Chapter Twenty-three

                    The Sisumara Planetary Systems


   This chapter describes how all the planetary systems take shelter of the polestar, Dhruvaloka. It also describes the totality of these planetary systems to be Sisumara, another expansion of the external body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Dhruvaloka, the abode of Lord Visnu within this universe, is situated 1,300,000 yojanas from the seven stars. In the planetary system of Dhruvaloka are the planets of the fire-god, Indra, Prajapati, Kasyapa and Dharma, all of whom are very respectful to the great devotee Dhruva, who lives on the polestar. Like bulls yoked to a central pivot, all the planetary systems revolve around Dhruvaloka, impelled by eternal time. Those who worship the virat-purusa, the universal form of the Lord, conceive of this entire rotating system of planets as an animal known as sisumara. This imaginary sisumara is another form of the Lord. The head of the sisumara form is downward, and its body appears like that of a coiled snake. On the end of its tail is Dhruvaloka, on the body of the tail are Prajapati, Agni, Indra and Dharma, and on the root of the tail are Dhata and Vidhata. On its waist are the seven great sages. The entire body of the sisumara faces toward its right and appears like a coil of stars. On the right side of this coil are the fourteen prominent stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu, and on the left side are the fourteen prominent stars from Pusya to Uttarasadha. The stars known as Punarvasu and Pusya are on the right and left hips of the sisumara, and the stars known as Ardra and Aslesa are on the right and left feet of the sisumara. Other stars are also fixed on different sides of the Sisumara planetary system according to the calculations of Vedic astronomers. To concentrate their minds, yogis worship the Sisumara planetary system, which is technically known as the kundalini-cakra.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca


atha tasmat paratas trayodasa-laksa-yojanantarato yat tad visnoh paramam padam abhivadanti yatra ha maha-bhagavato dhruva auttanapadir agninendrena prajapatina kasyapena dharmena ca samakala-yugbhih sabahu-manam daksinatah kriyamana idanim api kalpa-jivinam ajivya upaste tasyehanubhava upavarnitah.




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; atha--thereupon; tasmat--the sphere of the seven stars; paratah--beyond that; trayodasa-laksa-yojana-antaratah--another 1,300,000 yojanas; yat--which; tat--that; visnoh paramam padam--the supreme abode of Lord Visnu, or the lotus feet of Lord Visnu; abhivadanti--the Rg Veda mantras praise; yatra--on which; ha--indeed; maha-bhagavatah--the great devotee; dhruvah--Maharaja Dhruva; auttanapadih--the son of Maharaja Uttanapada; agnina--by the fire-god; indrena--by the heavenly King, Indra; prajapatina--by the Prajapati; kasyapena--by Kasyapa; dharmena--by Dharmaraja; ca--also; samakala-yugbhih--who are engaged at the time; sa-bahu-manam--always respectfully; daksinatah--on the right side; kriyamanah--being circumambulated; idanim--now; api--even; kalpa-jivinam--of the living entities who exist at the end of the creation; ajivyah--the source of life; upaste--remains; tasya--his; iha--here; anubhavah--greatness in discharging devotional service; upavarnitah--already described (in the Fourth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam).




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, 1,300,000 yojanas [10,400,000 miles] above the planets of the seven sages is the place that learned scholars describe as the abode of Lord Visnu. There the son of Maharaja Uttanapada, the great devotee Maharaja Dhruva, still resides as the life source of all the living entities who live until the end of the creation. Agni, Indra, Prajapati, Kasyapa and Dharma all assemble there to offer him honor and respectful obeisances. They circumambulate him with their right sides toward him. I have already described the glorious activities of Maharaja Dhruva [in the Fourth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam].


                                TEXT 2




sa hi sarvesam jyotir-gananam graha-naksatradinam animisenavyakta-ramhasa bhagavata kalena bhramyamananam sthanur ivavastambha isvarena vihitah sasvad avabhasate.




   sah--that planet of Dhruva Maharaja; hi--indeed; sarvesam--of all; jyotih-gananam--the luminaries; graha-naksatra-adinam--such as the planets and stars; animisena--who does not rest; avyakta--inconceivable; ramhasa--whose force; bhagavata--the most powerful; kalena--by the time factor; bhramyamananam--being caused to revolve; sthanuh iva--like a post; avastambhah--the pivot; isvarena--by the will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vihitah--established; sasvat--constantly; avabhasate--shines.




