The Saints Narada and Angira Instruct King Citraketu
In this chapter, Angira Rsi, along with Narada, consoles Citraketu as far as possible. Angira and Narada Rsi came to relieve the King from excessive lamentation by instructing him about the spiritual significance of life.
The great saints Angira and Narada explained that the relationship between father and son is not factual; it is simply a representation of the illusory energy. The relationship did not exist before, nor will it stay in the future. By the arrangement of time, the relationship exists only in the present. One should not lament for temporary relationships. The entire cosmic manifestation is temporary; although not unreal, it is not factual. By the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, everything created in the material world is transient. By a temporary arrangement, a father begets a child, or a living entity becomes the child of a so-called father. This temporary arrangement is made by the Supreme Lord. Neither the father nor the son exists independently.
As the King listened to the great sages, he was relieved from his false lamentation, and then he inquired about their identity. The great sages presented who they were and instructed that all sufferings are due to the bodily conception of life. When one understands his spiritual identity and surrenders to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme spiritual person, one becomes actually happy. When one searches for happiness in matter, one must certainly lament for bodily relationships. Self-realization means spiritual realization of one's relationship with Krsna. Such realization ends one's miserable material life.
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; ucatuh--they spoke; mrtaka--the dead body; upante--near; patitam--fallen; mrtaka-upamam--exactly like another dead body; soka-abhibhutam--very much aggrieved by lamentation; rajanam--to the King; bodhayantau--giving instruction; sat-uktibhih--by instructions that are factual, not temporary.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: While King Citraketu, overcome by lamentation, lay like a dead body at the side of the dead body of his son, the two great sages Narada and Angira instructed him about spiritual consciousness as follows.
ko 'yam syat tava rajendra
bhavan yam anusocati
tvam casya katamah srstau
puredanim atah param
kah--who; ayam--this; syat--is; tava--to you; raja-indra--O best of kings; bhavan--Your Lordship; yam--whom; anusocati--laments over; tvam--you; ca--and; asya--to him (the dead boy); katamah--who; srstau--in the birth; pura--previously; idanim--at this time, at the present; atah param--and hereafter, in the future.
O King, what relationship does the dead body for which you lament have with you, and what relationship do you have with him? You may say that you are now related as father and son, but do you think this relationship existed before? Does it truly exist now? Will it continue in the future?
The instructions given by Narada and Angira Muni are the true spiritual instructions for the illusioned conditioned soul. This world is temporary, but because of our previous karma we come here and accept bodies, creating temporary relationships in terms of society, friendship, love, nationality and community, which are all finished at death. These temporary relationships did not exist in the past, nor will they exist in the future. Therefore at the present moment the so-called relationships are illusions.
yatha prayanti samyanti
tatha kalena dehinah
yatha--just as; prayanti--move apart; samyanti--come together; srotah-vegena--by the force of waves; balukah--the small particles of sand; samyujyante--they are united; viyujyante--they are separated; tatha--similarly; kalena--by time; dehinah--the living entities who have accepted material bodies.
O King, as small particles of sand sometimes come together and are sometimes separated due to the force of the waves, the living entities who have accepted material bodies sometimes come together and are sometimes separated by the force of time.
The misunderstanding of the conditioned soul is the bodily conception of life. The body is material, but within the body is the soul. This is spiritual understanding. Unfortunately, one who is in ignorance, under the spell of material illusion, accepts the body to be the self. He cannot understand that the body is matter. Like small particles of sand, bodies come together and are separated by the force of time, and people falsely lament for unification and separation. Unless one knows this, there is no question of happiness. Therefore in Bhagavad-gita (2.13) this is the first instruction given by the Lord:
dehino 'smin yatha dehe
kaumaram yauvanam jara
dhiras tatra na muhyati
"As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." We are not the body; we are spiritual beings trapped in the body. Our real interest lies in understanding this simple fact. Then we can make further spiritual progress. Otherwise, if we remain in the bodily conception of life, our miserable material existence will continue forever. Political adjustments, social welfare work, medical assistance and the other programs we have manufactured for peace and happiness will never endure. We shall have to undergo the sufferings of material life one after another. Therefore material life is said to be duhkhalayam asasvatam; it is a reservoir of miserable conditions.
