King Citraketu Meets the Supreme Lord
As related in this chapter, Citraketu was able to talk with his dead son and hear from him the truth of life. When Citraketu was appeased, the great sage Narada gave him a mantra, and by chanting this mantra Citraketu found shelter at the lotus feet of Sankarsana.
The living entity is eternal. Thus he has neither birth nor death (na hanyate hanyamane sarire). According to the reactions of one's fruitive activities, one takes birth in various species of life among the birds, beasts, trees, human beings, demigods and so on, thus rotating through various bodies. For a certain period of time, one receives a particular type of body as a son or father in a false relationship. All our relationships in this material world with friends, relatives or enemies consist of duality, in which one feels happy and distressed on the basis of illusion. The living entity is actually a spiritual soul who is part and parcel of God and has nothing to do with relationships in the world of duality. Therefore Narada Muni advised Citraketu not to lament for his so-called dead son.
After hearing instructions from their dead child, Citraketu and his wife could understand that all relationships in this material world are causes of misery. The queens who had administered poison to the son of Krtadyuti were very much ashamed. They atoned for the sinful act of killing a child and gave up their aspiration to have sons. Thereafter. Narada Muni chanted prayers to Narayana, who exists as catur-vyuha, and instructed Citraketu about the Supreme Lord, who creates, maintains and annihilates everything and who is the master of the material nature. After instructing King Citraketu in this way, he returned to Brahmaloka. These instructions about the Absolute Truth are called the maha-vidya. After being initiated by Narada Muni, King Citraketu chanted the maha-vidya, and after one week he attained the presence of Lord Sankarsana, who was surrounded by the four Kumaras. The Lord was nicely dressed in bluish garments, with a helmet and ornaments of gold. His face appeared very happy. In the presence of Lord Sankarsana, Citraketu offered his obeisances and began to offer prayers.
In his prayers, Citraketu said that millions of universes rest in the pores of Sankarsana, who is limitless, having no beginning and end. The Lord is well known to the devotees for His eternity. The difference between worshiping the Lord and worshiping the demigods is that the worshiper of the Lord also becomes eternal, whereas whatever benedictions one can get from the demigods are impermanent. Unless one becomes a devotee, one cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
After Citraketu finished his prayers, the unlimited Supreme Lord explained knowledge of Himself to Citraketu.
atha deva-rsi rajan
sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; atha--thus; deva-rsih--the great sage Narada; rajan--O King; samparetam--dead; nrpa-atmajam--the son of the King; darsayitva--making visible; iti--thus; ha--indeed; uvaca--explained; jnatinam--to all the relatives; anusocatam--who were lamenting.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King Pariksit, by his mystic power the great sage Narada brought the dead son into the vision of all the lamenting relatives and then spoke as follows.
jivatman pasya bhadram te
mataram pitaram ca te
suhrdo bandhavas taptah
suca tvat-krtaya bhrsam
sri-naradah uvaca--Sri Narada Muni said; jiva-atman--O living entity; pasya--just see; bhadram--good fortune; te--unto you; mataram--the mother; pitaram--the father; ca--and; te--of you; suhrdah--friends; bandhavah--relatives; taptah--aggrieved; suca--by lamentation; tvat-krtaya--because of you; bhrsam--very greatly.
Sri Narada Muni said: O living entity, all good fortune unto you. Just see your father and mother. All your friends and relatives are overwhelmed with grief because of your passing away.
kalevaram svam avisya
sesam ayuh suhrd-vrtah
bhunksva bhogan pitr-prattan
kalevaram--body; svam--your own; avisya--entering; sesam--the balance; ayuh--duration of life; suhrt-vrtah--surrounded by your friends and relatives; bhunksva--just enjoy; bhogan--all enjoyable opulences; pitr--by your father; prattan--awarded; adhitistha--accept; nrpa-asanam--the throne of the king.
Because you died untimely, the balance of your lifetime still remains. Therefore you may reenter your body and enjoy the remainder of your life, surrounded by your friends and relatives. Accept the royal throne and all the opulences given by your father.
kasmin janmany ami mahyam
pitaro mataro 'bhavan
jivah uvaca--the living entity said; kasmin--in which; janmani--birth; ami--all those; mahyam--to me; pitarah--fathers; matarah--mothers; abhavan--were; karmabhih--by the results of fruitive action; bhramyamanasya--who am wandering; deva-tiryak--of the demigods and the lower animals; nr--and of the human species; yonisu--in the wombs.
By the mystic power of Narada Muni, the living entity reentered his dead body for a short time and spoke in reply to Narada Muni's request. He said: According to the results of my fruitive activities, I, the living being, transmigrate from one body to another, sometimes going to the species of the demigods, sometimes to the species of lower animals, sometimes among the vegetables, and sometimes to the human species. Therefore, in which birth were these my mother and father? No one is actually my mother and father. How can I accept these two people as my parents?
Here it is made clear that the living being enters a material body that is like a machine created by the five gross elements of material nature (earth, water, fire, air and sky) and the three subtle elements (mind, intelligence and ego). As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita, there are two separate identities, called the inferior and superior natures, which both belong to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. According to the results of a living entity's fruitive actions, he is forced to enter the material elements in different types of bodies.
This time the living entity was supposed to have been the son of Maharaja Citraketu and Queen Krtadyuti because according to the laws of nature he had entered a body made by the King and Queen. Actually, however, he was not their son. The living entity is the son of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and because he wants to enjoy this material world, the Supreme Lord gives him a chance to enter various bodies. The living entity has no true relationship with the material body he gets from his material father and mother. He is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, but he is allowed to go through different bodies. The body created by the so-called father and mother actually has nothing to do with its so-called creators. Therefore the living entity flatly denied that Maharaja Citraketu and his wife were his father and mother.
sarva eva hi sarvesam
bhavanti kramaso mithah
bandhu--friends; jnati--family members; ari--enemies; madhyastha--neutrals; mitra--well-wishers; udasina--indifferent; vidvisah--or envious persons; sarve--all; eva--indeed; hi--certainly; sarvesam--of all; bhavanti--become; kramasah--gradually; mithah--of one another.