   Established by the supreme will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the polestar, which is the planet of Maharaja Dhruva, constantly shines as the central pivot for all the stars and planets. The unsleeping, invisible, most powerful time factor causes these luminaries to revolve around the polestar without cessation.




   It is distinctly stated herein that all the luminaries, the planets and stars, revolve by the influence of the supreme time factor. The time factor is another feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone is under the influence of the time factor, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is so kind and loves His devotee Maharaja Dhruva so much that He has placed all the luminaries under the control of Dhruva's planet and has arranged for the time factor to work under him or with his cooperation. Everything is actually done according to the will and direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but to make His devotee Dhruva the most important individual within the universe, the Lord has placed the activities of the time factor under his control.


                                TEXT 3




yatha medhistambha akramana-pasavah samyojitas tribhis tribhih savanair yatha-sthanam mandalani caranty evam bhagana grahadaya etasminn antar-bahir-yogena kala-cakra ayojita dhruvam evavalambya vayunodiryamana akalpantam parican kramanti nabhasi yatha meghah syenadayo vayu-vasah karma-sarathayah parivartante evam jyotirganah prakrti-purusa-samyoganugrhitah karma-nirmita-gatayo bhuvi na patanti.




   yatha--exactly like; medhistambhe--to the pivot post; akramana-pasavah--bulls for threshing rice; samyojitah--being yoked; tribhih tribhih--by three; savanaih--movements; yatha-sthanam--in their proper places; mandalani--orbits; caranti--traverse; evam--in the same way; bha-ganah--the luminaries, like the sun, the moon, Venus, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter; graha-adayah--the different planets; etasmin--in this; antah-bahih-yogena--by connection with the inner or outer circles; kala-cakre--in the wheel of eternal time; ayojitah--fixed; dhruvam--Dhruvaloka; eva--certainly; avalambya--taking support of; vayuna--by the wind; udiryamanah--being propelled; a-kalpa-antam--until the end of the creation; parican kramanti--revolve all around; nabhasi--in the sky; yatha--exactly like; meghah--heavy clouds; syena-adayah--birds such as the big eagle; vayu-vasah--controlled by the air; karma-sarathayah--whose chariot drivers are the results of their own past activities; parivartante--move around; evam--in this way; jyotih-ganah--the luminaries, the planets and stars in the sky; prakrti--of material nature; purusa--and of the Supreme Personality, Krsna; samyoga-anugrhitah--supported by the combined efforts; karma-nirmita--caused by their own past fruitive activities; gatayah--whose movements; bhuvi--on the ground; na--not; patanti--fall down.




   When bulls are yoked together and tied to a central post to thresh rice, they tread around that pivot without deviating from their proper positions--one bull being closest to the post, another in the middle, and a third on the outside. Similarly, all the planets and all the hundreds and thousands of stars revolve around the polestar, the planet of Maharaja Dhruva, in their respective orbits, some higher and some lower. Fastened by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to the machine of material nature according to the results of their fruitive acts, they are driven around the polestar by the wind and will continue to be so until the end of creation. These planets float in the air within the vast sky, just as clouds with hundreds of tons of water float in the air or as the great syena eagles, due to the results of past activities, fly high in the sky and have no chance of falling to the ground.




   According to the description of this verse, the hundreds and thousands of stars and the great planets such as the sun, the moon, Venus, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter are not clustered together because of the law of gravity or any similar idea of the modern scientists. These planets and stars are all servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda or Krsna, and according to His order they sit in their chariots and travel in their respective orbits. The orbits in which they move are compared to machines given by material nature to the operating deities of the stars and planets, who carry out the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by revolving around Dhruvaloka, which is occupied by the great devotee Maharaja Dhruva. This is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita (5.52) as follows:


                yac-caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam

                 raja samasta-sura-murtir asesa-tejah

               yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   "I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, under whose control even the sun, which is considered to be the eye of the Lord, rotates within the fixed orbit of eternal time. The sun is the king of all planetary systems and has unlimited potency in heat and light." This verse from Brahma-samhita confirms that even the largest and most powerful planet, the sun, rotates within a fixed orbit, or kala-cakra, in obedience to the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This has nothing to do with gravity or any other imaginary laws created by the material scientists.