yatha dhanasu vai dhana
bhavanti na bhavanti ca
evam bhutani bhutesu
yatha--just as; dhanasu--through seeds of paddy; vai--indeed; dhanah--grains; bhavanti--are generated; na--not; bhavanti--are generated; ca--also; evam--in this way; bhutani--the living entities; bhutesu--in other living entities; coditani--impelled; isa-mayaya--by the potency or power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
When seeds are sown in the ground, they sometimes grow into plants and sometimes do not. Sometimes the ground is not fertile, and the sowing of seeds is unproductive. Similarly, sometimes a prospective father, being impelled by the potency of the Supreme Lord, can beget a child, but sometimes conception does not take place. Therefore one should not lament over the artificial relationship of parenthood, which is ultimately controlled by the Supreme Lord.
Maharaja Citraketu was actually not destined to get a son. Therefore although he married hundreds and thousands of wives, all of them proved barren, and he could not beget even one child. When Angira Rsi came to see the King, the King requested the great sage to enable him to have at least one son. Because of the blessing of Angira Rsi, a child was sent by the grace of maya, but the child was not to live for long. Therefore in the beginning Angira Rsi told the King that he would beget a child who would cause jubilation and lamentation.
King Citraketu was not destined to get a child by providence, or the will of the Supreme. Just as sterile grain cannot produce more grain, a sterile person, by the will of the Supreme Lord, cannot beget a child. Sometimes a child is born even to an impotent father and sterile mother, and sometimes a potent father and fertile mother are childless. Indeed, sometimes a child is born despite contraceptive methods, and therefore the parents kill the child in the womb. In the present age, killing children in the womb has become a common practice. Why? When contraceptive methods are taken, why don't they act? Why is a child sometimes produced so that the father and mother have to kill it in the womb? We must conclude that our arrangement of so-called scientific knowledge cannot determine what will take place; what is enacted actually depends on the supreme will. It is by the supreme will that we are situated in certain conditions in terms of family, community and personality. These are all arrangements of the Supreme Lord according to our desires under the spell of maya, illusion. In devotional life, therefore, one should not desire anything, since everything depends on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11):
silanam bhaktir uttama
"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service." One should act only to develop Krsna consciousness. For everything else, one should fully depend upon the Supreme Person. We should not create plans that will ultimately make us frustrated.
vayam ca tvam ca ye ceme
janma-mrtyor yatha pascat
pran naivam adhunapi bhoh
vayam--we (the great sages and the ministers and adherents of the King); ca--and; tvam--you; ca--also; ye--who; ca--also; ime--these; tulya-kalah--assembled at the same time; cara-acarah--moving and not moving; janma--birth; mrtyoh--and death; yatha--just as; pascat--after; prak--before; na--not; evam--thus; adhuna--at present; api--although; bhoh--O King.
O King, both you and us--your advisers, wives and ministers--as well as everything moving and not moving throughout the entire cosmos at this time, are in a temporary situation. Before our birth this situation did not exist, and after our death it will exist no longer. Therefore our situation now is temporary, although it is not false.
The Mayavadi philosophers say, brahma satyam jagan mithya: Brahman, the living being, is factual, but his present bodily situation is false. According to the Vaisnava philosophy, however, the present situation is not false but temporary. It is like a dream. A dream does not exist before one falls asleep, nor does it continue after one awakens. The period for dreaming exists only between these two, and therefore it is false in the sense that it is impermanent. Similarly, the entire material creation, including our own creation and those of others, is impermanent. We do not lament for the situation in a dream before the dream takes place or after it is over, and so during the dream, or during a dreamlike situation, one should not accept it as factual and lament about it. This is real knowledge.
