. Therefore he was rebuking the palanquin carriers, including the self-realized brahmana, Jada Bharata. This is the first accusation Jada Bharata made against the King, who was daring to talk to a learned brahmana from the flimsy ground of ignorance, identifying everything with matter. King Rahugana argued that the living entity is within the body and that when the body is fatigued the living entity within must therefore be suffering. It is clearly explained in the following verses that the living entity does not suffer due to the body's fatigue. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti gives an example of a child heavily decorated with ornaments; although the child's body is very delicate, he does not feel fatigue, nor do the parents think that his ornaments should be taken away. The living entity has nothing to do with bodily pains and pleasures. These are simply mental concoctions. An intelligent man will find the original cause of everything. Material combinations and permutations may be a matter of fact in worldly dealings, but actually the living force, the soul, has nothing to do with them. Those who are materially upset take care of the body and manufacture daridra-narayana (poor Narayana). However, it is not a fact that the soul or Supersoul becomes Door simply because the body is poor. These are the statements of ignorant people. The soul and Supersoul are always apart from bodily pleasure and pain.


                                TEXT 7




                  socyan imams tvam adhikasta-dinan

                   vistya nigrhnan niranugraho 'si

                    janasya goptasmi vikatthamano

                  na sobhase vrddha-sabhasu dhrstah




   socyan--lamentable; iman--all these; tvam--you; adhi-kasta-dinan--poor persons suffering more pains because of their poverty-stricken position; vistya--by force; nigrhnan--seizing; niranugrahah asi--you have no mercy in your heart; janasya--of the people in general; gopta asmi--I am the protector (king); vikatthamanah--bragging; na sobhase--you do not look very good; vrddha-sabhasu--in the society of learned persons; dhrstah--simply impudent.




   It is a fact, however, that these innocent people carrying your palanquin without payment are certainly suffering due to this injustice. Their condition is very lamentable because you have forcibly engaged them in carrying your palanquin. This proves that you are cruel and unkind, yet due to false prestige you were thinking that you were protecting the citizens. This is ludicrous. You were such a fool that you could not have been adored as a great man in an assembly of persons advanced in knowledge.




   King Rahugana was proud of being king, and he felt he had the right to control the citizens as he liked, but actually he was engaging men in carrying his palanquin without payment, and therefore he was causing them trouble without reason. Nonetheless, the King was thinking that he was the protector of the citizens. Actually the king should be the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this reason he is called nara-devata, the Lord among human beings. However, when a king thinks that because he is the head of the state, he can utilize the citizens for his sense gratification, he is in error. Such an attitude is not appreciated by learned scholars. According to the Vedic principles, the king should be advised by learned sages, brahmanas and scholars, who advise him according to the injunctions given in the dharma-sastra. The duty of the king is to follow these instructions. Learned circles do not appreciate the king's utilizing public endeavor for his own benefit. His duty is to give protection to the citizens instead. The king should not become such a rogue that he exploits the citizens for his own benefit.

   It is stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam that in Kali-yuga the heads of government will be plunderers and thieves. These thieves and plunderers take the money and property of the public by force or connivance. Therefore it is said in Srimad-Bhagavatam, rajanyair nirghrnair dasyu-dharmabhih. As Kali-yuga advances, we can see that these characteristics are already visible. We can certainly imagine how deteriorated human civilization will be by the end of Kali-yuga. Indeed, there will no longer be a sane man capable of understanding God and our relationship with Him. In other words, human beings will be just like animals. At that time, in order to reform human society, Lord Krsna will come in the form of the Kalki avatara. His business will be to kill all the atheists because ultimately the real protector is Visnu, or Krsna.

   The Lord incarnates and sets things in order when things are mismanaged by so-called kings and heads of government. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita, yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata. Of course this takes many years, but the principle is there. When the king or governmental head does not follow the proper principles, nature deals out the punishments in the forms of war, famine and so forth. Therefore if the governmental head is not aware of life's goal, he should not take charge of ruling the people. Actually the supreme proprietor of everything is Lord Visnu. He is the maintainer of everyone. The king, the father, and the guardian are simply representatives of Lord Visnu, empowered by Him to look after the management and maintain things. It is therefore the duty of the head of the state to maintain the general populace in such a way that people will ultimately know the goal of life. Na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum. Unfortunately the foolish governmental head and the general populace do not know that the ultimate goal of life is to understand and approach Lord Visnu. Without this knowledge, everyone is in ignorance, and all society is crowded with cheaters and cheated.