   Material scientists want to avoid the ruling government of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore they imagine different conditions under which they suppose the planets move. The only condition, however, is the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the various predominating deities of the planets are persons, and the Supreme personality of Godhead is also a person. The Supreme Personality orders the subordinate persons, the demigods of various names, to carry out His supreme will. This fact is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (9.10), wherein Krsna says:


                        mayadhyaksena prakrtih

                         suyate sa-caracaram

                         hetunanena kaunteya

                         jagad viparivartate


   "This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and it is producing all moving and unmoving beings. By its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again."

   The orbits of the planets resemble the bodies in which all living entities are seated because they are both machines controlled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (18.61):


                        isvarah sarva-bhutanam

                       hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

                       bhramayan sarva-bhutani

                         yantrarudhani mayaya


   "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy." The machine given by material nature--whether the machine of the body or the machine of the orbit, or kala-cakra--works according to the orders given by the Supreme personality of Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead and material nature work together to maintain this great universe, and not only this universe but also the millions of other universes beyond this one.

   The question of how the planets and stars are floating is also answered in this verse. It is not because of the laws of gravity. Rather, the planets and stars are enabled to float by manipulations of the air. It is due to such manipulations that big, heavy clouds float and big eagles fly in the sky. Modern airplanes like the 747 jet aircraft work in a similar way: by controlling the air, they float high in the sky, resisting the tendency to fall to earth. Such adjustments of the air are all made possible by the cooperation of the principles of purusa (male) and prakrti (female). By the cooperation of material nature, which is considered to be prakrti, and the Supreme personality of Godhead, who is considered the purusa, all the affairs of the universe are going on nicely in their proper order. prakrti, material nature, is also described in the Brahma-samhita (5.44) as follows:


               srsti-sthiti-pralaya-sadhana-saktir eka

                chayeva yasya bhuvanani bibharti durga

                 icchanurupam api yasya ca cestate sa

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   "The external potency, maya, who is of the nature of the shadow of the cit [spiritual] potency, is worshiped by all people as Durga, the creating, preserving and destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, in accordance with whose will Durga conducts herself." Material nature, the external energy of the Supreme Lord, is also known as Durga, or the female energy that protects the great fort of this universe. The word Durga also means fort. This universe is just like a great fort in which all the conditioned souls are kept, and they cannot leave it unless they are liberated by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord Himself declares in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):


                       janma karma ca me divyam

                       evam yo vetti tattvatah

                      tyaktva deham punar janma

                       naiti mam eti so 'rjuna


   "One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." Thus simply by Krsna consciousness, by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one can be liberated, or, in other words, one can be released from the great fort of this universe and go outside it to the spiritual world.

   It is also significant that the predominating deities of even the greatest planets have been offered their exalted posts because of the very valuable pious activities they performed in previous births. This is indicated herein by the words karma-nirmita-gatayah. For example, as we have previously discussed, the moon is called jiva, which means that he is a living entity like us, but because of his pious activities he has been appointed to his post as the moon-god. Similarly, all the demigods are living entities who have been appointed to their various posts as the masters of the moon, the earth, Venus and so on because of their great service and pious acts. Only the predominating deity of the sun, Surya Narayana, is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Maharaja Dhruva, the predominating deity of Dhruvaloka, is also a living entity. Thus there are two kinds of entities--the supreme entity, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the ordinary living entity, the jiva (nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam). All the demigods are engaged in the service of the Lord, and only by such an arrangement are the affairs of the universe going on.

