Chapter Fourteen

                     King Citraketu's Lamentation


   In this Fourteenth Chapter, Pariksit Maharaja asks his spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami, how such a demon as Vrtrasura could become an exalted devotee. In this connection the previous life of Vrtrasura is discussed. This involves the story of Citraketu and how he was victimized by lamentation because of the death of his son.

   Among many millions of living entities, the number of human beings is extremely small, and among human beings who are actually religious, only some are eager to be liberated from material existence. Among many thousands of people who desire relief from material existence, one is freed from the association of unwanted persons or is relieved of material contamination. And among many millions of such liberated persons, one may become a devotee of Lord Narayana. Therefore such devotees are extremely rare. Since bhakti, devotional service, is not ordinary, Pariksit Maharaja was astonished that an asura could rise to the exalted position of a devotee. Being doubtful, Pariksit Maharaja inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami, who then described Vrtrasura with reference to his previous birth as Citraketu, the King of Surasena.

   Citraketu, who had no sons, got an opportunity to meet the great sage Angira. When Angira inquired from the King about his welfare, the King expressed his moroseness, and therefore by the grace of the great sage, the King's first wife, Krtadyuti, gave birth to a son, who was the cause of both happiness and lamentation. Upon the birth of this son, the King and all the residents of the palace were very happy. The co-wives of Krtadyuti, however, were envious, and later they administered poison to the child. Citraketu was overwhelmed by shock at his son's death. Then Narada Muni and Angira went to see him.


                                TEXT 1




                          sri-pariksid uvaca


                      brahman vrtrasya papmanah

                          narayane bhagavati

                       katham asid drdha matih




   sri-pariksit uvaca--King Pariksit inquired; rajah--of the mode of passion; tamah--and of the mode of ignorance; sva-bhavasya--having a nature; brahman--O learned brahmana; vrtrasya--of Vrtrasura; papmanah--who was supposedly sinful; narayane--in Lord Narayana; bhagavati--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; katham--how; asit--was there; drdha--very strong; matih--consciousness.




   King Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O learned brahmana, demons are generally sinful, being obsessed with the modes of passion and ignorance. How, then, could Vrtrasura have attained such exalted love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana?




   In this material world, everyone is obsessed with the modes of passion and ignorance. However, unless one conquers these modes and comes to the platform of goodness, there is no chance of one's becoming a pure devotee. This is confirmed by Lord Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita (7.28):


                      yesam tv anta-gatam papam

                        jananam punya-karmanam

                       te dvandva-moha-nirmukta

                      bhajante mam drdha-vratah


   "Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination." Since Vrtrasura was among the demons, Maharaja Pariksit wondered how it was possible for him to have become such an exalted devotee.


                                TEXT 2




                       devanam suddha-sattvanam

                         rsinam camalatmanam

                        bhaktir mukunda-carane

                          na prayenopajayate




   devanam--of the demigods; suddha-sattvanam--whose minds are purified; rsinam--of great saintly persons; ca--and; amala-atmanam--who have purified their existence; bhaktih--devotional service; mukunda-carane--to the lotus feet of Mukunda, the Lord, who can give liberation; na--not; prayena--almost always; upajayate--develops.




   Demigods situated in the mode of goodness and great saints cleansed of the dirt of material enjoyment hardly ever render pure devotional service at the lotus feet of Mukunda. [Therefore how could Vrtrasura have become such a great devotee?]


                                TEXT 3




                       rajobhih sama-sankhyatah

                       parthivair iha jantavah

                         tesam ye kecanehante

                        sreyo vai manujadayah




   rajobhih--with the atoms; sama-sankhyatah--having the same numerical strength; parthivaih--of the earth; iha--in this world; jantavah--the living entities; tesam--of them; ye--those who; kecana--some; ihante--act; sreyah--for religious principles; vai--indeed; manuja-adayah--the human beings and so on.




   In this material world there are as many living entities as atoms. Among these living entities, a very few are human beings, and among them, few are interested in following religious principles.


                                TEXT 4




                        prayo mumuksavas tesam

                         kecanaiva dvijottama

                         mumuksunam sahasresu

                       kascin mucyeta sidhyati




   prayah--almost always; mumuksavah--persons interested in liberation; tesam--of them; kecana--some; eva--indeed; dvija-uttama--O best of the brahmanas; mumuksunam--of those who desire to be liberated; sahasresu--in many thousands; kascit--someone; mucyeta--may be actually liberated; sidhyati--someone is perfect.




   O best of the brahmanas, Sukadeva Gosvami, out of many persons who follow religious principles, only a few desire liberation from the material world. Among many thousands who desire liberation, one may actually achieve liberation, giving up material attachment to society, friendship, love, country, home, wife and children. And among many thousands of such liberated persons, one who can understand the true meaning of liberation is very rare.




   There are four classes of men, namely karmis, jnanis, yogis and bhaktas. This statement pertains especially to karmis and jnanis. A karmi tries to he happy within this material world by changing from one body to another. His objective is bodily comfort, either in this planet or in another. When such a person becomes a jnani, however, be aspires for liberation from material bondage. Among many such persons who aspire for liberation, one may actually be liberated during his life. Such a person gives up his attachment for society, friendship, love, country, family, wife and children. Among many such persons, who are in the vanaprastha stage, one may understand the value of becoming a sannyasi, completely accepting the renounced order of life.


                                TEXT 5




                        muktanam api siddhanam


                       sudurlabhah prasantatma

                         kotisv api maha-mune




   muktanam--of those who are liberated during this life (who are unattached to the bodily comforts of society, friendship and love); api--even; siddhanam--who are perfect (because they understand the insignificance of bodily comforts); narayana-parayanah--a person who has concluded that Narayana is the Supreme; su-durlabhah--very rarely found; prasanta--fully pacified; atma--whose mind; kotisu--out of millions and trillions; api--even; maha-mune--O great sage.




   O great sage, among many millions who are liberated and perfect in knowledge of liberation, one may be a devotee of Lord Narayana, or Krsna. Such devotees, who are fully peaceful, are extremely rare.




   Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura gives the following purport to this verse. Simply desiring mukti, or liberation, is insufficient; one must become factually liberated. When one understands the futility of the materialistic way of life, one becomes advanced in knowledge, and therefore he situates himself in the vanaprastha order, unattached to family, wife and children. One should then further progress to the platform of sannyasa, the actual renounced order, never to fall again and be afflicted by materialistic life. Even though one desires to be liberated, this does not mean he is liberated. Only rarely is someone liberated. Indeed, although many men take sannyasa to become liberated, because of their imperfections they again become attached to women, material activities, social welfare work and so on.

   Jnanis, yogis and karmis devoid of devotional service are called offenders. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, mayavadi krsne aparadhi: one who thinks that everything is maya instead of thinking that everything is Krsna is called an aparadhi, or offender. Although the Mayavadis, impersonalists, are offenders at the lotus feet of Krsna, they may nonetheless be counted among the siddhas, those who have realized the self. They may be considered nearer to spiritual perfection because at least they have realized what spiritual life is. If such a person becomes narayana-parayana, a devotee of Lord Narayana, he is better than a jivan-mukta, one who is liberated or perfect. This requires higher intelligence.