bhutair bhutani bhutesah
srjaty avati hanti ca
anapekso 'pi balavat
bhutaih--by some living beings; bhutani--other living entities; bhuta-isah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of everything; srjati--creates; avati--maintains; hanti--kills; ca--also; atma-srstaih--who are created by Him; asvatantraih--not independent; anapeksah--not interested (in creation); api--although; bala-vat--like a boy.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master and proprietor of everything, is certainly not interested in the temporary cosmic manifestation. Nonetheless, just as a boy at the beach creates something in which he is not interested, the Lord, keeping everything under His control, causes creation, maintenance and annihilation. He creates by engaging a father to beget a son, He maintains by engaging a government or king to see to the public's welfare, and He annihilates through agents for killing, such as snakes. The agents for creation, maintenance and annihilation have no independent potency, but because of the spell of the illusory energy, one thinks himself the creator, maintainer and annihilator.
No one can independently create, maintain or annihilate. Bhagavad-gita (3.27) therefore says:
gunaih karmani sarvasah
kartaham iti manyate
"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of material nature, thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality carried out by nature." Prakrti, material nature, as directed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, induces all living entities to create, maintain or annihilate according to the modes of nature. But the living entity, without knowledge of the Supreme Person and His agent the material energy, thinks that he is the doer. In fact, he is not at all the doer. As an agent of the supreme doer, the Supreme Lord, one should abide by the Lord's orders. The present chaotic conditions of the world are due to the ignorance of leaders who forget that they have been appointed to act by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because they have been appointed by the Lord, their duty is to consult the Lord and act accordingly. The book for consultation is Bhagavad-gita, in which the Supreme Lord gives directions. Therefore those who are engaged in creation, maintenance and annihilation should consult the Supreme Person, who has appointed them, and should act accordingly. Then everyone will be satisfied, and there will be no disturbances.
dehena dehino rajan
dehad deho 'bhijayate
bijad eva yatha bijam
dehy artha iva sasvatah
dehena--by the body; dehinah--of the father possessing a material body; rajan--O King; dehat--from the body (of the mother); dehah--another body; abhijayate--takes birth; bijat--from one seed; eva--indeed; yatha--just as; bijam--another seed; dehi--a person who has accepted a material body; arthah--the material elements; iva--like; sasvatah--eternal.
As from one seed another seed is generated, O King, so from one body [the body of the father], through another body [the body of the mother], a third body is generated [the body of a son]. As the elements of the material body are eternal, the living entity who appears through these material elements is also eternal.
From Bhagavad-gita we understand that there are two energies, namely the superior energy and inferior energy. Inferior energy consists of the five gross and three subtle material elements. The living entity. who represents the superior energy, appears in different types of bodies through these elements by the manipulation or supervision of the material energy. Actually both the material and spiritual energies--matter and spirit--exist eternally as potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The potent entity is the Supreme Person. Since the spiritual energy, the living being, who is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, desires to enjoy this material world, the Lord gives him a chance to accept different types of material bodies and enjoy or suffer in different material conditions. Factually, the spiritual energy, the living entity who desires to enjoy material things, is manipulated by the Supreme Lord. The so-called father and mother have nothing to do with the living entity. As a result of his own choice and karma, the living being takes different bodies through the agency of so-called fathers and mothers.
yatha vastuni kalpitah
deha--of this body; dehi--and the proprietor of the body; vibhagah--the division; ayam--this; aviveka--from ignorance; krtah--made; pura--from time immemorial; jati--of the class or caste; vyakti--and the individual; vibhagah--division; ayam--this; yatha--just as; vastuni--in the original object; kalpitah--imagined.
Divisions of generalization and specification, such as nationality and individuality, are the imaginations of persons who are not advanced in knowledge.