                                TEXT 8




                     yada ksitav eva caracarasya

                  vidama nistham prabhavam ca nityam

                   tan namato 'nyad vyavahara-mulam

                    nirupyatam sat-kriyayanumeyam




   yada--therefore; ksitau--in the earth; eva--certainly; cara-acarasya--of different bodies, some moving and some not moving; vidama--we know; nistham--annihilation; prabhavam--appearance; ca--and; nityam--regularly by the principles of nature; tat--that; namatah--than simply by name; anyat--other; vyavahara-mulam--cause of material activities; nirupyatam--let it be ascertained; sat-kriyaya--by actual employment; anumeyam--to be inferred.




   All of us on the surface of the globe are living entities in different forms. Some of us are moving and some not moving. All of us come into existence, remain for some time and are annihilated when the body is again mingled with the earth. We are all simply different transformations of the earth. Different bodies and capacities are simply transformations of the earth that exist in name only, for everything grows out of the earth and when everything is annihilated it again mingles with the earth. In other words, we are but dust, and we shall but be dust. Everyone can consider this point.




   In the Brahma-sutra it is said: tad-ananyatvam arabhambhana-sabdadibhyah (2.1.14). This cosmic manifestation is a mixture of matter and spirit, but the cause is the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.5.20) it is said: idam hi visvam bhagavan ivetarah. The entire cosmic manifestation is but a transformation of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but because of illusion, no one can appreciate that God is nondifferent from the material world. Actually He is not different, but this material world is simply a transformation of His different energies; parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate. There are also other versions of this in the Vedas: sarvam khalv idam brahma. Matter and spirit are all nondifferent from the Supreme Brahman, Bhagavan. Lord Sri Krsna confirms this statement in the Bhagavad-gita (7.4): me bhinna prakrtir astadha. The material energy is Krsna's energy, but it is separated from Him. The spiritual energy is also His energy, but it is not separated from Him. When the material energy is engaged in the service of the Supreme Spirit, so-called material energy is also transformed into spiritual energy, just as an iron rod becomes fire when placed in contact with fire. When we can understand by an analytical study that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of all causes, our knowledge is perfect. Simply understanding the transformations of different energies is partial knowledge. We must come to the ultimate cause. Na te viduh svartha gatim hi visnum. The knowledge of those who are not interested in knowing the original cause of all emanations is never perfect knowledge. There is nothing in the phenomenal world that is not produced by the supreme energy of the Supreme personality of Godhead. Aromas from the earth are different scents manufactured and used for different purposes, but the original cause is the earth, nothing else. A waterpot made of earth can be used to carry water for some time, but ultimately the pot is nothing but earth. Therefore there is no difference between the pot and its original ingredient, earth. It is simply a different transformation of the energy. Originally the cause or primary ingredient is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the varieties are only by-products. In the Chandogya Upanisad it is stated: yatha saumy ekena mrt-pindena sarvam mrnmayam vijnatam syad vacarambhanam vikaro namadheyam mrttikety eva satyam. If one studies the earth, he naturally understands the by-products of the earth. The Vedas therefore enjoin, yasmin vijnate sarvam evam vijnatam bhavati: if one simply understands the original cause, Krsna, the cause of all causes, then naturally everything else is understood, although it may be presented in different varieties. By understanding the original cause of different varieties, one can understand everything. If we understand Krsna, the original cause of everything, we do not need to separately study the subsidiary varieties. Therefore from the very beginning it is said: satyam param dhimahi. One has to concentrate one's understanding on the Supreme Truth, Krsna or Vasudeva. The word Vasudeva indicates the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes. Mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na caham tesv avasthitah. This is a summary of phenomenal and noumenal philosophy. The phenomenal world depends on the noumenal existence; similarly. everything exists by virtue of the potency of the Supreme Lord, although due to our ignorance the Supreme Lord is not perceived in everything.


                                TEXT 9




                   evam niruktam ksiti-sabda-vrttam

                     asan nidhanat paramanavo ye

                     avidyaya manasa kalpitas te

                     yesam samuhena krto visesah




   evam--thus; niruktam--falsely described; ksiti-sabda--of the word "earth"; vrttam--the existence; asat--not real; nidhanat--from the dissolution; parama-anavah--atomic particles; ye--all of which; avidyaya--because of less intelligence; manasa--in the mind; kalpitah--imagined; te--they; yesam--of which; samuhena--by the aggregate; krtah--made; visesah--the particulars.