   There are two kinds of jnanis. One is inclined to devotional service and the other to impersonal realization. Impersonalists generally undergo great endeavor for no tangible benefit, and therefore it is said that they are husking paddy that has no grain (sthula-tusavaghatinah). The other class of jnanis, whose jnana is mixed with bhakti, are also of two kinds--those who are devoted to the so-called false form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and those who understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the actual spiritual form. The Mayavadi devotees worship Narayana or Visnu with the idea that Visnu has accepted a form of maya and that the ultimate truth is actually impersonal. The pure devotee, however, never thinks that Visnu has accepted a body of maya; instead, he knows perfectly well that the original Absolute Truth is the Supreme Person. Such a devotee is actually situated in knowledge. He never merges in the Brahman effulgence. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32):


                 ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas

                tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah

                  aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah

                patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah


   "O Lord, the intelligence of those who think themselves liberated but who have no devotion is impure. Even though they rise to the highest point of liberation by dint of severe penances and austerities, they are sure to fall down again into material existence, for they do not take shelter at Your lotus feet." Evidence of this same point is also given in Bhagavad-gita (9.11), wherein the Lord says:


                         avajananti mam mudha

                        manusim tanum asritam

                        param bhavam ajananto

                        mama bhuta-mahesvaram


   "Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." When rascals (mudhas) see that Krsna acts exactly like a human being, they deride the transcendental form of the Lord because they do not know the param bhavam, His transcendental form and activities. Such persons are further described in Bhagavad-gita (9.12) as follows:


                        moghasa mogha-karmano

                        mogha-jnana vicetasah

                        raksasim asurim caiva

                       prakrtim mohinim sritah


   "Those who are thus bewildered are attracted by demoniac and atheistic views. In that deluded condition, their hopes for liberation, their fruitive activities and their culture of knowledge are all defeated." Such persons do not know that Krsna's body is not material. There is no distinction between Krsna's body and His soul, but because less intelligent men see Krsna as a human being, they deride Him. They cannot imagine how a person like Krsna could be the origin of everything (govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami). Such persons are described as moghasah, baffled in their hopes. Whatever they desire for the future will be baffled. Even if they apparently engage in devotional service, they are described as moghasah because they ultimately desire to merge into the Brahman effulgence.

   Those who aspire to be elevated to the heavenly planets by devotional service will also be frustrated, because this is not the result of devotional service. However, they are also given a chance to engage in devotional service and be purified. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.17):


                      srnvatam sva-kathah krsnah


                     hrdy antah-stho hy abhadrani

                        vidhunoti suhrt satam


   "Sri Krsna, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramatma [Supersoul] in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted."

   Unless the dirt within the core of one's heart is cleansed away, one cannot become a pure devotee. Therefore the word sudurlabhah ("very rarely found") is used in this verse. Not only among hundreds and thousands, but among millions of perfectly liberated souls, a pure devotee is hardly ever found. Therefore the words kotisv api are used herein. Srila Madhvacarya gives the following quotations from the Tantra Bhagavata:


                        nava-kotyas tu devanam

                         rsayah sapta-kotayah

                         narayanayanah sarve

                        ye kecit tat-parayanah


   "There are ninety million demigods and seventy million sages, who are all called narayanayana, devotees of Lord Narayana. Among them, only a few are called narayana-parayana."


                          narayanayana deva

                       rsy-adyas tat-parayanah

                      brahmadyah kecanaiva syuh

                      siddho yogya-sukham labhan


   The difference between the siddhas and narayana-parayanas is that direct devotees are called narayana-parayanas whereas those who perform various types of mystic yoga are called siddhas.


                                TEXT 6




                      vrtras tu sa katham papah


                       ittham drdha-matih krsna

                         asit sangrama ulbane




   vrtrah--Vrtrasura; tu--but; sah--he; katham--how; papah--although sinful (getting the body of a demon); sarva-loka--of all the three worlds; upatapanah--the cause of suffering; ittham--such; drdha-matih--firmly fixed intelligence; krsne--in Krsna; asit--there was; sangrame ulbane--in the great blazing fire of battle.




   Vrtrasura was situated in the blazing fire of battle and was an infamous, sinful demon, always engaged in giving troubles and anxieties to others. How could such a demon become so greatly Krsna conscious?




   It has been described that a narayana-parayana, a pure devotee, is rarely found even among millions and millions of persons. Therefore Pariksit Maharaja was surprised that Vrtrasura, whose purpose was to give trouble and anxiety to others, was one of these devotees, even on a battlefield. What was the reason for Vrtrasura's advancement?


                                TEXT 7




                       atra nah samsayo bhuyan

                      chrotum kautuhalam prabho

                         yah paurusena samare

                         sahasraksam atosayat




   atra--in this connection; nah--our; samsayah--doubt; bhuyan--great; srotum--to hear; kautuhalam--eagerness; prabho--O my lord; yah--he who; paurusena--by bravery and strength; samare--in battle; sahasra-aksam--Lord Indra, who has one thousand eyes; atosayat--pleased.




   My dear lord, Sukadeva Gosvami, although Vrtrasura was a sinful demon, he showed the prowess of a most exalted ksatriya and satisfied Lord Indra in battle. How could such a demon be a great devotee of Lord Krsna? These contradictions have caused me great doubt, and they have made me eager to hear of this from you.


                                TEXT 8




                            sri-suta uvaca

                      pariksito 'tha samprasnam

                         bhagavan badarayanih

                        nisamya sraddadhanasya

                       pratinandya vaco 'bravit




   sri-sutah uvaca--Sri Suta Gosvami said; pariksitah--of Maharaja Pariksit; atha--thus; samprasnam--the perfect question; bhagavan--the most powerful; badarayanih--Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vyasadeva; nisamya--hearing; sraddadhanasya--of his disciple, who was so faithful in understanding the truth; pratinandya--congratulating; vacah--words; abravit--spoke.




   Sri Suta Gosvami said: After hearing Maharaja Pariksit's very intelligent question, Sukadeva Gosvami, the most powerful sage, began answering his disciple with great affection.


                                TEXT 9




                            sri-suka uvaca

                         srnusvavahito rajann

                         itihasam imam yatha

                       srutam dvaipayana-mukhan

                         naradad devalad api




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; srnusva--please hear; avahitah--with great attention; rajan--O King; itihasam--history; imam--this; yatha--just as; srutam--heard; dvaipayana--of Vyasadeva; mukhat--from the mouth; naradat--from Narada; devalat--from Devala Rsi; api--also.




   Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, I shall speak to you the same history I have heard from the mouths of Vyasadeva, Narada and Devala. Please listen with attention.


                               TEXT 10




                        asid raja sarvabhaumah

                         surasenesu vai nrpa

                        citraketur iti khyato

                        yasyasit kamadhun mahi




   asit--there was; raja--one king; sarva-bhaumah--an emperor of the entire surface of the globe; surasenesu--in the country known as Surasena; vai--indeed; nrpa--O King; citraketuh--Citraketu; iti--thus; khyatah--celebrated; yasya--of whom; asit--was; kama-dhuk--supplying all the necessities; mahi--the earth.




   O King Pariksit, in the province of Surasena there was a king named Citraketu, who ruled the entire earth. During his reign, the earth produced all the necessities for life.