Actually there are two energies--material and spiritual. Both of them are ever-existing because they are emanations from the eternal truth, the Supreme Lord. Because the individual soul, the individual living entity, has desired to act in forgetfulness of his original identity since time immemorial, he is accepting different positions in material bodies and being designated according to many divisions of nationality, community, society, species and so on.
evam asvasito raja
vimrjya panina vaktram
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--thus; asvasitah--being enlightened or given hope; raja--the King; citraketuh--Citraketu; dvija-uktibhih--by the instructions of the great brahmanas (Narada and Angira Rsi); vimrjya--wiping off; panina--by the hand; vaktram--his face; adhi-mlanam--shriveled due to lamentation; abhasata--spoke intelligently.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Thus enlightened by the instructions of Narada and Angira, King Citraketu became hopeful with knowledge. Wiping his shriveled face with his hand, the King began to speak.
kau yuvam jnana-sampannau
mahisthau ca mahiyasam
gudhav iha samagatau
sri-raja uvaca--King Citraketu said; kau--who; yuvam--you two; jnana-sampannau--fully developed in knowledge; mahisthau--the greatest; ca--also; mahiyasam--among other great personalities; avadhutena--of the liberated wandering mendicants; vesena--by the dress; gudhau--disguised; iha--in this place; samagatau--arrived.
King Citraketu said: You have both come here dressed like avadhutas, liberated persons, just to cover your identities, but I see that of all men, you are the most elevated in awareness. You know everything as it is. Therefore you are the greatest of all great personalities.
caranti hy avanau kamam
caranti--wander; hi--indeed; avanau--on the surface of the world; kamam--according to desire; brahmanah--the brahmanas; bhagavat-priyah--who are also Vaisnavas, very dear to the Personality of Godhead; ma-drsam--of those like me; gramya-buddhinam--who are obsessed with temporary material consciousness; bodhaya--for the awakening; unmatta-linginah--who dress as if madmen.
Brahmanas who are exalted to the position of Vaisnavas, the most dear servants of Krsna, sometimes dress like madmen. Just to benefit materialists like us, who are always attached to sense gratification, and just to dissipate our ignorance, these Vaisnavas wander on the surface of the globe according to their desire.
kumaro narada rbhur
angira devalo 'sitah
markandeyo 'tha gautamah
vasistho bhagavan ramah
durvasa yajnavalkyas ca
romasas cyavano datta
rsir veda-sira dhaumyo
munih pancasikhas tatha
ete pare ca siddhesas
kumarah--Sanat-kumara; naradah--Narada Muni; rbhuh--Rbhu; angirah--Angira; devalah--Devala; asitah--Asita; apantaratamah--Vyasa's previous name, Apantaratama; vyasah--Vyasa; markandeyah--Markandeya; atha--and; gautamah--Gautama; vasisthah--Vasistha; bhagavan ramah--Lord Parasurama; kapilah--Kapila; badarayanih--Sukadeva Gosvami; durvasah--Durvasa; yajnavalkyah--Yajnavalkya; ca--also; jatukarnah--Jatukarna; tatha--as well as; arunih--Aruni; romasah--Romasa; cyavanah--Cyavana; dattah--Dattatreya; asurih--Asuri; sa-patanjalih--with Patanjali Rsi; rsih--the sage; veda-sirah--the head of the Vedas; dhaumyah--Dhaumya; munih--the sage; pancasikhah--Pancasikha; tatha--so also; hiranyanabhah--Hiranyanabha; kausalyah--Kausalya; srutadevah--Srutadeva; rtadhvajah--Rtadhvaja; ete--all of these; pare--others; ca--and; siddha-isah--the masters of mystic power; caranti--wander; jnana-hetavah--very learned persons who preach all over the world.
O great souls, I have heard that among the great and perfect persons wandering the surface of the earth to instruct knowledge to people covered by ignorance are Sanat-kumara, Narada, Rbhu, Angira, Devala, Asita, Apantaratama [Vyasadeva], Markandeya, Gautama, Vasistha, Bhagavan Parasurama, Kapila, Sukadeva, Durvasa, Yajnavalkya, Jatukarna and Aruni. Others are Romasa, Cyavana, Dattatreya, Asuri, Patanjali, the great sage Dhaumya who is like the head of the Vedas, the sage Pancasikha, Hiranyanabha, Kausalya, Srutadeva and Rtadhvaja. You must certainly be among them.