In this material world, which advances like a river that carries away the living entity, all people become friends, relatives and enemies in due course of time. They also act neutrally, they mediate, they despise one another, and they act in many other relationships. Nonetheless, despite these various transactions, no one is permanently related.
It is our practical experience in this material world that the same person who is one's friend today becomes one's enemy tomorrow. Our relationships as friends or enemies, family men or outsiders, are actually the results of our different dealings. Citraketu Maharaja was lamenting for his son, who was now dead, but he could have considered the situation otherwise. "This living entity," he could have thought, "was my enemy in my last life, and now, having appeared as my son, he is prematurely leaving just to give me pain and agony." Why should he not consider his dead son his former enemy and instead of lamenting be jubilant because of an enemy's death? As stated in Bhagavad-gita (3.27), prakrteh kriyamanani gunaih karmani sarvasah: factually everything is happening because of our association with the modes of material nature. Therefore one who is my friend today in association with the mode of goodness may be my enemy tomorrow in association with the modes of passion and ignorance. As the modes of material nature work, in illusion we accept others as friends, enemies, sons or fathers in terms of the reactions of different dealings under different conditions.
yatha vastuni panyani
hemadini tatas tatah
paryatanti naresv evam
jivo yonisu kartrsu
yatha--just as; vastuni--commodities; panyani--meant for trading; hema-adini--such as gold; tatah tatah--from here to there; paryatanti--move about; naresu--among men; evam--in this way; jivah--the living entity; yonisu--in different species of life; kartrsu--in different material fathers.
Just as gold and other commodities are continually transferred from one place to another in due course of purchase and sale, so the living entity, as a result of his fruitive activities, wanders throughout the entire universe, being injected into various bodies in different species of life by one kind of father after another.
It has already been explained that Citraketu's son was his enemy in a past life and had now appeared as his son just to give him more severe pain. Indeed, the untimely death of the son caused severe lamentation for the father. One may put forward the argument, "If the King's son was his enemy, how could the King have so much affection for him?" In answer, the example is given that when someone's wealth falls into the bands of his enemy, the money becomes the enemy's friend. Then the enemy can use it for his own purposes. Indeed, he can even use it to harm its previous owner. Therefore the money belongs neither to the one party nor to the other. The money is always money, but in different situations it can be used as an enemy or a friend.
As explained in Bhagavad-gita, it is not by any father or mother that the living entity is given his birth. The living entity is a completely separate identity from the so-called father and mother. By the laws of nature, the living entity is forced to enter the semen of a father and be injected into the womb of the mother. He is not in control of selecting what kind of father he will accept. prakrteh kriyamanani: the laws of nature force him to go to different fathers and mothers, just like a consumer commodity that is purchased and sold. Therefore the so-called relationship of father and son is an arrangement of prakrti, or nature. It has no meaning, and therefore it is called illusion.
The same living entity sometimes takes shelter of an animal father and mother and sometimes a human father and mother. Sometimes he accepts a father and mother among the birds, and sometimes he accepts a demigod father and mother. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore says:
brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva
guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija
Harassed life after life by the laws of nature, the living entity wanders throughout the entire universe in different planets and different species of life. Somehow or other, if he is fortunate enough, he comes in touch with a devotee who reforms his entire life. Then the living entity goes back home, back to Godhead. Therefore it is said:
janame janame sabe pita mata paya
guru nahi mile baja hari ei
In the transmigration of the soul through different bodies, everyone, in every form of life--be it human, animal, tree or demigod--gets a father and mother. This is not very difficult. The difficulty is to obtain a bona fide spiritual master and Krsna. Therefore the duty of a human being is to capture the opportunity to come in touch with Krsna's representative, the bona fide spiritual master. Under the guidance of the spiritual master, the spiritual father, one can return home, back to Godhead.
hy anityo drsyate nrsu
yavad yasya hi sambandho
mamatvam tavad eva hi
nityasya--of the eternal; arthasya--thing; sambandhah--relationship; hi--indeed; anityah--temporary; drsyate--is seen; nrsu--in human society; yavat--as long as; yasya--of whom; hi--indeed; sambandhah--relationship; mamatvam--ownership; tavat--that long; eva--indeed; hi--certainly.
A few living entities are born in the human species, and others are born as animals. Although both are living entities, their relationships are impermanent. An animal may remain in the custody of a human being for some time, and then the same animal may be transferred to the possession of other human beings. As soon as the animal goes away, the former proprietor no longer has a sense of ownership. As long as the animal is in his possession he certainly has an affinity for it, but as soon as the animal is sold, the affinity is lost.
Aside from the fact that the soul transmigrates from one body to another, even in this life the relationships between living entities are impermanent, as exemplified in this verse. The son of Citraketu was named Harsasoka, or "jubilation and lamentation." The living entity is certainly eternal, but because he is covered by a temporary dress, the body, his eternity is not observed. Dehino 'smin yatha dehe kaumaram yauvanam jara: "The embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age." Thus the bodily dress is impermanent. The living entity, however, is permanent. As an animal is transferred from one owner to another, the living entity who was the son of Citraketu lived as his son for some time, but as soon as he was transferred to another body, the affectionate relationship was broken. As stated in the example given in the previous verse, when one has a commodity in his hands he considers it his, but as soon as it is transferred it becomes someone else's commodity. Then one no longer has a relationship with it; he has no affection for it, nor does he lament for it.
evam yoni-gato jivah
sa nityo nirahankrtah
tavat svatvam hi tasya tat
evam--thus; yoni-gatah--being within a specific species of life; jivah--the living entity; sah--he; nityah--eternal; nirahankrtah--without identification with the body; yavat--as long as; yatra--where; upalabhyeta--he may be found; tavat--that long; svatvam--the concept of self; hi--indeed; tasya--of him; tat--that.