   Here the most significant statement is that the earth completely produced all the necessities of life during the time of King Citraketu. As stated in the Isopanisad (Mantra 1):


                        isavasyam idam sarvam

                       yat kinca jagatyam jagat

                       tena tyaktena bhunjitha

                     ma grdhah kasya svid dhanam


   "Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong." Krsna, the supreme controller, has created the material world, which is completely perfect and free from scarcity. The Lord supplies the necessities of all living entities. These necessities come from the earth, and thus the earth is the source of supply. When there is a good ruler, that source produces the necessities of life abundantly. However, when there is not such a good ruler, there will be scarcity. This is the significance of the word kamadhuk. Elsewhere in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.10.4) it is said, kamam vavarsa parjanyah sarva-kama-dugha mahi: "During the reign of Maharaja Yudhisthira, the clouds showered all the water that people needed, and the earth produced all the necessities of men in profusion." We have experience that in some seasons the rains produce abundance and in other seasons there is scarcity. We have no control over the earth's productiveness, for it is naturally under the full control of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His order, the Lord can make the earth produce sufficiently or insufficiently. If a pious king rules the earth according to the sastric injunctions, there will naturally be regular rainfall and sufficient produce to provide for all men. There will be no question of exploitation, for everyone will have enough. Black-marketeering and other corrupt dealings will then automatically stop. Simply ruling the land cannot solve man's problems unless the leader has spiritual capabilities. He must be like Maharaja Yudhisthira, Pariksit Maharaja or Ramacandra. Then all the inhabitants of the land will be extremely happy.


                               TEXT 11




                       tasya bharya-sahasranam

                         sahasrani dasabhavan

                         santanikas capi nrpo

                        na lebhe tasu santatim




   tasya--of him (King Citraketu); bharya--of wives; sahasranam--of thousands; sahasrani--thousands; dasa--ten; abhavan--there were; santanikah--quite capable of begetting sons; ca--and; api--although; nrpah--the King; na--not; lebhe--obtained; tasu--in them; santatim--a son.




   This Citraketu had ten million wives, but although he was capable of producing children, he did not receive a child from any of them. By chance, all the wives were barren.


                               TEXT 12






                      sampannasya gunaih sarvais

                      cinta bandhya-pater abhut




   rupa--with beauty; audarya--magnanimity; vayah--youth; janma--aristocratic birth; vidya--education; aisvarya--opulence; sriya-adibhih--wealth and so on; sampannasya--endowed; gunaih--with good qualities; sarvaih--all; cinta--anxiety; bandhya-pateh--of Citraketu, the husband of so many sterile wives; abhut--there was.




   Citraketu, the husband of these millions of wives, was endowed with a beautiful form, magnanimity and youth. He was born in a high family, he had a complete education, and he was wealthy and opulent. Nevertheless, in spite of being endowed with all these assets, he was full of anxiety because he did not have a son.




   It appears that the King first married one wife, but she could not bear a child. Then he married a second, a third, a fourth and so on, but none of the wives could bear children. In spite of the material assets of janmaisvarya-sruta-sri--birth in an aristocratic family with full opulence, wealth, education and beauty--he was very much aggrieved because in spite of having so many wives, he had no son. Certainly his grief was natural. Grhastha life does not mean having a wife and no children. Canakya Pandita says, putra-hinam grham sunyam: if a family man has no son, his home is no better than a desert. The King was certainly most unhappy that he could not get a son, and this is why he had married so many times. Ksatriyas especially are allowed to marry more than one wife, and this King did so. Nonetheless, he had no issue.


                               TEXT 13




                       na tasya sampadah sarva

                         mahisyo vama-locanah

                      sarvabhaumasya bhus ceyam

                        abhavan priti-hetavah




   na--not; tasya--of him (Citraketu); sampadah--the great opulences; sarvah--all; mahisyah--the queens; vama-locanah--having very attractive eyes; sarva-bhaumasya--of the emperor; bhuh--land; ca--also; iyam--this; abhavan--were; priti-hetavah--sources of pleasure.




   His queens all had beautiful faces and attractive eyes, yet neither his opulences, his hundreds and thousands of queens, nor the lands of which he was the supreme proprietor were sources of happiness for him.


                               TEXT 14




                        tasyaikada tu bhavanam

                         angira bhagavan rsih

                         lokan anucarann etan

                        upagacchad yadrcchaya




   tasya--of him; ekada--once upon a time; tu--but; bhavanam--to the palace; angirah--Angira; bhagavan--very powerful; rsih--sage; lokan--planets; anucaran--traveling around; etan--these; upagacchat--came; yadrcchaya--suddenly.




   Once upon a time, when the powerful sage named Angira was traveling all over the universe without engagement, by his sweet will he came to the palace of King Citraketu.


                               TEXT 15




                        tam pujayitva vidhivat


                         krtatithyam upasidat

                         sukhasinam samahitah




   tam--him; pujayitva--after worshiping; vidhi-vat--according to the rules and regulations for receiving exalted guests; pratyutthana--by standing from the throne; arhana-adibhih--offering worship and so on; krta-atithyam--who was given hospitality; upasidat--sat down near; sukha-asinam--who was seated very comfortably; samahitah--controlling his mind and senses.




   Citraketu immediately stood up from his throne and offered him worship. He offered drinking water and eatables and in this way performed his duty as a host to a great guest. When the rsi was seated very comfortably, the King, restraining his mind and senses, sat on the ground at the side of the rsi's feet.


                               TEXT 16




                        maharsis tam upasinam

                        prasrayavanatam ksitau

                         pratipujya maharaja

                        samabhasyedam abravit




   maha-rsih--the great sage; tam--unto him (the King); upasinam--sitting near; prasraya-avanatam--bowing in humility; ksitau--on the ground; pratipujya--congratulating; maharaja--O King Pariksit; samabhasya--addressing; idam--this; abravit--said.




   O King Pariksit, when Citraketu, bent low in humility, was seated at the lotus feet of the great sage, the sage congratulated him for his humility and hospitality. The sage addressed him in the following words.


                               TEXT 17




                             angira uvaca

                        api te 'namayam svasti

                        prakrtinam tathatmanah

                       yatha prakrtibhir guptah

                       puman raja ca saptabhih




   angirah uvaca--the great sage Angira said; api--whether; te--of you; anamayam--health; svasti--auspiciousness; prakrtinam--of your royal elements (associates and paraphernalia); tatha--as well as; atmanah--of your own body, mind and soul; yatha--like; prakrtibhih--by the elements of material nature; guptah--protected; puman--the living being; raja--the king; ca--also; saptabhih--by seven.




   The great sage Angira said: My dear King, I hope that your body and mind and your royal associates and paraphernalia are well. When the seven properties of material nature [the total material energy, the ego and the five objects of sense gratification] are in proper order, the living entity within the material elements is happy. Without these seven elements one cannot exist. Similarly, a king is always protected by seven elements--his instructor (svami or guru), his ministers, his kingdom, his fort, his treasury, his royal order and his friends.