The word jnana-hetavah is very significant because great personalities like those listed in these verses wander on the surface of the globe not to mislead the populace, but to distribute real knowledge. Without this knowledge, human life is wasted. The human form of life is meant for realization of one's relationship with Krsna, or God. One who lacks this knowledge is categorized among the animals. The Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gita (7.15):
na mam duskrtino mudhah
asuram bhavam asritah
"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me."
Ignorance is the bodily conception of life (yasyatma-buddhih kunape tri-dhatuke. .. sa eva go-kharah). Practically everyone throughout the universe, especially on this planet, Bhurloka, thinks that there is no separate existence of the body and soul and therefore no need of self-realization. But that is not a fact. Therefore all the brahmanas listed here, being devotees, travel all over the world to awaken Krsna consciousness in the hearts of such foolish materialists.
The acaryas mentioned in these verses are described in the Mahabharata. The word pancasikha is also important. One who is liberated from the conceptions of annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya and anandamaya and who is perfectly aware of the subtle coverings of the soul is called pancasikha. According to the statements of the Mahabharata (Santi-parva, Chapters 218-219), an acarya named Pancasikha took birth in the family of Maharaja Janaka, the ruler of Mithila. The Sankhya philosophers accept Pancasikhacarya as one of them. Real knowledge pertains to the living entity dwelling within the body. Unfortunately, because of ignorance, the living entity identifies himself with the body and therefore feels pleasure and pain.
tasmad yuvam gramya-pasor
mama mudha-dhiyah prabhu
andhe tamasi magnasya
tasmat--therefore; yuvam--both of you; gramya-pasoh--of an animal like a hog, pig or dog; mama--me; mudha-dhiyah--who am very foolish (due to having no spiritual knowledge); prabhu--O my two lords; andhe--in blind; tamasi--darkness; magnasya--of one who is absorbed; jnana-dipah--the torchlight of knowledge; udiryatam--let it be ignited.
Because you are great personalities, you can give me real knowledge. I am as foolish as a village animal like a pig or dog because I am merged in the darkness of ignorance. Therefore, please ignite the torch of knowledge to save me.
This is the way to receive knowledge. One must submit oneself at the lotus feet of great personalities who can actually deliver transcendental knowledge. It is therefore said, tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijnasuh sreya uttamam: "One who is inquisitive to understand the highest goal and benefit of life must approach a bona fide spiritual master and surrender unto him." Only one who is actually eager to receive knowledge to eradicate the darkness of ignorance is eligible to approach a guru, or spiritual master. The guru should not be approached for material benefits. One should not approach a guru just to cure some disease or receive some miraculous benefit. This is not the way to approach the guru. Tad-vijnanartham: one should approach the guru to understand the transcendental science of spiritual life. Unfortunately, in this age of Kali there are many bogus gurus who display magic to their disciples, and many foolish disciples want to see such magic for material benefits. These disciples are not interested in pursuing spiritual life to save themselves from the darkness of ignorance. It is said:
caksur unmilitam yena
tasmai sri-gurave namah
"I was born in the darkest ignorance, and my spiritual master opened my eyes with the torch of knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto him." This gives the definition of the guru. Everyone is in the darkness of ignorance. Therefore everyone needs to be enlightened with transcendental knowledge. One who enlightens his disciple and saves him from rotting in the darkness of ignorance in this material world is a true guru.
aham te putra-kamasya
putrado 'smy angira nrpa
esa brahma-sutah saksan
narado bhagavan rsih
sri-angirah uvaca--the great sage Angira said; aham--I; te--of you; putra-kamasya--desiring to have a son; putra-dah--the giver of the son; asmi--am; angirah--Angira Rsi; nrpa--O King; esah--this; brahma-sutah--the son of Lord Brahma; saksat--directly; naradah--Narada Muni; bhagavan--the most powerful; rsih--sage.