Even though one living entity becomes connected with another because of a relationship based on bodies that are perishable, the living entity is eternal. Actually it is the body that is born or lost, not the living entity. One should not accept that the living entity takes birth or dies. The living being actually has no relationship with so-called fathers and mothers. As long as he appears as the son of a certain father and mother as a result of his past fruitive activities, he has a connection with the body given by that father and mother. Thus he falsely accepts himself as their son and acts affectionately. After he dies, however, the relationship is finished. Under these circumstances, one should not be falsely involved with jubilation and lamentation.
When the living entity lives within the material body, he falsely thinks that he is the body, although actually he is not. His relationship with his body and his so-called father and mother are false, illusory conceptions. These illusions continue as long as one is not enlightened about the situation of the living entity.
esa nityo 'vyayah suksma
esa sarvasrayah svadrk
atmanam srjate prabhuh
esah--this living entity; nityah--eternal; avyayah--imperishable; suksmah--very, very fine (not seen by the material eyes); esah--this living entity; sarva-asrayah--the cause of different types of bodies; sva-drk--self-effulgent; atma-maya-gunaih--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead's modes of material nature; visvam--this material world; atmanam--himself; srjate--appears; prabhuh--the master.
The living entity is eternal and imperishable because he actually has no beginning and no end. He never takes birth or dies. He is the basic principle of all types of bodies, yet he does not belong to the bodily category. The living being is so sublime that he is equal in quality to the Supreme Lord. Nonetheless, because he is extremely small, he is prone to be illusioned by the external energy, and thus he creates various bodies for himself according to his different desires.
In this verse the philosophy of acintya-bhedabheda--simultaneous oneness and difference--is described. The living entity is eternal (nitya) like the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the difference is that the Supreme Lord is the greatest, no one being equal to or greater than Him, whereas the living entity is suksma, or extremely small. The sastra describes that the magnitude of the living entity is one ten-thousandth the size of the tip of a hair. The Supreme Lord is all-pervading (andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham). Relatively, if the living entity is accepted as the smallest, there should naturally be inquiry about the greatest. The greatest is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the smallest is the living entity.
Another peculiar characteristic of the jiva is that he becomes covered by maya. Atmamaya-gunaih: he is prone to being covered by the Supreme Lord's illusory energy. The living entity is responsible for his conditional life in the material world, and therefore he is described as prabhu ("the master"). If he likes he can come to this material world, and if he likes he can return home, back to Godhead. Because he wanted to enjoy this material world, the Supreme Personality of Godhead gave him a material body through the agency of the material energy. As the Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gita (18.61):
hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati
"The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy." The Supreme Lord gives the living entity a chance to enjoy in this material world as he desires, but He openly expresses His own desire that the living entity give up all material aspirations, fully surrender unto Him and return home, back to Godhead.
The living entity is the smallest (suksma). Jiva Gosvami says in this connection that the living entity within the body is extremely difficult for materialistic scientists to find, although we understand from authorities that the living entity is within the body. The body is different from the living entity.
na hy asyasti priyah kascin
napriyah svah paro 'pi va
ekah sarva-dhiyam drasta
na--not; hi--indeed; asya--to the living entity; asti--there is; priyah--dear; kascit--someone; na--not; apriyah--not dear; svah--own; parah--other; api--also; va--or; ekah--the one; sarva-dhiyam--of the varieties of intelligence; drasta--the seer; kartrnam--of the performers; guna-dosayoh--of right and wrong activities.
For this living entity, no one is dear, nor is anyone unfavorable. He makes no distinction between that which is his own and that which belongs to anyone else. He is one without a second; in other words, he is not affected by friends and enemies, well-wishers or mischief-mongers. He is only an observer, a witness, of the different qualities of men.
As explained in the previous verse, the living entity has the same qualities as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but he has them in minute quantities because he is a small particle (suksma) whereas the Supreme Lord is all-pervading and great. For the Supreme Lord there are no friends, enemies or relatives, for He is completely free from all the disqualifications of ignorance that characterize the conditioned souls. On the other hand, He is extremely kind and favorable to His devotees, and He is not at all satisfied with persons who are envious of His devotees. As the Lord Himself confirms in Bhagavad-gita (9.29):
samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu
na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah
ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya
mayi te tesu capy aham
"I envy no one, nor am I partial to anyone. I am equal to all. But whoever renders service unto Me in devotion is a friend, is in Me, and I am also a friend to him." The Supreme Lord has no enemy or friend, but He is inclined toward a devotee who always engages in His devotional service. Similarly, elsewhere in the Gita (16.19) the Lord says:
tan aham dvisatah kruran
ksipamy ajasram asubhan
asurisv eva yonisu
"Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life." The Lord is extremely antagonistic toward those who are envious of His devotees. To protect His devotees, the Lord sometimes has to kill their enemies. For example, to protect Prahlada Maharaja, the Lord had to kill his enemy Hiranyakasipu, although Hiranyakasipu attained salvation because of being killed by the Lord. Since the Lord is the witness of everyone's activities, He witnesses the actions of the enemies of His devotees, and He is inclined to punish them. In other cases, however, He simply witnesses what the living entities do and gives the results of one's sinful or pious actions.
nadatta atma hi gunam
na dosam na kriya-phalam
na--not; adatte--accepts; atma--the Supreme Lord; hi--indeed; gunam--happiness; na--not; dosam--unhappiness; na--nor; kriya-phalam--the result of any fruitive activity; udasina-vat--exactly like a neutral man; asinah--sitting (in the core of the heart); para-avara-drk--seeing the cause and effect; isvarah--the Supreme Lord.