   One may say that varieties arise from the planet earth itself. However, although the universe may temporarily appear to be the truth, it ultimately has no real existence. The earth was originally created by a combination of atomic particles, but these particles are impermanent. Actually the atom is not the cause of the universe, although some philosophers think so. It is not a fact that the varieties found in this material world simply result from atomic juxtaposition or combination.




   Those who follow the atomic theory think that the protons and electrons of atoms combine in such a way as to bring all material existence into being. However, the scientists fail to discover the cause of atomic existence itself. Under these circumstances, we cannot accept that the atom is the cause of the universe. Such theories are advanced by unintelligent people. According to real intelligence, the real cause of the cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Lord. Janmady asya yatah: He is the original cause of all creation. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (10.8): aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate. Krsna is the original cause. Sarva-karana-karanam: He is the cause of all causes. Krsna is the cause of atoms, the material energy.


                        bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh

                       kham mano buddhir eva ca

                          ahankara itiyam me

                       bhinna prakrtir astadha


   (Bg. 7.4)


   The ultimate cause is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and only those in ignorance try to find out other causes by posing different theories.


                               TEXT 10




                  evam krsam sthulam anur brhad yad

                    asac ca saj jivam ajivam anyat


                     namnajayavehi krtam dvitiyam




   evam--thus; krsam--skinny or short; sthulam--fat; anuh--tiny; brhat--big; yat--which; asat--impermanent; ca--and; sat--existing; jivam--the living entities; ajivam--inanimate, lifeless matter; anyat--other causes; dravya--phenomena; sva-bhava--nature; asaya--disposition; kala--time; karma--activities; namna--only by such names; ajaya--by material nature; avehi--you should understand; krtam--done; dvitiyam--duality.




   Since this universe has no real ultimate existence, the things within it--shortness, differences, grossness, skinniness, smallness, bigness, result, cause, living symptoms, and materials--are all imagined. They are all pots made of the same substance, earth, but they are named differently. The differences are characterized by the substance, nature, predisposition, time and activity. You should know that all these are simply mechanical manifestations created by material nature.




   The temporary manifestations and varieties within this material world are simply creations of material nature under various circumstances: prakrteh kriyamana-ni gunaih karmani sarvasah. The actions and reactions carried out by the material nature are sometimes accepted as our scientific inventions; therefore we want to take credit for them and defy the existence of God. This is described in Bhagavad-gita (3.27), ahankara-vimudhatma kartaham iti manyate: due to being covered by the illusory external energy, the living entity tries to take credit for the differentiated creations within the material world. Actually all these are being created automatically by the material force set in motion by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the ultimate cause is the Supreme Person. As stated in Brahma-samhita:


                        isvarah paramah krsnah


                         anadir adir govindah



   He is the cause of all causes, the ultimate cause. In this regard Srila Madhvacarya says: evam sarvam tatha prakrtvayai kalpitam visnor anyat. evam prakrtyadharah svayam ananyadharo visnur eva. atah sarva-sabdas ca tasminn eva. Actually the original cause is Lord Visnu, but out of ignorance people think that matter is the cause of everything.


                        raja goptasrayo bhumih

                        saranam ceti laukikah

                       vyavaharo na tat satyam

                       tayor brahmasrayo vibhuh


   Things are contemplated on the ephemeral or external platform, but actually this is not the truth. The actual protector and shelter of everyone is Brahman, the Supreme, not the king.


                       goptri ca tasya prakrtis

                     tasya visnuh svayam prabhuh

                        tava goptri tu prthivi

                     na tvam gopta ksiteh smrtah


                       atah sarvasrayais caiva

                        gopta ca harir isvarah

                       sarva-sabdabhidheyas ca

                       sabda-vrtter hi karanam

                       sarvantarah sarva-bahir

                          eka eva janardanah


   The actual protectress is the material nature, but Visnu is her Lord. He is the Lord of everything. Lord Janardana is the director both externally and internally. He is the cause of the function of words and what is expressed in all sound.