   As it is quoted by Sridhara Svami in his Bhagavatam commentary:


                        svamy-amatyau janapada


                      dando mitram ca tasyaitah

                        sapta-prakrtayo matah


   A king is not alone. He first has his spiritual master, the supreme guide. Then come his ministers, his kingdom, his fortifications, his treasury, his system of law and order, and his friends or allies. If these seven are properly maintained, the king is happy. Similarly, as explained in Bhagavad-gita (dehino 'smin yatha dehe), the living entity, the soul, is within the material covering of the mahat-tattva, ego and panca-tanmatra, the five objects of sense gratification. When these seven are in proper order, the living entity is in a mood of pleasure. Generally when the associates of the king are quiet and obedient, the king can be happy. Therefore the great sage Angira Rsi inquired about the King's personal health and the good fortune of his seven associates. When we inquire from a friend whether everything is well, we are concerned not only with his personal self but also with his family, his source of income, and his assistants or servants. All of them must be well, and then a person can be happy.


                               TEXT 18




                       atmanam prakrtisv addha

                        nidhaya sreya apnuyat

                        rajna tatha prakrtayo





   atmanam--himself; prakrtisu--under these seven royal elements; addha--directly; nidhaya--placing; sreyah--ultimate happiness; apnuyat--may obtain; rajna--by the king; tatha--so also; prakrtayah--the dependent royal elements; nara-deva--O King; ahita-adhayah--offering wealth and other items.




   O King, O lord of humanity, when a king directly depends upon his associates and follows their instructions, he is happy. Similarly, when his associates offer their gifts and activities to the king and follow his orders, they are also happy.




   The actual happiness of a king and his dependents is described in this verse. A king should not simply give orders to his dependents because he is supreme; sometimes he must follow their instructions. Similarly, the dependents should depend on the king. This mutual dependence will make everyone happy.


                               TEXT 19




                         api darah prajamatya

                    bhrtyah srenyo 'tha mantrinah

                         paura janapada bhupa

                         atmaja vasa-vartinah




   api--whether; darah--wives; praja--citizens; amatyah--and secretaries; bhrtyah--servants; srenyah--merchants; atha--as well as; mantrinah--ministers; paurah--inmates of the palace; janapadah--the provincial governors; bhupah--landholders; atma-jah--sons; vasa-vartinah--under your full control.




   O King, are your wives, citizens, secretaries and servants and the merchants who sell spices and oil under your control? Are you also in full control of ministers, the inhabitants of your palace, your provincial governors, your sons and your other dependents?




   The master or king and his subordinates should be interdependent. Through cooperation, both of them can be happy.


                               TEXT 20




                       yasyatmanuvasas cet syat

                         sarve tad-vasaga ime

                        lokah sapala yacchanti

                        sarve balim atandritah




   yasya--of whom; atma--mind; anuvasah--under control; cet--if; syat--may be; sarve--all; tat-vasa-gah--under the control of him; ime--these; lokah--the worlds; sa-palah--with their governors; yacchanti--offer; sarve--all; balim--contribution; atandritah--becoming free from laziness.




   If the king's mind is fully controlled, all his family members and governmental officers are subordinate to him. His provincial governors present taxes on time, without resistance, and what to speak of lesser servants?




   Angira Rsi asked the King whether his mind was also under control. This is most essential for happiness.


                               TEXT 21




                        atmanah priyate natma

                         paratah svata eva va

                      laksaye 'labdha-kamam tvam

                        cintaya sabalam mukham




   atmanah--of you; priyate--is pleased; na--not; atma--the mind; paratah--due to other causes; svatah--due to yourself; eva--indeed; va--or; laksaye--I can see; alabdha-kamam--not achieving your desired goals; tvam--you; cintaya--by anxiety; sabalam--pale; mukham--face.




   O King Citraketu, I can observe that your mind is not pleased. You seem not to have achieved your desired goal. Is this because of you yourself, or has it been caused by others? Your pale face reflects your deep anxiety.


                               TEXT 22




                         evam vikalpito rajan

                         vidusa muninapi sah

                        prasrayavanato 'bhyaha

                        praja-kamas tato munim




   evam--thus; vikalpitah--questioned; rajan--O King Pariksit; vidusa--greatly learned; munina--by the philosopher; api--although; sah--he (King Citraketu); prasraya-avanatah--being bent low due to humility; abhyaha--replied; praja-kamah--desiring offspring; tatah--thereafter; munim--to the great sage.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King Pariksit, although the great sage Angira knew everything, he inquired from the King in this way. Thus King Citraketu, desiring a son, bent low in great humility and spoke to the great sage as follows.




   Since the face is the index to the mind, a saintly person can study the condition of one's mind by seeing his face. When Angira Rsi remarked about the King's discolored face, King Citraketu explained the cause of his anxiety as follows.


                               TEXT 23




                           citraketur uvaca

                       bhagavan kim na viditam


                       yoginam dhvasta-papanam

                         bahir antah saririsu




   citraketuh uvaca--King Citraketu replied; bhagavan--O most powerful sage; kim--what; na--not; viditam--is understood; tapah--by austerity; jnana--knowledge; samadhibhih--and by samadhi (trance, transcendental meditation); yoginam--by the great yogis or devotees; dhvasta-papanam--who are fully freed from all sinful reactions; bahih--externally; antah--internally; saririsu--in conditioned souls, who have material bodies.




   King Citraketu said: O great lord Angira, because of austerity, knowledge and transcendental samadhi, you are freed from all the reactions of sinful life. Therefore, as a perfect yogi, you can understand everything external and internal regarding embodied, conditioned souls like us.


                               TEXT 24




                       tathapi prcchato bruyam

                       brahmann atmani cintitam

                         bhavato vidusas capi

                        coditas tvad-anujnaya




   tathapi--still; prcchatah--asking; bruyam--let me speak; brahman--O great brahmana; atmani--in the mind; cintitam--anxiety; bhavatah--to you; vidusah--who know everything; ca--and; api--although; coditah--being inspired; tvat--your; anujnaya--by the order.




   O great soul, you are aware of everything, yet you are asking me why I am full of anxiety. Therefore, in response to your order, let me disclose the cause.


                               TEXT 25




                      loka-palair api prarthyah


                      na nandayanty aprajam mam

                        ksut-trt-kamam ivapare




   loka-palaih--by great demigods; api--even; prarthyah--desirable; samrajya--a great empire; aisvarya--material opulence; sampadah--possessions; na nandayanti--do not give pleasure; aprajam--because of having no son; mam--unto me; ksut--hunger; trt--thirst; kamam--desiring to satisfy; iva--like; apare--other enjoyable sense objects.




   As a person aggrieved by hunger and thirst is not pleased by the external gratification of flower garlands or sandalwood pulp, I am not pleased with my empire, opulence or possessions, which are desirable even for great demigods, because I have no son.


                               TEXT 26




                        tatah pahi maha-bhaga

                       purvaih saha gatam tamah

                        yatha tarema dusparam

                       prajaya tad vidhehi nah




   tatah--therefore, because of this; pahi--kindly save; maha-bhaga--O great sage; purvaih saha--along with my forefathers; gatam--gone; tamah--to darkness; yatha--so that; tarema--we can cross; dusparam--very difficult to cross; prajaya--by getting a son; tat--that; vidhehi--kindly do; nah--for us.




   Therefore, O great sage, please save me and my forefathers, who are descending to the darkness of hell because I have no progeny. Kindly do something so that I may have a son to deliver us from hellish conditions.




   According to Vedic civilization, one gets married simply to have a son, who is needed to offer oblations to his forefathers. King Citraketu responsibly desired to beget a child so that he and his forefathers might be delivered from the darkest regions. He was concerned with how to get pinda, oblations, in the next life, not only for himself but also for his forefathers. Therefore he requested Angira Rsi to favor him by doing something that could help him get a son.