The Supreme Lord [atma], the creator of cause and effect, does not accept the happiness and distress that result from fruitive actions. He is completely independent of having to accept a material body, and because He has no material body, He is always neutral. The living entities, being part and parcel of the Lord, possess His qualities in a minute quantity. Therefore one should not be affected by lamentation.
The conditioned soul has friends and enemies. He is affected by the good qualities and the faults of his position. The Supreme Lord, however, is always transcendental. Because He is the isvara, the supreme controller, He is not affected by duality. It may therefore be said that He sits in the core of everyone's heart as the neutral witness of the causes and effects of one's activities, good and bad. We should also understand that udasina, neutral, does not mean that He takes no action. Rather, it means that He is not personally affected. For example, a court judge is neutral when two opposing parties appear before him, but he still takes action as the case warrants. To become completely neutral, indifferent, to material activities, we should simply seek shelter at the lotus feet of the supreme neutral person.
Maharaja Citraketu was advised that remaining neutral in such trying circumstances as the death of one's son is impossible. Nevertheless, since the Lord knows how to adjust everything, the best course is to depend upon Him and do one's duty in devotional service to the Lord. In all circumstances, one should be undisturbed by duality. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.47):
karmany evadhikaras te
ma phalesu kadacana
ma karma-phala-hetur bhur
ma te sango 'stv akarmani
"You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself to be the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty." One should execute one's devotional duty, and for the results of one's actions one should depend upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ity udirya gato jivo
jnatayas tasya te tada
vismita mumucuh sokam
sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--in this way; udirya--speaking; gatah--went; jivah--the living entity (who had appeared as the son of Maharaja Citraketu); jnatayah--the relatives and family members; tasya--of him; te--they; tada--at that time; vismitah--being astonished; mumucuh--gave up; sokam--lamentation; chittva--cutting off; atma-sneha--of affection due to a relationship; srnkhalam--the iron shackles.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: When the conditioned soul [jiva] in the form of Maharaja Citraketu's son had spoken in this way and then left, Citraketu and the other relatives of the dead son were all astonished. Thus they cut off the shackles of their affection, which was due to their relationship with him, and gave up their lamentation.
nirhrtya jnatayo jnater
deham krtvocitah kriyah
tatyajur dustyajam sneham
nirhrtya--removing; jnatayah--King Citraketu and all the other relatives; jnateh--of the son; deham--the body; krtva--performing; ucitah--suitable; kriyah--activities; tatyajuh--gave up; dustyajam--very difficult to give up; sneham--affection; soka--lamentation; moha--illusion; bhaya--fear; arti--and distress; dam--giving.
After the relatives had discharged their duties by performing the proper funeral ceremonies and burning the dead child's body, they gave up the affection that leads to illusion, lamentation, fear and pain. Such affection is undoubtedly difficult to give up, but they gave it up very easily.
bala-ghnyo vriditas tatra
brahmanair yan nirupitam
bala-ghnyah--the killers of the child; vriditah--being very much ashamed; tatra--there; bala-hatya--because of killing the child; hata--having lost; prabhah--all bodily luster; bala-hatya-vratam--the atonement fur killing the child; ceruh--executed; brahmanaih--by the priests; yat--which; nirupitam--described; yamunayam--at the River Yamuna; maha-raja--O King Pariksit; smarantyah--remembering; dvija-bhasitam--the statement given by the brahmana.
Queen Krtyadyuti's co-wives, who had poisoned the child, were very much ashamed, and they lost all their bodily luster. While lamenting, O King, they remembered the instructions of Angira and gave up their ambition to bear children. Following the directions of the brahmanas, they went to the bank of the Yamuna, where they bathed and atoned for their sinful activities.
In this verse the word bala-hatya-hata-prabhah is to be particularly noted. The practice of killing children has existed in human society for a long time--since time immemorial--but in the days of yore it was very rarely performed. At the present moment, however, in this age of Kali, abortion--killing of the child within the womb--has become very common, and sometimes a child is even killed after birth. If a woman performs such an abominable act, she gradually loses all her bodily luster (bala-hatya-hata-prabhah). It is also to be noted that the ladies who had committed the sinful act of administering poison to the child were very much ashamed, and according to the directions of the brahmanas, they had to undergo atonement for killing the child. Any woman who has ever performed such an infamously sinful act must atone for it, but no one now is doing that. Under the circumstances, the women responsible must suffer in this life and the next. Those who are sincere souls, after hearing this incident, should refrain from such child-killing and should atone for their sinful activities by taking to Krsna consciousness very seriously. If one chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra without offenses, all of one's sinful actions are surely atoned for immediately, but one should not commit such deeds again, for that is an offense.
sa ittham pratibuddhatma
sarah-pankad iva dvipah
sah--he; ittham--in this way; pratibuddha-atma--being fully aware of spiritual knowledge; citraketuh--King Citraketu; dvija-uktibhih--by the instructions of the perfect brahmanas (Angira and Narada Muni); grha-andha-kupat--from the dark well of family life; niskrantah--came out; sarah--of a lake or reservoir of water; pankat--from the mud; iva--like; dvipah--an elephant.
Thus enlightened by the instructions of the brahmanas Angira and Narada, King Citraketu became fully aware of spiritual knowledge. As an elephant becomes free from a muddy reservoir of water, King Citraketu came out of the dark well of family life.
kalindyam vidhivat snatva
kalindyam--in the River Yamuna; vidhi-vat--according to prescribed regulations; snatva--bathing; krta--performing; punya--pious; jala-kriyah--oblations by offering water; maunena--with gravity; samyata-pranah--controlling the mind and senses; brahma-putrau--unto the two sons of Lord Brahma (Angira and Narada); avandata--offered his prayers and obeisances.