   Regarding the great eagles mentioned in this verse, it is understood that there are eagles so big that they can prey on big elephants. They fly so high that they can travel from one planet to another. They start flying in one planet and land in another, and while in flight they lay eggs that hatch into other birds while falling through the air. In Sanskrit such eagles are called syena. Under the present circumstances, of course, we cannot see such huge birds, but at least we know of eagles that can capture monkeys and then throw them down to kill and eat them. Similarly, it is understood that there are gigantic birds that can carry off elephants, kill them and eat them.

   The two examples of the eagle and the cloud are sufficient to prove that flying and floating can be made possible through adjustments of the air. The planets, in a similar way, are floating because material nature adjusts the air according to the orders of the Supreme Lord. It could be said that these adjustments constitute the law of gravity, but in any case, one must accept that these laws are made by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The so-called scientists have no control over them. The scientists can falsely, improperly declare that there is no God, but this is not a fact.


                                TEXT 4




kecanaitaj jyotir-anikam sisumara-samsthanena bhagavato vasudevasya yoga-dharanayam anuvarnayanti.




   kecana--some yogis or learned scholars of astronomy; etat--this; jyotih-anikam--great wheel of planets and stars; sisumara-samsthanena--imagine this wheel to be a sisumara (dolphin); bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudevasya--Lord Vasudeva (the son of Vasudeva), Krsna; yoga-dharanayam--in absorption in worship; anuvarnayanti--describe.




   This great machine, consisting of the stars and planets, resembles the form of a sisumara [dolphin] in the water. It is sometimes considered an incarnation of Krsna, Vasudeva. Great yogis meditate upon Vasudeva in this form because it is actually visible.




   Transcendentalists such as yogis whose minds cannot accommodate the form of the Lord prefer to visualize something very great, such as the virat-purusa. Therefore some yogis contemplate this imaginary sisumara to be swimming in the sky the way a dolphin swims in water. They meditate upon it as the virat-rupa, the gigantic form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                                TEXT 5




yasya pucchagre 'vaksirasah kundali-bhuta-dehasya dhruva upakalpitas tasya langule prajapatir agnir indro dharma iti puccha-mule dhata vidhata ca katyam saptarsayah; tasya daksinavarta-kundali-bhuta-sarirasya yany udagayanani daksina-parsve tu naksatrany upakalpayanti daksinayanani tu savye; yatha sisumarasya kundala-bhoga-sannivesasya parsvayor ubhayor apy avayavah samasankhya bhavanti; prsthe tv ajavithi akasa-ganga codaratah.




   yasya--of which; puccha-agre--at the end of the tail; avaksirasah--whose head is downward; kundali-bhuta-dehasya--whose body, which is coiled; dhruvah--Maharaja Dhruva on his planet, the polestar; upakalpitah--is situated; tasya--of that; langule--on the tail; prajapatih--of the name Prajapati; agnih--Agni; indrah--Indra; dharmah--Dharma; iti--thus; puccha-mule--at the base of the tail; dhata vidhata--the demigods known as Dhata and Vidhata; ca--also; katyam--on the hip; sapta-rsayah--the seven saintly sages; tasya--of that; daksina-avarta-kundali-bhuta-sarirasya--whose body is like a coil turning toward the right side; yani--which; udagayanani--marking the northern courses; daksina-parsve--on the right side; tu--but; naksatrani--constellations; upakalpayanti--are situated; daksina-ayanani--the fourteen stars, from Pusya to Uttarasadha, marking the northern course; tu--but; savye--on the left side; yatha--just like; sisumarasya--of the dolphin; kundala-bhoga-sannivesasya--whose body appears like a coil; parsvayoh--on the sides; ubhayoh--both; api--certainly; avayavah--the limbs; samasankhyah--of equal number (fourteen); bhavanti--are; prsthe--on the back; tu--of course; ajavithi--the first three stars marking the southern route (Mula, Purvasadha and Uttarasadha); akasa-ganga--the Ganges in the sky (the Milky Way); ca--also; udaratah--on the abdomen.