                               TEXT 27




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       ity arthitah sa bhagavan

                       krpalur brahmanah sutah

                      srapayitva carum tvastram

                       tvastaram ayajad vibhuh




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; arthitah--being requested; sah--he (Angira Rsi); bhagavan--the most powerful; krpaluh--being very merciful; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; sutah--a son (born of Lord Brahma's mind); srapayitva--after causing to cook; carum--a specific oblation of sweetrice; tvastram--meant for the demigod known as Tvasta; tvastaram--Tvasta; ayajat--he worshiped; vibhuh--the great sage.




   In response to the request of Maharaja Citraketu, Angira Rsi, who was born of Lord Brahma's mind, was very merciful toward him. Because the sage was a greatly powerful personality, he performed a sacrifice by offering oblations of sweetrice to Tvasta.


                               TEXT 28




                     jyestha srestha ca ya rajno

                         mahisinam ca bharata

                       namna krtadyutis tasyai

                      yajnocchistam adad dvijah




   jyestha--the senior; srestha--the most perfect; ca--and; ya--she who; rajnah--of the King; mahisinam--among all the queens; ca--also; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit, the best of the Bharatas; namna--by name; krtadyutih--Krtadyuti; tasyai--unto her; yajna--of the sacrifice; ucchistam--the remnants of food; adat--delivered; dvijah--the great sage (Angira).




   O Pariksit Maharaja, best of the Bharatas, the remnants of the food offered in the yajna were given by the great sage Angira to the first and most perfect among Citraketu's millions of queens, whose name was Krtadyuti.


                               TEXT 29




                         athaha nrpatim rajan

                        bhavitaikas tavatmajah

                      harsa-soka-pradas tubhyam

                        iti brahma-suto yayau




   atha--thereafter; aha--said; nrpatim--unto the King; rajan--O King Citraketu; bhavita--there will be; ekah--one; tava--your; atmajah--son; harsa-soka--jubilation and lamentation; pradah--who will give; tubhyam--unto you; iti--thus; brahma-sutah--Angira Rsi, the son of Lord Brahma; yayau--left.




   Thereafter, the great sage told the King, "O great King, now you will have a son who will be the cause of both jubilation and lamentation." The sage then left, without waiting for Citraketu's response.




   The word harsa means "jubilation," and soka means "lamentation." The King was overwhelmed with joy when he understood that he would have a son. Because of his great jubilation, he could not actually understand the statement of the sage Angira. He accepted it to mean that there would certainly be jubilation because of the birth of his future son, but that he would be the King's only son and, being very proud of his great wealth and empire, would not be very obedient to his father. Thus the King was satisfied, thinking, "Let there be a son. It does not matter if he is not very obedient." In Bengal there is a proverb that instead of having no maternal uncle, it is better to have a maternal uncle who is blind. The King accepted this philosophy, thinking that a disobedient son would be better than no son at all. The great sage Canakya Pandita says:


                       ko 'rthah putrena jatena

                      yo na vidvan na dharmikah

                        kanena caksusa kim va

                        caksuh pidaiva kevalam


   "What is the use of a son who is neither a learned scholar nor a devotee? Such a son is like a blind, diseased eye, which always causes suffering." Nevertheless, the material world is so polluted that one wants to have a son even though he is useless. This attitude was represented in the history of King Citraketu.


                               TEXT 30




                        sapi tat-prasanad eva

                         citraketor adharayat

                       garbham krtadyutir devi

                        krttikagner ivatmajam




   sa--she; api--even; tat-prasanat--by eating the remnants of food from the great sacrifice; eva--indeed; citraketoh--from King Citraketu; adharayat--bore; garbham--pregnancy; krtadyutih--Queen Krtadyuti; devi--the goddess; krttika--Krttika; agneh--from Agni; iva--as; atma-jam--a son.




   As Krttikadevi, after receiving the semen of Lord Siva from Agni, conceived a child named Skanda [Karttikeya], Krtadyuti, having received semen from Citraketu, became pregnant after eating remnants of food from the yajna performed by Angira.


                               TEXT 31




                        tasya anudinam garbhah

                         sukla-paksa ivodupah

                         vavrdhe surasenesa-

                         tejasa sanakair nrpa




   tasyah--her; anudinam--day after day; garbhah--embryo; sukla-pakse--during the fortnight of the waxing moon; iva--like; udupah--the moon; vavrdhe--gradually developed; surasena-isa--of the King of Surasena; tejasa--by the semen; sanakaih--little by little; nrpa--O King Pariksit.




   After receiving semen from Maharaja Citraketu, the King of Surasena, Queen Krtadyuti gradually developed in her pregnancy, O King Pariksit, just as the moon develops during the bright fortnight.


                               TEXT 32




                          atha kala upavrtte

                          kumarah samajayata

                         janayan surasenanam

                        srnvatam paramam mudam




   atha--thereafter; kale upavrtte--in due course of time; kumarah--the son; samajayata--took birth; janayan--creating; surasenanam--of the inhabitants of Surasena; srnvatam--hearing; paramam--the highest; mudam--delight.




   Thereafter, in due course of time, a son was born to the King. Hearing news of this, all the inhabitants of the state of Surasena were extremely pleased.


                               TEXT 33




                         hrsto raja kumarasya

                        snatah sucir alankrtah

                        vacayitvasiso vipraih

                         karayam asa jatakam




   hrstah--very happy; raja--the King; kumarasya--of his newly born son; snatah--having bathed; sucih--being purified; alankrtah--being decorated with ornaments; vacayitva--having caused to be spoken; asisah--words of benediction; vipraih--by learned brahmanas; karayam asa--caused to be performed; jatakam--the birth ceremony.




   King Citraketu was especially pleased. After purifying himself by bathing and by decorating himself with ornaments, he engaged learned brahmanas in offering benedictions to the child and performing the birth ceremony.


                               TEXT 34




                       tebhyo hiranyam rajatam

                        vasamsy abharanani ca

                      graman hayan gajan pradad

                        dhenunam arbudani sat




   tebhyah--unto them (the learned brahmanas); hiranyam--gold; rajatam--silver; vasamsi--garments; abharanani--ornaments; ca--also; graman--villages; hayan--horses; gajan--elephants; pradat--gave in charity; dhenunam--of cows; arbudani--groups of one hundred million; sat--six.




   Unto the brahmanas who took part in the ritualistic ceremony the King gave charity of gold, silver, garments, ornaments, villages, horses and elephants, as well as sixty crores of cows [six hundred million cows].


                               TEXT 35




                        vavarsa kaman anyesam

                         parjanya iva dehinam

                       dhanyam yasasyam ayusyam

                         kumarasya maha-manah




   vavarsa--showered, gave in charity; kaman--all desirable things; anyesam--of others; parjanyah--a cloud; iva--like; dehinam--of all living entities; dhanyam--with the desire for an increase of opulence; yasasyam--an increase of reputation; ayusyam--and an increase of the duration of life; kumarasya--of the newly born child; maha-manah--the beneficent King Citraketu.




   As a cloud indiscriminately pours water on the earth, the beneficent King Citraketu, to increase the reputation, opulence and longevity of his son, distributed like rainfall all desirable things to everyone.