The King bathed in the water of the Yamuna, and according to prescribed duties, he offered oblations of water to the forefathers and demigods. Very gravely controlling his senses and mind, he then offered his respects and obeisances to the sons of Lord Brahma [Angira and Narada].
atha tasmai prapannaya
bhagavan naradah prito
vidyam etam uvaca ha
atha--thereafter; tasmai--unto him; prapannaya--who was surrendered; bhaktaya--being a devotee; prayata-atmane--who was self-controlled; bhagavan--the most powerful; naradah--Narada; pritah--being very pleased; vidyam--transcendental knowledge; etam--this; uvaca--spoke; ha--indeed.
Thereafter, being very much pleased with Citraketu, who was a self-controlled devotee and surrendered soul, Narada, the most powerful sage, spoke to him the following transcendental instructions.
om namas tubhyam bhagavate
namah sankarsanaya ca
om--O my Lord; namah--obeisances; tubhyam--unto You; bhagavate--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudevaya--Krsna, the son of Vasudeva; dhimahi--let me meditate upon; pradyumnaya--unto Pradyumna; aniruddhaya--unto Aniruddha; namah--respectful obeisances; sankarsanaya--unto Lord Sankarsana; ca--also; namah--all obeisances; vijnana-matraya--unto the form full of knowledge; parama-ananda-murtaye--full of transcendental bliss; atma-aramaya--unto the Lord, who is self-sufficient; santaya--and free from disturbances; nivrtta-dvaita-drstaye--whose vision turns away from duality, or who is one without a second.
[Narada gave Citraketu the following mantra.] O Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, who are addressed by the omkara [pranava], I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. O Lord Vasudeva, I meditate upon You. O Lord Pradyumna, Lord Aniruddha and Lord Sankarsana, I offer You my respectful obeisances. O reservoir of spiritual potency, O supreme bliss, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, who are self-sufficient and most peaceful. O ultimate truth, one without a second, You are realized as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan and are therefore the reservoir of all knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
In Bhagavad-gita Krsna says that He is pranavah sama-vedesu, the syllable om in the Vedic mantras. In transcendental knowledge, the Lord is addressed as pranava, omkara, which is a symbolic representation of the Lord in sound. Om namo bhagavate vasudevaya. Vasudeva, who is an expansion of Narayana, expands Himself as Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Sankarsana. From Sankarsana comes a second Narayana expansion, and from this Narayana come further expansions of Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Sankarsana and Aniruddha. The Sankarsana in this group is the original cause of the three purusas, namely Karanodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu. Ksirodakasayi Visnu is situated in every universe in a special planet called Svetadvipa. This is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita: andantara-stha. The word anda means this universe. Within this universe is a planet called Svetadvipa, where Ksirodakasayi Visnu is situated. From Him come all the incarnations within this universe.
As confirmed in the Brahma-samhita, all these forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are advaita, nondifferent, and they are also acyuta, infallible; they do not fall down like the conditioned souls. The ordinary living entity is prone to falling into the clutches of maya, but the Supreme Lord in His different incarnations and forms is acyuta, infallible. Therefore His body is different from the material body possessed by the conditioned soul.
The word matra is explained in the Medini dictionary as follows: matra karna-vibhusayam vitte mane paricchade. The word matra, in its different imports, is used to indicate the decoration of the ear, possession, respect, and the possession of a covering. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.14):
matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
tams titiksasva bharata
"O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed." In the conditioned state of life, the body is used as our dress, and as one needs different dresses during the summer and winter, we conditioned souls are changing bodies according to our desires. However, because the body of the Supreme Lord is full of knowledge, it needs no covering. The idea that Krsna's body is like ours--in other words, that His body and soul are different--is a misunderstanding. There are no such differences for Krsna, because His body is full of knowledge. Here we receive material bodies because of a lack of knowledge, but because Krsna, Vasudeva, is full of knowledge, there is no difference between His body and His soul. Krsna remembers what He said forty million years ago to the sun-god, but an ordinary being cannot remember what he said the day before yesterday. This is the difference between Krsna's body and our body. Therefore the Lord is addressed as vijnana-matraya paramananda-murtaye.
Because the Lord's body is full of knowledge, He always enjoys transcendental bliss. Indeed, His very form is paramananda. This is confirmed in the Vedanta-sutra: anandamayo'bhyasat. By nature the Lord is anandamaya. Whenever we see Krsna, He is always full of ananda in all circumstances. No one can make Him morose. Atmaramaya: He does not need to search for external enjoyment, because He is self-sufficient. Santaya: He has no anxiety. One who has to seek pleasure from other sources is always full of anxiety. Karmis, jnanis and yogis are full of anxiety because they want something, but a devotee does not want anything; he is simply satisfied in the service of the Lord, who is fully blissful.
Nivrtta-dvaita-drstaye: in our conditioned life our bodies have different parts, but although Krsna apparently has different bodily parts, no part of His body is different from any other part. Krsna can see with His eyes, and Krsna can see without His eyes. Therefore in the Svetasvatara Upanisad it is said, pasyaty acaksuh. He can see with His hands and legs. He does not need a particular bodily part to perform a particular action. Angani yasya sakalendriya-vrttimanti: He can do anything He desires with any part of His body, and therefore He is called almighty.
namas te 'nanta-murtaye
atma-ananda--of Your personal bliss; anubhutya--by perception; eva--certainly; nyasta--given up; sakti-urmaye--the waves of material nature; namah--respectful obeisances; hrsikesaya--unto the supreme controller of the senses; mahate--unto the Supreme; namah--respectful obeisances; te--unto You; ananta--unlimited; murtaye--whose expansions.