                         sirasodharata yadvad

                        grivayas tadvad eva tu

                       asrayatvam ca goptrtvam

                          anyesam upacaratah


   Lord Visnu is the resting place of the entire creation: brahmano hi pratisthaham (Bg. 14.27). On Brahman, everything is resting. All the universes are resting on the brahmajyoti, and all the planets are resting on the universal atmosphere. In each and every planet there are oceans. hills, states and kingdoms, and each planet is giving shelter to so many living entities. They are all standing on the earth of feet and legs, torso and shoulders, but actually everything is resting ultimately on the potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore He is known ultimately as sarva-karana-karanam, the cause of all causes.


                               TEXT 11




                  jnanam visuddham paramartham ekam

                  anantaram tv abahir brahma satyam

              pratyak prasantam bhagavac-chabda-samjnam

                     yad vasudevam kavayo vadanti




   jnanam--the supreme knowledge; visuddham--without contamination; parama-artham--giving the ultimate goal of life; ekam--unified; anantaram--without interior, unbroken; tu--also; abahih--without exterior; brahma--the Supreme; satyam--Absolute Truth; pratyak--inner; prasantam--the calm and peaceful Supreme Lord, worshiped by the yogis; bhagavat-sabda-samjnam--known in the higher sense as Bhagavan, or full of all opulences; yat--that; vasudevam--Lord Krsna, the son of Vasudeva; kavayah--the learned scholars; vadanti--say.




   What, then, is the ultimate truth? The answer is that nondual knowledge is the ultimate truth. It is devoid of the contamination of material qualities. It gives us liberation. It is the one without a second, all-pervading and beyond imagination. The first realization of that knowledge is Brahman. Then Paramatma, the Supersoul, is realized by the yogis who try to see Him without grievance. This is the second stage of realization. Finally, full realization of the same supreme knowledge is realized in the Supreme Person. All learned scholars describe the Supreme Person as Vasudeva, the cause of Brahman, Paramatma and others.




   In Caitanya-caritamrta it is said: yad advaitam brahmopanisadi tad apy asya tanu-bha. The impersonal Brahman effulgence of the Absolute Truth consists of the bodily rays of the Supreme personality of Godhead. Ya atmantaryami purusa iti so 'syamsa-vibhavah. What is known as atma and antaryami, the Supersoul, is but an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Sad-aisvaryaih purno ya iha bhagavan sa svayam ayam. What is described as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, complete with all six opulences, is Vasudeva, and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is nondifferent from Him. Great learned scholars and philosophers accept this after many, many births. Vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah (Bg. 7.19). The wise man can understand that ultimately Vasudeva, Krsna, is the cause of Brahman, and Paramatma, the Supersoul. Thus Vasudeva is sarva-karana-karanam, the cause of all causes. This is confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam. The real tattva, Absolute Truth, is Bhagavan, but due to incomplete realization of the Absolute Truth, people sometimes describe the same Visnu as impersonal Brahman or localized Paramatma.


                       vadanti tat tattva-vidas

                      tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

                         brahmeti paramatmeti

                        bhagavan iti sabdyate


   (Bhag. 1.2.11)


   From the very beginning, Srimad-Bhagavatam says, satyam param dhimahi: we meditate on the supreme truth. The supreme truth is explained here as jnanam visuddham satyam. The Absolute Truth is devoid of material contamination and is transcendental to the material qualities. It gives all spiritual success and liberation from this material world. That Supreme Absolute Truth is Krsna, Vasudeva. There is no difference between Krsna's inner self and outward body. Krsna is purna, the complete whole. There is no distinction between His body and soul as there is between ours. Sometimes so-called scholars, not knowing the constitutional position of Krsna, mislead people by saying that the Krsna within is different from the Krsna without. When Krsna says, man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru, so-called scholars advise the reader that it is not the person Krsna to whom we must surrender but the Krsna within. So-called scholars, Mayavadis, cannot understand Krsna with their poor fund of knowledge. One should therefore approach an authorized person to understand Krsna. The spiritual master has actually seen Krsna; therefore he can explain Him properly.


                        tad viddhi pranipatena

                         pariprasnena sevaya

                        upadeksyanti te jnanam

                       jnaninas tattva-darsinah


   (Bg. 4.34)


   Without approaching an authorized person, one cannot understand Krsna.