                               TEXT 36




                     krcchra-labdhe 'tha rajarses

                        tanaye 'nudinam pituh

                      yatha nihsvasya krcchrapte

                       dhane sneho 'nvavardhata




   krcchra--with great difficulty; labdhe--gained; atha--thereafter; raja-rseh--of the pious King Citraketu; tanaye--for the son; anudinam--day after day; pituh--of the father; yatha--exactly as; nihsvasya--of a poor man; krcchra-apte--gained after great difficulty; dhane--for riches; snehah--affection; anvavardhata--increased.




   When a poor man gets some money after great difficulty, his affection for the money increases daily. Similarly, when King Citraketu, after great difficulty, received a son, his affection for the son increased day after day.


                               TEXT 37




                       matus tv atitaram putre

                        sneho moha-samudbhavah

                        krtadyuteh sapatninam

                       praja-kama-jvaro 'bhavat




   matuh--of the mother; tu--also; atitaram--excessively; putre--for the son; snehah--affection; moha--out of ignorance; samudbhavah--produced; krtadyuteh--of Krtadyuti; sapatninam--of the co-wives; praja-kama--of a desire to have sons; jvarah--a fever; abhavat--there was.




   The mother's attraction and attention to the son, like that of the child's father, excessively increased. The other wives, seeing Krtadyuti's son, were very much agitated, as if by high fevers, with a desire to have sons.


                               TEXT 38




                         citraketor atipritir

                         yatha dare prajavati

                        na tathanyesu sanjajne

                        balam lalayato 'nvaham




   citraketoh--of King Citraketu; atipritih--excessive attraction; yatha--just as; dare--unto the wife; praja-vati--who begot a son; na--not; tatha--like that; anyesu--unto the others; sanjajne--arose; balam--the son; lalayatah--taking care of; anvaham--constantly.




   As King Citraketu fostered his son very carefully, his affection for Queen Krtadyuti increased, but gradually he lost affection for the other wives, who had no sons.


                               TEXT 39




                       tah paryatapyann atmanam

                       garhayantyo 'bhyasuyaya

                         anapatyena duhkhena

                         rajnas canadarena ca




   tah--they (the queens who did not have sons); paryatapyan--lamented; atmanam--themselves; garhayantyah--condemning; abhyasuyaya--out of envy; anapatyena--due to being without sons; duhkhena--by unhappiness; rajnah--of the King; ca--also; anadarena--due to negligence; ca--also.




   The other queens were extremely unhappy due to their being sonless. Because of the King's negligence toward them, they condemned themselves in envy and lamented.


                               TEXT 40




                      dhig aprajam striyam papam

                        patyus cagrha-sammatam

                       suprajabhih sapatnibhir

                         dasim iva tiraskrtam




   dhik--all condemnation; aprajam--without a son; striyam--upon a woman; papam--full of sinful activities; patyuh--by the husband; ca--also; a-grha-sammatam--who is not honored at home; su-prajabhih--who have sons; sapatnibhih--by co-wives; dasim--a maidservant; iva--exactly like; tiraskrtam--dishonored.




   A wife who has no sons is neglected at home by her husband and dishonored by her co-wives exactly like a maidservant. Certainly such a woman is condemned in every respect because of her sinful life.




   As stated by Canakya Pandita:


                        mata yasya grhe nasti

                        bharya capriya-vadini

                        aranyam tena gantavyam

                       yatharanyam tatha grham


   "A person who has no mother at home and whose wife does not speak sweetly should go to the forest. For such a person, living at home and living in the forest are equal." Similarly, for a woman who has no son, who is not cared for by her husband and whose co-wives neglect her, treating her like a maidservant, to go to the forest is better than to remain at home.


                               TEXT 41




                        dasinam ko nu santapah

                         svaminah paricaryaya

                       abhiksnam labdha-mananam

                        dasya dasiva durbhagah




   dasinam--of the maidservants; kah--what; nu--indeed; santapah--lamentation; svaminah--unto the husband; paricaryaya--by rendering service; abhiksnam--constantly; labdha-mananam--honored; dasyah--of the maidservant; dasi iva--like a maidservant; durbhagah--most unfortunate.




   Even maidservants who are constantly engaged in rendering service to the husband are honored by the husband, and thus they have nothing for which to lament. Our position, however, is that we are maidservants of the maidservant. Therefore we are most unfortunate.


                               TEXT 42




                         evam sandahyamananam

                       sapatnyah putra-sampada

                       rajno 'sammata-vrttinam

                        vidveso balavan abhut




   evam--thus; sandahyamananam--of the queens, who were constantly burning in lamentation; sapatnyah--of the co-wife Krtadyuti; putra-sampada--due to the opulence of a son; rajnah--by the King; asammata-vrttinam--not being very much favored; vidvesah--envy; balavan--very strong; abhut--became.




   Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Being neglected by their husband and seeing Krtadyuti's opulence in possessing a son, Krtadyuti's co-wives always burned in envy, which became extremely strong.


                               TEXT 43





                        striyo daruna-cetasah

                         garam daduh kumaraya

                        durmarsa nrpatim prati




   vidvesa-nasta-matayah--whose intelligence was lost in envy; striyah--the women; daruna-cetasah--being very hardhearted; garam--poison; daduh--administered; kumaraya--unto the boy; durmarsah--being intolerant; nrpatim--the King; prati--upon.




   As their envy increased, they lost their intelligence. Being extremely hardhearted and unable to tolerate the King's neglect, they finally administered poison to the son.


                               TEXT 44




                         krtadyutir ajananti

                        sapatninam agham mahat

                        supta eveti sancintya

                        niriksya vyacarad grhe




   krtadyutih--Queen Krtadyuti; ajananti--being unaware of; sapatninam--of her co-wives; agham--sinful act; mahat--very great; suptah--sleeping; eva--indeed; iti--thus; sancintya--thinking; niriksya--looking at; vyacarat--was walking; grhe--at home.




   Unaware of the poison administered by her co-wives, Queen Krtadyuti walked within the house, thinking that her son was sleeping deeply. She did not understand that he was dead.


                               TEXT 45




                        sayanam suciram balam

                          upadharya manisini

                        putram anaya me bhadre

                         iti dhatrim acodayat




   sayanam--lying down; su-ciram--for a long time; balam--the son; upadharya--thinking; manisini--very intelligent; putram--the son; anaya--bring; me--unto me; bhadre--O gentle friend; iti--thus; dhatrim--unto the nurse; acodayat--gave the order.




   Thinking that her child had been sleeping for a long time, Queen Krtadyuti, who was certainly very intelligent, ordered the nurse, "My dear friend, please bring my son here."


                               TEXT 46




                         sa sayanam upavrajya

                        drstva cottara-locanam

                      pranendriyatmabhis tyaktam

                        hatasmity apatad bhuvi




   sa--she (the maidservant); sayanam--lying down; upavrajya--going to; drstva--seeing; ca--also; uttara-locanam--his eyes turned upward (as are those of a dead body); prana-indriya-atmabhih--by the life force, senses and mind; tyaktam--abandoned; hata asmi--now I am doomed; iti--thus; apatat--fell down; bhuvi--on the ground.