Perceiving Your personal bliss, You are always transcendental to the waves of material nature. Therefore, my Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. You are the supreme controller of the senses, and Your expansions of form are unlimited. You are the greatest, and therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
This verse analytically differentiates the living entity from the Supreme Lord. The form of the Lord and the form of the conditioned soul are different because the Lord is always blissful whereas the conditioned soul is always under the threefold miseries of the material world. The Supreme Lord is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. He derives ananda, bliss, from His own self. The Lord's body is transcendental, spiritual, but because the conditioned soul has a material body, he has many bodily and mental troubles. The conditioned soul is always perturbed by attachment and detachment, whereas the Supreme Lord is always free from such dualities. The Lord is the supreme master of all the senses, whereas the conditioned soul is controlled by the senses. The Lord is the greatest, whereas the living entity is the smallest. The living entity is conditioned by the waves of material nature, but the Supreme Lord is transcendental to all actions and reactions. The expansions of the Supreme Lord's body are innumerable (advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam), but the conditioned soul is limited to only one form. From history we learn that a conditioned soul, by mystic power, can sometimes expand into eight forms, but the Lord's bodily expansions are unlimited. This means that the bodies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead have no beginning and no end, unlike the bodies of the living entities.
vacasy uparate 'prapya
ya eko manasa saha
so 'vyan nah sad-asat-parah
vacasi--when the words; uparate--cease; aprapya--not achieving the goal; yah--He who; ekah--one without a second; manasa--the mind; saha--with; anama--with no material name; rupah--or material form; cit-matrah--totally spiritual; sah--He; avyat--may kindly protect; nah--us; sat-asat-parah--who is the cause of all causes (the supreme cause).
The words and mind of the conditioned soul cannot approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for material names and forms are not applicable to the Lord, who is entirely spiritual, beyond the conception of gross and subtle forms. The impersonal Brahman is another of His forms. May He, by His pleasure, protect us.
The impersonal Brahman, which is the effulgence of the Lord, is described in this verse.
yasminn idam yatas cedam
tisthaty apyeti jayate
mrnmayesv iva mrj-jatis
tasmai te brahmane namah
yasmin--in whom; idam--this (cosmic manifestation); yatah--from whom; ca--also; idam--this (cosmic manifestation); tisthati--stands; apyeti--dissolves; jayate--is born; mrt-mayesu--in things made of earth; iva--like; mrt-jatih--birth from earth; tasmai--unto Him; te--You; brahmane--the supreme cause; namah--respectful obeisances.
As pots made completely of earth are situated on earth after being created and are transformed into earth again when broken, this cosmic manifestation is caused by the Supreme Brahman, situated in the Supreme Brahman, and annihilated in the same Supreme Brahman. Therefore, since the Supreme Lord is the cause of Brahman, let us offer Him our respectful obeisances.
The Supreme Lord is the cause of the cosmic manifestation, He maintains it after creation, and after annihilation the Lord is the reservoir of everything.
yan na sprsanti na vidur
antar bahis ca vitatam
vyomavat tan nato 'smy aham
yat--whom; na--not; sprsanti--can touch; na--nor; viduh--can know; manah--the mind; buddhi--the intelligence; indriya--the senses; asavah--the life airs; antah--within; bahih--outside; ca--also; vitatam--expanded; vyoma-vat--like the sky; tat--unto Him; natah--bowed; asmi--am; aham--I.
The Supreme Brahman emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and expands like the sky. Although untouched by anything material, it exists within and without. Nonetheless, the mind, intelligence, senses and living force can neither touch Him nor know Him. I offer unto Him my respectful obeisances.
yad-amsa-viddhah pracaranti karmasu
naivanyada lauham ivaprataptam
sthanesu tad drastrapadesam eti
deha--the body; indriya--senses; prana--life airs; manah--mind; dhiyah--and intelligence; ami--all those; yat-amsa-viddhah--being influenced by rays of Brahman, or the Supreme Lord; pracaranti--they move; karmasu--in various activities; na--not; eva--indeed; anyada--at other times; lauham--iron; iva--like; aprataptam--not heated (by fire); sthanesu--in those circumstances; tat--that; drastr-apadesam--the name of a subject matter; eti--achieves.
As iron has the power to burn when made red-hot in the association of fire, so the body, senses, living force, mind and intelligence, although merely lumps of matter, can function in their activities when infused with a particle of consciousness by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As iron cannot burn unless heated by fire, the bodily senses cannot act unless favored by the Supreme Brahman.
Red-hot iron can burn, but it cannot burn the original fire. Therefore the consciousness of the small particle of Brahman is fully dependent on the power of the Supreme Brahman. In Bhagavad-gita the Lord says, mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "From Me the conditioned soul receives memory, knowledge and forgetfulness." The power for activities comes from the Supreme Lord, and when the Lord withdraws this power, the conditioned soul no longer has energy with which to act through his various senses. The body includes five knowledge-acquiring senses, five active senses and the mind, but actually these are merely lumps of matter. For example, the brain is nothing but matter, but when electrified by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the brain can act, just as iron can burn when made red-hot by the influence of fire. The brain can act while we are awake or even while we are dreaming, but when we are fast asleep or unconscious the brain is inactive. Since the brain is a lump of matter, it does not have independent power with which to act. It can act only when favored by the influence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is Brahman or Parabrahman. This is the way to understand how the Supreme Brahman, Krsna, is present everywhere, just as the sunshine is present because of the sun-god in the sun globe. The Supreme Lord is called Hrsikesa; He is the only conductor of the senses. Unless empowered by His energy, our senses cannot act. In other words, He is the only seer, the only worker, the only listener, and the only active principle or supreme controller.
om namo bhagavate maha-purusaya mahanubhavaya maha-vibhuti-pataye sakala-satvata-parivrdha-nikara-kara-kamala-kudmalopalalita-caranaravinda-yugala parama-paramesthin namas te.
om--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; namah--respectful obeisances; bhagavate--unto You, the Lord, who are full in six opulences; maha-purusaya--the supreme enjoyer; maha-anubhavaya--the most perfect realized soul, or the Supersoul; maha-vibhuti-pataye--the master of all mystic power; sakala-satvata-parivrdha--of all the best devotees; nikara--of the multitude; kara-kamala--of the lotus hands; kudmala--by the buds; upalalita--served; carana-aravinda-yugala--whose two lotus feet; parama--topmost; parame-sthin--who are situated in the spiritual planet; namah te--respectful obeisances unto You.