                               TEXT 12




                     rahuganaitat tapasa na yati

                    na cejyaya nirvapanad grhad va

                  na cchandasa naiva jalagni-suryair

                    vina mahat-pada-rajo-'bhisekam




   rahugana--O King Rahugana; etat--this knowledge; tapasa--by severe austerities and penances; na yati--does not become revealed; na--not; ca--also; ijyaya--by a great arrangement for worshiping the Deity; nirvapanat--or from finishing all material duties and accepting sannyasa; grhat--from ideal householder life; va--or; na--nor; chandasa--by observing celibacy or studying Vedic literature; na eva--nor; jala-agni-suryaih--by severe austerities such as keeping oneself in water, in a burning fire or in the scorching sun; vina--without; mahat--of the great devotees; pada-rajah--the dust of the lotus feet; abhisekam--smearing all over the body.




   My dear King Rahugana, unless one has the opportunity to smear his entire body with the dust of the lotus feet of great devotees, one cannot realize the Absolute Truth. One cannot realize the Absolute Truth simply by observing celibacy [brahmacarya], strictly following the rules and regulations of householder life, leaving home as a vanaprastha, accepting sannyasa, or undergoing severe penances in winter by keeping oneself submerged in water or surrounding oneself in summer by fire and the scorching heat of the sun. There are many other processes to understand the Absolute Truth, but the Absolute Truth is only revealed to one who has attained the mercy of a great devotee.




   Actual knowledge of transcendental bliss can be bestowed upon anyone by a pure devotee. Vedesu durlabham adurlabham atma-bhaktau. One cannot attain the perfection of spiritual life simply by following the directions of the Vedas. One has to approach a pure devotee: anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam. By the grace of such a devotee, one can understand the Absolute Truth, Krsna, and one's relationship with Him. A materialistic person sometimes thinks that simply by executing pious activities and remaining at home one can understand the Absolute Truth. That is denied in this verse. Nor can one understand the Absolute Truth simply by observing the rules and regulations of brahmacarya (celibacy). One only has to serve the pure devotee. That will help one understand the Absolute Truth without fail.


                               TEXT 13





                   prastuyate gramya-katha-vighatah

                    nisevyamano 'nudinam mumuksor

                    matim satim yacchati vasudeve




   yatra--in which place (in the presence of exalted devotees); uttama-sloka-guna-anuvadah--discussion of the pastimes and glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prastuyate--is presented; gramya-katha-vighatah--due to which there is no chance of talking of worldly matters; nisevyamanah--being heard very seriously; anudinam--day after day; mumuksoh--of persons who are very serious about getting out of material entanglement; matim--meditation; satim--pure and simple; yacchati--is turned; vasudeve--unto the lotus feet of Lord Vasudeva.




   Who are the pure devotees mentioned here? In an assembly of pure devotees, there is no question of discussing material subjects like politics and sociology. In an assembly of pure devotees, there is discussion only of the qualities, forms and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is praised and worshiped with full attention. In the association of pure devotees, by constantly hearing such topics respectfully, even a person who wants to merge into the existence of the Absolute Truth abandons this idea and gradually becomes attached to the service of Vasudeva.




   The symptoms of pure devotees are described in this verse. The pure devotee is never interested in material topics. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has strictly prohibited His devotees to talk about worldly matters. Gramya-varta na kahibe: one should not indulge in talking unnecessarily about news of the material world. One should not waste time in this way. This is a very important feature in the life of a devotee. A devotee has no other ambition than to serve Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This Krsna consciousness movement was started to engage people twenty-four hours daily in the service of the Lord and in His glorification. The students in this institution engage in the cultivation of Krsna consciousness from five in the morning to ten at night. They actually have no opportunity to waste their time unnecessarily by discussing politics, sociology and current events. These will go their own way. A devotee is concerned only with serving Krsna positively and seriously.


                               TEXT 14




                     aham pura bharato nama raja


                     aradhanam bhagavata ihamano

                 mrgo 'bhavam mrga-sangad dhatarthah




   aham--I; pura--formerly (in my previous birth); bharatah nama raja--a King named Maharaja Bharata; vimukta--liberated from; drsta-sruta--by experiencing personally through direct association, or by getting knowledge from the Vedas; sanga-bandhah--bondage by association; aradhanam--the worship; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva; ihamanah--always performing; mrgah abhavam--I became a deer; mrga-sangat--because of my intimate association with a deer; hata-arthah--having neglected the regulative principles in the discharge of devotional service.