   This form of the sisumara has its head downward and its body coiled. On the end of its tail is the planet of Dhruva, on the body of its tail are the planets of the demigods Prajapati, Agni, Indra and Dharma, and at the base of its tail are the planets of the demigods Dhata and Vidhata. Where the hips might be on the sisumara are the seven saintly sages like Vasistha and Angira. The coiled body of the Sisumara-cakra turns toward its right side, on which the fourteen constellations from Abhijit to Punarvasu are located. On its left side are the fourteen stars from Pusya to Uttarasadha. Thus its body is balanced because its sides are occupied by an equal number of stars. On the back of the sisumara is the group of stars known as Ajavithi, and on its abdomen is the Ganges that flows in the sky [the Milky Way].


                                TEXT 6




punarvasu-pusyau daksina-vamayoh sronyor ardraslese ca daksina-vamayoh pascimayoh padayor abhijid-uttarasadhe daksina-vamayor nasikayor yatha-sankhyam sravana-purvasadhe daksina-vamayor locanayor dhanistha mulam ca daksina-vamayoh karnayor maghadiny asta naksatrani daksinayanani vama-parsva-vankrisu yunjita tathaiva mrga-sirsadiny udagayanani daksina-parsva-vankrisu pratilomyena prayunjita satabhisa-jyesthe skandhayor daksina-vamayor nyaset.




   punarvasu--the star named Punarvasu; pusyau--and the star named Pusya; daksina-vamayoh--on the right and left; sronyoh--loins; ardra--the star named Ardra; aslese--the star named Aslesa; ca--also; daksina-vamayoh--at the right and left; pascimayoh--behind; padayoh--feet; abhijit-uttarasadhe--the stars named Abhijit and Uttarasadha; daksina-vamayoh--on the right and left; nasikayoh--nostrils; yatha-sankhyam--according to numerical order; sravana-purvasadhe--the stars named Sravana and Purvasadha; daksina-vamayoh--at the right and left; locanayoh--eyes; dhanistha mulam ca--and the stars named Dhanistha and Mula; daksina-vamayoh--at the right and left; karnayoh--ears; magha-adini--the stars such as Magha; asta naksatrani--eight stars; daksina-ayanani--which mark the southern course; vama-parsva--of the left side; vankrisu--at the ribs; yunjita--may place; tatha eva--similarly; mrga-sirsa-adini--such as Mrgasirsa; udagayanani--marking the northern course; daksina-parsva-vankrisu--on the right side; pratilomyena--in the reverse order; prayunjita--may place; satabhisa--Satabhisa; jyesthe--Jyestha; skandhayoh--on the two shoulders; daksina-vamayoh--right and left; nyaset--should place.




   On the right and left sides of where the loins might be on the Sisumara-cakra are the stars named Punarvasu and Pusya. Ardra and Aslesa are on its right and left feet, Abhijit and Uttarasadha are on its right and left nostrils, Sravana and Purvasadha are at its right and left eyes, and Dhanistha and Mula are on its right and left ears. The eight stars from Magha to Anuradha, which mark the southern course, are on the ribs of the left of its body, and the eight stars from Mrgasirsa to Purvabhadra, which mark the northern course, are on the ribs on the right side. Satabhisa and Jyestha are on the right and left shoulders.


                                TEXT 7




uttara-hanav agastir adhara-hanau yamo mukhesu cangarakah sanaiscara upasthe brhaspatih kakudi vaksasy adityo hrdaye narayano manasi candro nabhyam usana stanayor asvinau budhah pranapanayo rahur gale ketavah sarvangesu romasu sarve tara-ganah.




   uttara-hanau--on the upper jaw; agastih--the star named Agasti; adhara-hanau--on the lower jaw; yamah--Yamaraja; mukhesu--on the mouth; ca--also; angarakah--Mars; sanaiscarah--Saturn; upasthe--on the genitals; brhaspatih--Jupiter; kakudi--on the back of the neck; vaksasi--on the chest; adityah--the sun; hrdaye--within the heart; narayanah--Lord Narayana; manasi--in the mind; candrah--the moon; nabhyam--on the navel; usana--Venus; stanayoh--on the two breasts; asvinau--the two stars named Asvin; budhah--Mercury; pranapanayoh--in the inner airs known as prana and apana; rahuh--the planet Rahu; gale--on the neck; ketavah--comets; sarva-angesu--all over the body; romasu--in the pores of the body; sarve--all; tara-ganah--the numerous stars.