O transcendental Lord, who are situated in the topmost planet of the spiritual world, Your two lotus feet are always massaged by a multitude of the best devotees with their lotus-bud hands. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, complete in six opulences. You are the supreme person mentioned in the Purusa-sukta prayers. You are the most perfect, self-realized master of all mystic power. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
It is said that the Absolute Truth is one, but is manifested in different features as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan. The previous verses described the Brahman and Paramatma features of the Absolute Truth. Now this prayer is offered in bhakti-yoga to the Absolute Supreme Person. The words used in this regard are sakala-satvata-parivrdha. The word satvata means "devotees," and sakala means "all together." The devotees, who also have lotus feet, serve the lotus feet of the Lord with their lotus hands. The devotees may sometimes not be competent to serve the lotus feet of the Lord, and therefore the Lord is addressed as parama-paramesthin. He is the Supreme Person, yet He is very kind to the devotees. No one is competent to serve the Lord, but even if a devotee is not competent, the merciful Lord accepts the humble attempt of the devotee.
vidyam adisya naradah
yayav angirasa sakam
dhama svayambhuvam prabho
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; bhaktaya--unto the devotee; etam--this; prapannaya--unto one who fully surrendered; vidyam--transcendental knowledge; adisya--instructing; naradah--the great sage Narada; yayau--left; angirasa--the great saint Angira; sakam--with; dhama--for the topmost planet; svayambhuvam--belonging to Lord Brahma; prabho--O King.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Narada, having become the spiritual master of Citraketu, instructed him fully in this prayer because Citraketu was fully surrendered. O King Pariksit, Narada then left with the great sage Angira for the topmost planet, known as Brahmaloka.
When Angira had first come to visit King Citraketu, he did not bring Narada with him. However, after the death of Citraketu's son, Angira brought Narada to instruct King Citraketu about bhakti-yoga. The difference was that in the beginning Citraketu was not in a temperament of renunciation, but after the death of his son, when he was overwhelmed by his great plight, he was awakened to the platform of renunciation by instructions regarding the falsity of this material world and material possessions. It is only at this stage that bhakti-yoga can be instructed. As long as one is attached to material enjoyment, bhakti-yoga cannot be understood. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (2.44):
samadhau na vidhiyate
"In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence, and who are bewildered by such things, the resolute determination of devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place." As long as one is very much attached to material enjoyment, one cannot concentrate his mind on the subject matter of devotional service.
The Krsna consciousness movement is progressing successfully in the Western countries at the present moment because the youth in the West have reached the stage of vairagya, or renunciation. They are practically disgusted with material pleasure from material sources, and this has resulted in a population of hippies throughout the Western countries. Now if these young people are instructed about bhakti-yoga, Krsna consciousness, the instructions will certainly be effective.
As soon as Citraketu understood the philosophy of vairagya-vidya, the knowledge of renunciation, he could understand the process of bhakti-yoga. In this regard Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya has said, vairagya-vidya-nija-bhakti-yoga. Vairagya-vidya and bhakti-yoga are parallel lines. One is essential for understanding the other. It is also said, bhaktih paresanubhavo viraktir anyatra ca (Bhag. 11.2.42). Advancement in devotional service, or Krsna consciousness, is characterized by increasing renunciation of material enjoyment. Narada Muni is the father of devotional service, and therefore, just to bestow causeless mercy upon King Citraketu, Angira brought Narada Muni to instruct the King. These instructions were extremely effective. Anyone who follows in the footsteps of Narada Muni is certainly a pure devotee.
citraketus tu tam vidyam
dharayam asa saptaham
citraketuh--King Citraketu; tu--indeed; tam--that; vidyam--transcendental knowledge; yatha--just as; narada-bhasitam--instructed by the great sage Narada; dharayam asa--chanted; sapta-aham--continuously for one week; ap-bhaksah--only drinking water; su-samahitah--with great attention and care.
Fasting and drinking only water, Citraketu for one week continuously chanted with great care and attention the mantra given by Narada Muni.
tatah sa sapta-ratrante
lebhe 'pratihatam nrpa
tatah--from this; sah--he; sapta-ratra-ante--at the end of seven nights; vidyaya--by the prayers; dharyamanaya--being carefully practiced; vidyadhara-adhipatyam--mastership of the Vidyadharas (as an intermediate result); ca--also; lebhe--achieved; apratihatam--undeviated from the instructions of the spiritual master; nrpa--O King Pariksit.
O King Pariksit, after only one week of repeatedly practicing the mantra received from the spiritual master, Citraketu achieved the rule of the planet of the Vidyadharas as an intermediate product of his spiritual advancement in knowledge.
If a devotee, after being initiated, adheres rigidly to the instructions of the spiritual master, he is naturally endowed with the material opulences of vidyadhara-adhipatyam and similar posts as by-products. A devotee need not practice yoga, karma or jnana to achieve a successful result. Devotional service alone is competent to award a devotee all material power. A pure devotee, however, is never attached to material power, although he gets it very easily without personal endeavor. Citraketu received this side benefit of his devotional service, which he rigidly performed in accordance with the instructions of Narada.
tatah--thereafter; katipaya-ahobhih--within a few days; vidyaya--by the spiritual mantra; iddha-manah-gatih--the course of his mind being enlightened; jagama--went; deva-devasya--of the master of all other lords or demigods; sesasya--Lord Sesa; carana-antikam--to the shelter of the lotus feet.