Angira said: My dear King, when you desired to have a son, I approached you. Indeed, I am the same Angira Rsi who gave you this son. As for this rsi, he is the great sage Narada, the direct son of Lord Brahma
ittham tvam putra-sokena
magnam tamasi dustare
praptav avam iha prabho
ittham--in this way; tvam--you; putra-sokena--because of grief at the death of your son; magnam--merged; tamasi--in darkness; dustare--insurmountable; a-tat-arham--unsuitable for a person like you; anusmrtya--remembering; maha-purusa--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gocaram--who are advanced in understanding; anugrahaya--just to show favor; bhavatah--toward you; praptau--arrived; avam--we two; iha--in this place; prabho--O King; brahmanyah--one who is situated in the Supreme Absolute Truth; bhagavat-bhaktah--an advanced devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na--not; avasaditum--to lament; arhasi--you deserve.
My dear King, you are an advanced devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To be absorbed in lamentation for the loss of something material is unsuitable for a person like you. Therefore we have both come to relieve you from this false lamentation, which is due to your being merged in the darkness of ignorance. For those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge to be affected by material loss and gain is not at all desirable.
Several words in this verse are very important. The word maha-purusa refers to advanced devotees and also to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Maha means "the supreme," and purusa means "person." One who always engages in the service of the Supreme Lord is called maha-paurusika. Sukadeva Gosvami and Maharaja Pariksit are sometimes addressed as maha-paurusika. A devotee should always aspire to engage in the service of advanced devotees. As Srila Narottama dasa Thakura has sung:
tandera carana sevi bhakta-sane vasa
janame janame haya, ei abhilasa
A devotee should always aspire to live in the association of advanced devotees and engage in the service of the Lord through the parampara system. One should serve the mission of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu through the instructions of the great Gosvamis of Vrndavana. This is called tandera carana sevi. While serving the lotus feet of the Gosvamis, one should live in the association of devotees (bhakta-sane vasa). This is the business of a devotee. A devotee should not aspire for material profit or lament for material loss. When Angira Rsi and Narada saw that Maharaja Citraketu, an advanced devotee, had fallen in the darkness of ignorance and was lamenting for the material body of his son, by their causeless mercy they came to advise him so that he could be saved from this ignorance.
Another significant word is brahmanya. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sometimes addressed by the prayer namo brahmanya-devaya, which offers obeisances unto the Lord because He is served by the devotees. Therefore this verse states, brahmanyo bhagavad-bhakto navasaditum arhasi. This is the symptom of an advanced devotee. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma. For a devotee--an advanced, self-realized soul--there is no cause for material jubilation or lamentation. He is always transcendental to conditional life.
tadaiva te param jnanam
dadami grham agatah
putram eva dadamy aham
tada--then; eva--indeed; te--unto you; param--transcendental; jnanam--knowledge; dadami--I would have delivered; grham--to your home; agatah--came; jnatva--knowing; anya-abhinivesam--absorption in something else (in material things); te--your; putram--a son; eva--only; dadami--gave; aham--I.
When I first came to your home, I could have given you the supreme transcendental knowledge, but when I saw that your mind was absorbed in material things, I gave you only a son, who caused you jubilation and lamentation.
adhuna putrinam tapo
evam dara grha rayo
sabdadayas ca visayas
mahi rajyam balam koso
sarve 'pi suraseneme
adhuna--at the present moment; putrinam--of persons who have children; tapah--the tribulation; bhavata--by you; eva--indeed; anubhuyate--is experienced; evam--in this way; darah--good wife; grhah--residence; rayah--riches; vividha--various; aisvarya--opulences; sampadah--prosperities; sabda-adayah--sound and so on; ca--and; visayah--the objects of sense gratification; calah--temporary; rajya--of the kingdom; vibhutayah--opulences; mahi--land; rajyam--kingdom; balam--strength; kosah--treasury; bhrtya--servants; amatya--ministers; suhrt-janah--allies; sarve--all; api--indeed; surasena--O King of Surasena; ime--these; soka--of lamentation; moha--of illusion; bhaya--of fear; arti--and distress; dah--givers; gandharva-nagara-prakhyah--headed by the illusory sight of a gandharva-nagara, a big palace within the forest; svapna--dreams; maya--illusions; manorathah--and concoctions of the mind.