   On the upper chin of the sisumara is Agasti; on its lower chin, Yamaraja; on its mouth, Mars; on its genitals, Saturn; on the back of its neck, Jupiter; on its chest, the sun; and within the core of its heart, Narayana. Within its mind is the moon; on its navel, Venus; and on its breasts, the Asvini-kumaras. Within its life air, which is known as pranapana, is Mercury, on its neck is Rahu, all over its body are comets, and in its pores are the numerous stars.


                                TEXT 8




etad u haiva bhagavato visnoh sarva-devatamayam rupam aharahah sandhyayam prayato vagyato niriksamana upatistheta namo jyotir-lokaya kalayanayanimisam pataye maha-purusayabhidhimahiti.




   etat--this; u ha--indeed; eva--certainly; bhagavatah--of the Supreme personality of Godhead; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; sarva-devata-mayam--consisting of all the demigods; rupam--form; ahah-ahah--always; sandhyayam--in the morning, noon and evening; prayatah--meditating upon; vagyatah--controlling the words; niriksamanah--observing; upatistheta--one should worship; namah--respectful obeisances; jyotih-lokaya--unto the resting place of all the planetary systems; kalayanaya--in the form of supreme time; animisam--of the demigods; pataye--unto the master; maha-purusaya--unto the Supreme person; abhidhimahi--let us meditate; iti--thus.




   My dear King, the body of the sisumara, as thus described, should be considered the external form of Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Morning, noon and evening, one should silently observe the form of the Lord as the Sisumara-cakra and worship Him with this mantra: "O Lord who has assumed the form of time! O resting place of all the planets moving in different orbits! O master of all demigods, O Supreme Person, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You and meditate upon You."


                                TEXT 9




                   graharksataramayam adhidaivikam

                   papapaham mantra-krtam tri-kalam

                   namasyatah smarato va tri-kalam

                    nasyeta tat-kalajam asu papam




   graha-rksa-tara-mayam--consisting of all the planets and stars; adhidaivikam--the leader of all the demigods; papa-apaham--the killer of sinful reactions; mantra-krtam--of those who chant the mantra mentioned above; tri-kalam--three times; namasyatah--offering obeisances; smaratah--meditating; va--or; tri-kalam--three times; nasyeta--destroys; tat-kala-jam--born at that time; asu--very quickly; papam--all sinful reactions.




   The body of the Supreme Lord, Visnu, which forms the Sisumara-cakra, is the resting place of all the demigods and all the stars and planets. One who chants this mantra to worship that Supreme Person three times a day--morning, noon and evening--will surely be freed from all sinful reactions. If one simply offers his obeisances to this form or remembers this form three times a day, all his recent sinful activities will be destroyed.




   Summarizing the entire description of the planetary systems of the universe, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that one who is able to meditate upon this arrangement as the virat-rupa, or visva-rupa, the external body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and worship Him three times a day by meditation will always be free from all sinful reactions. Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura estimates that Dhruvaloka, the polestar, is 3,800,000 yojanas above the sun. Above Dhruvaloka by 10,000,000 yojanas is Maharloka, above Maharloka by 20,000,000 yojanas is Janaloka, above Janaloka by 80,000,000 yojanas is Tapoloka, and above Tapoloka by 120,000,000 yojanas is Satyaloka. Thus the distance from the sun to Satyaloka is 233,800,000 yojanas, or 1,870,400,000 miles. The Vaikuntha planets begin 26,200,000 yojanas (209,600,000 miles) above Satyaloka. Thus the Visnu Purana describes that the covering of the universe is 260,000,000 yojanas (2,080,000,000 miles) away from the sun. The distance from the sun to the earth is lower planetary systems called Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala. Below these lower planets by 30,000 yojanas, Sesa Naga is lying on the Garbhodaka Ocean. That ocean is 249,800,000 yojanas deep. Thus the total diameter of the universe is approximately 500,000,000 yojanas, or 4,000,000,000 miles.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Fifth Canto, Twenty-third Chapter of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Sisumara planetary System."

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