   When the maidservant approached the child, who was lying down, she saw that his eyes were turned upward. There were no signs of life, all his senses having stopped, and she could understand that the child was dead. Seeing this, she immediately cried, "Now I am doomed," and fell to the ground.


                               TEXT 47




                 tasyas tadakarnya bhrsaturam svaram

                 ghnantyah karabhyam ura uccakair api

                  pravisya rajni tvarayatmajantikam

                   dadarsa balam sahasa mrtam sutam




   tasyah--of her (the maidservant); tada--at that time; akarnya--hearing; bhrsa-aturam--highly regretful and agitated; svaram--voice; ghnantyah--striking; karabhyam--with the hands; urah--the chest; uccakaih--loudly; api--also; pravisya--entering; rajni--the Queen; tvaraya--hastily; atmaja-antikam--near her son; dadarsa--she saw; balam--the child; sahasa--suddenly; mrtam--dead; sutam--son.




   In great agitation, the maidservant struck her breast with both hands and cried loudly in regretful words. Hearing her loud voice, the Queen immediately came, and when she approached her son, she saw that he was suddenly dead.


                               TEXT 48




                   papata bhumau parivrddhaya suca

                    mumoha vibhrasta-siroruhambara




   papata--fell down; bhumau--on the ground; parivrddhaya--highly increased; suca--out of lamentation; mumoha--she became unconscious; vibhrasta--scattered; siroruha--hair; ambara--and dress.




   In great lamentation, her hair and dress in disarray, the Queen fell to the ground unconscious.


                               TEXT 49




                    tato nrpantahpura-vartino jana

                  naras ca naryas ca nisamya rodanam

                  agatya tulya-vyasanah suduhkhitas

                  tas ca vyalikam ruruduh krtagasah




   tatah--thereafter; nrpa--O King; antahpura-vartinah--the inhabitants of the palace; janah--all the people; narah--the men; ca--and; naryah--the women; ca--also; nisamya--hearing; rodanam--loud crying; agatya--coming; tulya-vyasanah--being equally aggrieved; su-duhkhitah--very greatly lamenting; tah--they; ca--and; vyalikam--pretentiously; ruruduh--cried; krta-agasah--who had committed the offense (by giving the poison).




   O King Pariksit, hearing the loud crying, all the inhabitants of the palace came, both men and women. Being equally aggrieved, they also began to cry. The queens who had administered the poison also cried pretentiously, knowing full well their offense.


                             TEXTS 50-51




                  srutva mrtam putram alaksitantakam

                vinasta-drstih prapatan skhalan pathi

                  snehanubandhaidhitaya suca bhrsam

                vimurcchito 'nuprakrtir dvijair vrtah


                     papata balasya sa pada-mule

                   mrtasya visrasta-siroruhambarah

                  dirgham svasan baspa-kaloparodhato

                  niruddha-kantho na sasaka bhasitum




   srutva--hearing; mrtam--dead; putram--the son; alaksita-antakam--the cause of death being unknown; vinasta-drstih--unable to see properly; prapatan--constantly falling down; skhalan--slipping; pathi--on the road; sneha-anubandha--because of affection; edhitaya--increasing; suca--by lamentation; bhrsam--greatly; vimurcchitah--becoming unconscious; anuprakrtih--followed by ministers and other officers; dvijaih--by learned brahmanas; vrtah--surrounded; papata--fell down; balasya--of the boy; sah--he (the King); pada-mule--at the feet; mrtasya--of the dead body; visrasta--scattered; siroruha--hair; ambarah--and dress; dirgham--long; svasan--breathing; baspa-kala-uparodhatah--due to crying with tearful eyes; niruddha-kanthah--having a choked voice; na--not; sasaka--was able; bhasitum--to speak.




   When King Citraketu heard of his son's death from unknown causes, he became almost blind. Because of his great affection for his son, his lamentation grew like a blazing fire, and as he went to see the dead child, he kept slipping and falling on the ground. Surrounded by his ministers and other officers and the learned brahmanas present, the King approached and fell unconscious at the child's feet, his hair and dress scattered. When the King, breathing heavily, regained consciousness, his eyes were tearful, and he could not speak.


                               TEXT 52




                   patim niriksyoru-sucarpitam tada

                  mrtam ca balam sutam eka-santatim

                 janasya rajni prakrtes ca hrd-rujam

                    sati dadhana vilalapa citradha




   patim--the husband; niriksya--by seeing; uru--greatly; suca--with lamentation; arpitam--pained; tada--at that time; mrtam--dead; ca--and; balam--the child; sutam--the son; eka-santatim--the only son in the family; janasya--of all the other people gathered there; rajni--the Queen; prakrteh ca--as well as of the officers and ministers; hrt-rujam--the pains within the core of the heart; sati dadhana--increasing; vilalapa--lamented; citradha--in varieties of ways.




   When the Queen saw her husband, King Citraketu, merged in great lamentation and saw the dead child, who was the only son in the family, she lamented in various ways. This increased the pain in the cores of the hearts of all the inhabitants of the palace, the ministers and all the brahmanas.


                               TEXT 53




                 stana-dvayam kunkuma-panka-manditam

                  nisincati sanjana-baspa-bindubhih

                  vikirya kesan vigalat-srajah sutam

                   susoca citram kurariva susvaram




   stana-dvayam--her two breasts; kunkuma--with kunkuma powder (which is generally sprayed on the breasts of women); panka--ointment; manditam--decorated; nisincati--moistening; sa-anjana--mixed with the eye ointment; baspa--of tears; bindubhih--by drops; vikirya--scattering; kesan--hair; vigalat--was falling down; srajah--on which the flower garland; sutam--for her son; susoca--lamented; citram--variegated; kurari iva--like a kurari bird; su-svaram--in a very sweet voice.




   The garland of flowers decorating the Queen's head fell, and her hair scattered. Falling tears melted the collyrium on her eyes and moistened her breasts, which were covered with kunkuma powder. As she lamented the loss of her son, her loud crying resembled the sweet sound of a kurari bird.


                               TEXT 54




                    aho vidhatas tvam ativa baliso

                 yas tv atma-srsty-apratirupam ihase

                   pare nu jivaty aparasya ya mrtir

                viparyayas cet tvam asi dhruvah parah




   aho--alas (in great lamentation); vidhatah--O Providence; tvam--You; ativa--very much; balisah--inexperienced; yah--who; tu--indeed; atma-srsti--of Your own creation; apratirupam--just the opposite; ihase--You are performing and desiring; pare--while the father or the elder; nu--indeed; jivati--is living; aparasya--of one who was born later; ya--which; mrtih--death; viparyayah--contradictory; cet--if; tvam--You; asi--are; dhruvah--indeed; parah--an enemy.




   Alas, O Providence, O Creator, You are certainly inexperienced in creation, for during the lifetime of a father You have caused the death of his son, thus acting in opposition to Your creative laws. If You are determined to contradict these laws, You are certainly the enemy of living entities and are never merciful.