My dear King, now you are actually experiencing the misery of a person who has sons and daughters. O King, owner of the state of Surasena, one's wife, his house, the opulence of his kingdom, and his various other opulences and objects of sense perception are all the same in that they are temporary. One's kingdom, military power, treasury, servants, ministers, friends and relatives are all causes of fear, illusion, lamentation and distress. They are like a gandharva-nagara, a nonexistent palace that one imagines to exist in the forest. Because they are impermanent, they are no better than illusions, dreams and mental concoctions.
This verse describes the entanglement of material existence. In material existence, the living entity possesses many things--the material body, children, wife and so on (dehapatya-kalatradisu). One may think that these will give him protection, but that is impossible. In spite of all these possessions, the spirit soul has to give up his present situation and accept another. The next situation may be unfavorable, but even if it is favorable, one must give it up and again accept another body. In this way, one's tribulation in material existence continues. A sane man should he perfectly aware that these things will never be able to give him happiness. One must be situated in his spiritual identity and eternally serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a devotee. Angira Rsi and Narada Muni gave this instruction to Maharaja Citraketu.
na drsyante manobhavah
karmabhir dhyayato nana-
karmani manaso 'bhavan
drsyamanah--being perceived; vina--without; arthena--substance or reality; na--not; drsyante--are seen; manobhavah--creations of mental concoction; karmabhih--by fruitive activities; dhyayatah--meditating upon; nana--various; karmani--fruitive activities; manasah--from the mind; abhavan--appear.
These visible objects like wife, children and property are like dreams and mental concoctions. Actually what we see has no permanent existence. It is sometimes seen and sometimes not. Only because of our past actions do we create such mental concoctions, and because of these concoctions, we perform further activities.
Everything material is a mental concoction because it is sometimes visible and sometimes not. At night when we dream of tigers and snakes, they are not actually present, but we are afraid because we are affected by what we envision in our dreams. Everything material is like a dream because it actually has no permanent existence.
Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura writes as follows in his commentary: arthena vyaghra-sarpadina vinaiva drsyamanah svapnadi-bhange sati na drsyante tad evam daradayo 'vastava-vastu-bhutah svapnadayo 'vastu-bhutas ca sarve manobhavah mano-vasana janyatvan manobhavah. At night one dreams of tigers and snakes, and while dreaming he actually sees them, but as soon as the dream is broken they no longer exist. Similarly, the material world is a creation of our mental concoctions. We have come to this material world to enjoy material resources, and by mental concoction we discover many, many objects of enjoyment because our minds are absorbed in material things. This is why we receive various bodies. According to our mental concoctions we work in various ways, desiring various achievements, and by nature and the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (karmana-daiva-netrena) we get the advantages we desire. Thus we become more and more involved with material concoctions. This is the reason for our suffering in the material world. By one kind of activity we create another, and they are all products of our mental concoctions.
ayam hi dehino deho
ayam--this; hi--certainly; dehinah--of the living entity; dehah--body; dravya-jnana-kriya-atmakah--consisting of the material elements, the senses for acquiring knowledge, and the acting senses; dehinah--of the living entity; vividha--various; klesa--sufferings; santapa--and of pains; krt--the cause; udahrtah--is declared.
The living entity in the bodily conception of life is absorbed in the body, which is a combination of the physical elements, the five senses for gathering knowledge, and the five senses of action, along with the mind. Through the mind the living entity suffers three kinds of tribulations--adhibhautika, adhidaivika and adhyatmika. Therefore this body is a source of all miseries.
In the Fifth Canto (5.5.4), while instructing his sons, Rsabhadeva said, asann api klesada asa dehah: the body, although temporary, is the cause of all the miseries of material existence. As already discussed in the previous verse, the entire material creation is based on mental concoction. The mind sometimes induces us to think that if we purchase an automobile we can enjoy the physical elements, such as earth, water, air and fire, combined in forms of iron, plastic, petrol and so on. Working with the five material elements (panca-bhutas), as well as with our five knowledge-gathering senses like the eyes, ears and tongue and our five active senses like the hands and legs, we become involved in the material condition. Thus we are subjected to the tribulations known as adhyatmika, adhidaivika and adhibhautika. The mind is the center because the mind creates all these things. As soon as the material object is struck, however, the mind is affected, and we suffer. For example, with the material elements, the working senses and the knowledge-gathering senses we create a very nice car, and when the car is accidentally smashed in a collision, the mind suffers, and through the mind the living entity suffers.