   In a previous birth I was known as Maharaja Bharata. I attained perfection by becoming completely detached from material activities through direct experience, and through indirect experience I received understanding from the Vedas. I was fully engaged in the service of the Lord, but due to my misfortune, I became very affectionate to a small deer, so much so that I neglected my spiritual duties. Due to my deep affection for the deer, in my next life I had to accept the body of a deer.




   The incident herein described is very significant. In a previous verse it is stated, vina mahat-pada-rajo-'bhisekam: one cannot attain perfection without smearing the dust from the lotus feet of an exalted devotee on his head. If one always follows the orders of the spiritual master. there is no question of falling down. As soon as a foolish disciple tries to overtake his spiritual master and becomes ambitious to occupy his post. he immediately falls down. Yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasado yasyaprasadan na gatih kuto 'pi. If the spiritual master is considered an ordinary man, the disciple surely loses his chance to advance further. Despite a very rigid life in devotional service, Bharata Maharaja did not consult a spiritual master when he became overly attached to a deer. Consequently he became strongly attached to the deer, and, forgetting his spiritual routine, he fell down.


                               TEXT 15




                   sa mam smrtir mrga-dehe 'pi vira

                    krsnarcana-prabhava no jahati

                     atho aham jana-sangad asango

                     visankamano 'vivrtas carami




   sa--that; mam--me; smrtih--remembrance of the activities of my previous life; mrga-dehe--in the body of a deer; api--although; vira--O great hero; krsna-arcana-prabhava--which appeared because of the influence of sincere service to Krsna; no jahati--did not leave; atho--therefore; aham--I; jana-sangat--from the association of ordinary men; asangah--completely detached; visankamanah--being afraid; avivrtah--unobserved by others; carami--I go here and there.




   My dear heroic King, due to my past sincere service to the Lord, I could remember everything of my past life even while in the body of a deer. Because I am aware of the falldown in my past life, I always keep myself separate from the association of ordinary men. Being afraid of their bad, materialistic association, I wander alone unnoticed by others.




   In Bhagavad-gita it is said: svalpam apy asya dharmasya (Bg. 2.40). It is certainly a great fall to go from human life to animal life, but in the case of Bharata Maharaja or any devotee, devotional service to the Lord never goes in vain. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (8.6): yam yam vapi smaran bhavam tyajaty ante kalevaram. At the time of death, by nature's law the mind is absorbed in a certain type of thinking. This may lead one to animal life, yet for a devotee there is no loss. Even though Bharata Maharaja received the body of a deer, he didn't forget his position. Consequently, in the body of a deer he was very careful to remember the cause of his downfall. As a result, he was given a chance to be born in a family of very pure brahmanas. Thus his service to the Lord never went in vain.


                               TEXT 16




                   tasman naro 'sanga-susanga-jata-

                     jnanasinehaiva vivrkna-mohah

                   harim tad-iha-kathana-srutabhyam

                 labdha-smrtir yaty atiparam adhvanah




   tasmat--for this reason; narah--every person; asanga--by detachment from the association of worldly people; su-sanga--by the association of devotees; jata--produced; jnana-asina--by the sword of knowledge; iha--in this material world; eva--even; vivrkna-mohah--whose illusion is completely cut to pieces; harim--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-iha--of His activities; kathana-srutabhyam--by the two processes of hearing and chanting; labdha-smrtih--the lost consciousness is regained; yati--achieves; atiparam--the ultimate end; adhvanah--of the path back home, back to Godhead.




   Simply by associating with exalted devotees, anyone can attain perfection of knowledge and with the sword of knowledge can cut to pieces the illusory associations within this material world. Through the association of devotees, one can engage in the service of the Lord by hearing and chanting [sravanam kirtanam]. Thus one can revive his dormant Krsna consciousness and, sticking to the cultivation of Krsna consciousness, return home, back to Godhead, even in this life.




   To become liberated from material bondage, one must give up the association of worldly people and accept the association of devotees. positive and negative processes are mentioned in this regard. Through the association of devotees, one develops Krsna consciousness, which is dormant within. This Krsna consciousness movement is giving this chance to everyone. We are giving shelter to everyone who is serious about progressing in Krsna consciousness. We arrange for their lodging and board so that they can peacefully cultivate Krsna consciousness and return home, back to Godhead, even in this life.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fifth Canto, Twelfth Chapter of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled, "The Conversation Between Maharaja Rahugana and Jada Bharata."

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