   This is the way a conditioned soul condemns the supreme creator when he meets reverses. Sometimes he accuses the Supreme Personality of Godhead of being crooked because some people are happy and some are not. Here the Queen blames supreme providence for her son's death. Following the creative laws, a father should die first and then his son. If the creative laws are changed according to the whims of providence, then providence certainly should not be considered merciful, but must be considered inimical to the created being. Actually it is not the creator, but the conditioned soul who is inexperienced. He does not know how the subtle laws of fruitive activity work, and without knowledge of these laws of nature, he ignorantly criticizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 55




                 na hi kramas ced iha mrtyu-janmanoh

                  saririnam astu tad atma-karmabhih

                  yah sneha-paso nija-sarga-vrddhaye

                  svayam krtas te tam imam vivrscasi




   na--not; hi--indeed; kramah--chronological order; cet--if; iha--in this material world; mrtyu--of death; janmanoh--and of birth; saririnam--of the conditioned souls, who have accepted material bodies; astu--let it be; tat--that; atma-karmabhih--by the results of one's karma (fruitive activities); yah--that which; sneha-pasah--bondage of affection; nija-sarga--Your own creation; vrddhaye--to increase; svayam--personally; krtah--made; te--by You; tam--that; imam--this; vivrscasi--you are cutting.




   My Lord, You may say that there is no law that a father must die in the lifetime of his son and that a son must be born in the lifetime of his father, since everyone lives and dies according to his own fruitive activity. However, if fruitive activity is so strong that birth and death depend upon it, there is no need of a controller, or God. Again, if You say that a controller is needed because the material energy does not have the power to act, one may answer that if the bonds of affection You have created are disturbed by fruitive action, no one will raise children with affection; instead, everyone will cruelly neglect his children. Since You have cut the bonds of affection that compel a parent to raise his child, You appear inexperienced and unintelligent.




   As stated in the Brahma-samhita, karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam: one who has taken to Krsna consciousness, devotional service, is not affected by the results of karma. In this verse, karma has been stressed on the basis of karma-mimamsa philosophy, which says that one must act according to his karma and that a supreme controller must give the results of karma. The subtle laws of karma, which are controlled by the Supreme, cannot be understood by ordinary conditioned souls. Therefore Krsna says that one who can understand Him and how He is acting, controlling everything by subtle laws, immediately becomes freed by His grace. That is the statement of Brahma-samhita (karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam). One should take to devotional service without reservations and surrender everything to the supreme will of the Lord. That will make one happy in this life and the next.


                               TEXT 56




               tvam tata narhasi ca mam krpanam anatham

              tyaktum vicaksva pitaram tava soka-taptam

                anjas tarema bhavatapraja-dustaram yad

               dhvantam na yahy akarunena yamena duram




   tvam--you; tata--my dear son; na--not; arhasi--ought; ca--and; mam--me; krpanam--very poor; anatham--without a protector; tyaktum--to give up; vicaksva--look; pitaram--at the father; tava--your; soka-taptam--affected by so much lamentation; anjah--easily; tarema--we can cross; bhavata--by you; apraja-dustaram--very difficult to cross for one without a son; yat--which; dhvantam--the kingdom of darkness; na yahi--do not go away; akarunena--merciless; yamena--with Yamaraja; duram--any further.




   My dear son, I am helpless and very much aggrieved. You should not give up my company. Just look at your lamenting father. We are helpless because without a son we shall have to suffer the distress of going to the darkest hellish regions. You are the only hope by which we can get out of these dark regions. Therefore I request you not to go any further with the merciless Yama.




   According to the Vedic injunctions, one must accept a wife just to beget a son who can deliver one from the clutches of Yamaraja. Unless one has a son to offer oblations to the pitas, or forefathers, one must suffer in Yamaraja's kingdom. King Citraketu was very much aggrieved. thinking that because his son was going away with Yamaraja he himself would again suffer. The subtle laws exist for the karmis; if one becomes a devotee, he has no more obligations to the laws of karma.


                               TEXT 57




                 uttistha tata ta ime sisavo vayasyas

               tvam ahvayanti nrpa-nandana samvihartum

               suptas ciram hy asanaya ca bhavan parito

             bhunksva stanam piba suco hara nah svakanam




   uttistha--kindly get up; tata--my dear son; te--they; ime--all these; sisavah--children; vayasyah--playmates; tvam--you; ahvayanti--are calling; nrpa-nandana--O son of the King; samvihartum--to play with; suptah--you have slept; ciram--for a long time; hi--indeed; asanaya--by hunger; ca--also; bhavan--you; paritah--overcome; bhunksva--please eat; stanam--at the breast (of your mother); piba--drink; sucah--lamentation; hara--just dissipate; nah--of us; svakanam--your relatives.




   My dear son, you have slept a long time. Now please get up. Your playmates are calling you to play. Since you must be very hungry, please get up and suck my breast and dissipate our lamentation.


                               TEXT 58




                 naham tanuja dadrse hata-mangala te

               mugdha-smitam mudita-viksanam ananabjam

              kim va gato 'sy apunar-anvayam anya-lokam

                nito 'ghrnena na srnomi kala giras te




   na--not; aham--I; tanu-ja--my dear son (born of my body); dadrse--saw; hata-mangala--because of my being the most unfortunate; te--your; mugdha-smitam--with charming smiling; mudita-viksanam--with closed eyes; anana-abjam--lotus face; kim va--whether; gatah--gone away; asi--you are; a-punah-anvayam--from which one does not return; anya-lokam--to another planet, or the planet of Yamaraja; nitah--having been taken away; aghrnena--by the cruel Yamaraja; na--not; srnomi--I can hear; kalah--very pleasing; girah--utterances; te--your.




   My dear son, I am certainly most unfortunate, for I can no longer see your mild smiling. You have closed your eyes forever. I therefore conclude that you have been taken from this planet to another, from which you will not return. My dear son, I can no longer hear your pleasing voice.


                               TEXT 59




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       vilapantya mrtam putram

                         iti citra-vilapanaih

                       citraketur bhrsam tapto

                        mukta-kantho ruroda ha




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; vilapantya--with the woman who was lamenting; mrtam--dead; putram--for the son; iti--thus; citra-vilapanaih--with various lamentations; citraketuh--King Citraketu; bhrsam--very much; taptah--aggrieved; mukta-kanthah--loudly; ruroda--cried; ha--indeed.




   Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Accompanied by his wife, who was thus lamenting for her dead son, King Citraketu began crying loudly with an open mouth, being greatly aggrieved.


                               TEXT 60




                        tayor vilapatoh sarve

                       dampatyos tad-anuvratah

                       ruruduh sma nara naryah

                         sarvam asid acetanam




   tayoh--while the two of them; vilapatoh--were lamenting; sarve--all; dam-patyoh--the King, along with his wife; tat-anuvratah--their followers; ruruduh--cried loudly; sma--indeed; narah--the male members; naryah--the female members; sarvam--the whole kingdom; asit--became; acetanam--almost unconscious.




   As the King and Queen lamented, all their male and female followers joined them in crying. Because of the sudden accident, all the citizens of the kingdom were almost unconscious.


                               TEXT 61




                        evam kasmalam apannam

                        nasta-samjnam anayakam

                        jnatvangira nama rsir

                          ajagama sanaradah




   evam--thus; kasmalam--misery; apannam--having gotten; nasta--lost; samjnam--consciousness; anayakam--without help; jnatva--knowing; angirah--Angira; nama--named; rsih--the saintly person; ajagama--came; sa-naradah--with Narada Muni.




   When the great sage Angira understood that the King was almost dead in an ocean of lamentation, he went there with Narada Rsi.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Fourteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam,  entitled "King Citraketu's Lamentation."

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