The fact is that the living entity, while concocting with the mind, creates the material condition. Because matter is destructible, through the material condition the living entity suffers. Otherwise, the living entity is detached from all material conditions. When one comes to the Brahman platform, the platform of spiritual life, fully understanding that he is a spiritual soul (aham brahmasmi), he is no longer affected by lamentation or hankering. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (18.54):
na socati na kanksati
"One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires to have anything." Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (15.7) the Lord says:
"The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." The living entity is actually part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and is unaffected by material conditions, but because the mind (manah) is affected, the senses are affected, and the living entity struggles for existence within this material world.
tasmat svasthena manasa
vimrsya gatim atmanah
tasmat--therefore; svasthena--with a careful; manasa--mind; vimrsya--considering; gatim--real position; atmanah--of yourself; dvaite--in the duality; dhruva--as permanent; artha--object; visrambham--belief; tyaja--give up; upasamam--a peaceful condition; avisa--take to.
Therefore, O King Citraketu, carefully consider the position of the atma. In other words, try to understand who you are--whether body, mind or soul. Consider where you have come from, where you are going after giving up this body, and why you are under the control of material lamentation. Try to understand your real position in this way, and then you will be able to give up your unnecessary attachment. You will also be able to give up the belief that this material world, or anything not directly in touch with service to Krsna, is eternal. Thus you will obtain peace.
The Krsna consciousness movement is factually endeavoring to bring human society to a sober condition. Because of a misdirected civilization, people are jumping in materialistic life like cats and dogs, performing all sorts of abominable, sinful actions and becoming increasingly entangled. The Krsna consciousness movement includes self-realization because one is first directed by Lord Krsna to understand that one is not the body but the owner of the body. When one understands this simple fact, he can direct himself toward the goal of life. Because people are not educated in terms of the goal of life, they are working like madmen and becoming more and more attached to the material atmosphere. The misguided man accepts the material condition as everlasting. One must give up his faith in material things and give up attachment for them. Then one will be sober and peaceful.
praticcha prayato mama
yam dharayan sapta-ratrad
drasta sankarsanam vibhum
sri-naradah uvaca--Sri Narada Muni said; etam--this; mantra-upanisadam--Upanisad in the form of a mantra by which one can achieve the highest goal of life; praticcha--accept; prayatah--with great attention (after finishing the funeral ceremony of your dead son); mama--from me; yam--which; dharayan--accepting; sapta-ratrat--after seven nights; drasta--you will see; sankarsanam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sankarsana; vibhum--the Lord.
The great sage Narada continued: My dear King, attentively receive from me a mantra, which is most auspicious. After accepting it from me, in seven nights you will be able to see the Lord face to face.
yat-pada-mulam upasrtya narendra purve
sarvadayo bhramam imam dvitayam visrjya
sadyas tadiyam atulanadhikam mahitvam
prapur bhavan api param na cirad upaiti
yat-pada-mulam--the lotus feet of whom (Lord Sankarsana); upasrtya--obtaining shelter at; nara-indra--O King; purve--formerly; sarva-adayah--great demigods like Lord Mahadeva; bhramam--illusion; imam--this; dvitayam--consisting of duality; visrjya--giving up; sadyah--immediately; tadiyam--His; atula--unequaled; anadhikam--unsurpassed; mahitvam--glories; prapuh--achieved; bhavan--yourself; api--also; param--the supreme abode; na--not; cirat--after a long time; upaiti--will obtain.
My dear King, in former days Lord Siva and other demigods took shelter of the lotus feet of Sankarsana. Thus they immediately got free from the illusion of duality and achieved unequaled and unsurpassed glories in spiritual life. You will very soon attain that very same position.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Fifteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Saints Narada and Angira Instruct King Citraketu."