Thereafter, within a very few days, by the influence of the mantra that Citraketu had practiced, his mind became increasingly enlightened in spiritual progress, and he attained shelter at the lotus feet of Anantadeva.
A devotee's ultimate achievement is to take shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord in any one of the planets in the spiritual sky. As a result of rigid execution of devotional service, a devotee receives all material opulences if these are required; otherwise, the devotee is not interested in material opulences, nor does the Supreme Lord award them. When a devotee is actually engaged in the devotional service of the Lord, his apparently material opulences are not material; they are all spiritual. For example, if a devotee spends money to construct a beautiful and costly temple, the construction is not material but spiritual (nirbandhah krsna-sambandhe yuktam vairagyam ucyate). A devotee's mind is never diverted to the material side of the temple. The bricks, stone and wood used in the construction of the temple are spiritual, just as the Deity, although made of stone, is not stone but the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. The more one advances in spiritual consciousness, the more he can understand the elements of devotional service. Nothing in devotional service is material; everything is spiritual. Consequently a devotee is awarded so-called material opulence for spiritual advancement. This opulence is an aid to help the devotee advance toward the spiritual kingdom. Thus Maharaja Citraketu remained in material opulence as a vidyadhara-pati, master of the Vidyadharas, and by executing devotional service he became perfect within a very few days and returned home, back to Godhead, taking shelter of the lotus feet of Lord Sesa, Ananta.
A karmi's material opulence and a devotee's material opulence are not on the same level. Srila Madhvacarya comments in this way:
bhaved yogyataya tasya
padam va prapnuyan narah
By worshiping Lord Visnu one can get whatever he desires, but a pure devotee never asks Lord Visnu for any material profit. Instead he serves Lord Visnu without material desires and is therefore ultimately transferred to the spiritual kingdom. In this regard, Srila Viraraghava Acarya comments, yathesta-gatir ity arthah: by worshiping Visnu, a devotee can get whatever he likes. Maharaja Citraketu wanted only to return home, back to Godhead, and therefore he achieved success in that way.
mrnala-gauram siti-vasasam sphurat-
dadarsa siddhesvara-mandalaih prabhum
mrnala-gauram--white like the fibers of a lotus; siti-vasasam--wearing garments of blue silk; sphurat--glittering; kirita--helmet; keyura--armlets; katitra--belt; kankanam--whose bangles; prasanna-vaktra--smiling face; aruna-locanam--having reddish eyes; vrtam--surrounded; dadarsa--he saw; siddha-isvara-mandalaih--by the most perfect devotees; prabhum--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Upon reaching the shelter of Lord Sesa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Citraketu saw that He was as white as the white fibers of a lotus flower. He was dressed in bluish garments and adorned with a brilliantly glittering helmet, armlets, belt and bangles. His face was smiling, and His eyes were reddish. He was surrounded by such exalted liberated persons as Sanat-kumara.
svasthamalantahkarano 'bhyayan munih
tat-darsana--by the sight of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dhvasta--destroyed; samasta-kilbisah--having all sins; svastha--healthy; amala--and pure; antahkaranah--the core of whose heart; abhyayat--approached face to face; munih--the King, who was silent due to full mental satisfaction; pravrddha-bhaktya--with an attitude of increased devotional service; pranaya-asru-locanah--with tears in his eyes because of love; prahrsta-roma--his hairs standing on end due to jubilation; anamat--offered respectful obeisances; adi-purusam--unto the expansion of the original personality.
As soon as Maharaja Citraketu saw the Supreme Lord, he was cleansed of all material contamination and situated in his original Krsna consciousness, being completely purified. He became silent and grave, and because of love for the Lord, tears fell from his eyes, and his hairs stood on end. With great devotion and love, he offered his respectful obeisances unto the original Personality of Godhead.
The word tad-darsana-dhvasta-samasta-kilbisah is very important in this verse. If one regularly sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the temple, one will gradually be disinfected of all material desires simply by visiting the temple and seeing the Deity. When one is freed from all the results of sinful activities, one will be purified, and with a healthy mind, completely cleansed, he will increasingly make progress in Krsna consciousness.
premasru-lesair upamehayan muhuh
naivasakat tam prasamiditum ciram
sah--he; uttamasloka--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pada-abja--of the lotus feet; vistaram--the resting place; prema-asru--of tears of pure love; lesaih--by drops; upamehayan--moistening; muhuh--again and again; prema-uparuddha--choked with love; akhila--all; varna--of the letters; nirgamah--the coming out; na--not; eva--indeed; asakat--was able; tam--unto Him; prasamiditum--to offer prayers; ciram--for a long time.
With tears of love and affection, Citraketu repeatedly moistened the resting place of the Supreme Lord's lotus feet. Because his voice was choked in ecstasy, for a considerable time he was unable to utter any of the letters of the alphabet to offer the Lord suitable prayers.
All the letters of the alphabet and the words constructed by those letters are meant for offering prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Maharaja Citraketu had the opportunity to offer prayers to the Lord by composing nice verses from the letters of the alphabet, but because of his ecstasy, for a considerable time he could not join those letters to offer prayers to the Lord. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.5.22):
idam hi pumsas tapasah srutasya va
svistasya suktasya ca buddhi-dattayoh
avicyuto 'rthah kavibhir nirupito
If one has scientific, philosophical, political, economic or any other abilities and wants perfection in his knowledge, he should offer prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by composing first-class poetry or engaging his talents in the service of the Lord. Citraketu wanted to do this, but he was unable because of loving ecstasy. Therefore he had to wait for a considerable time before be could offer prayers.
tatah samadhaya mano manisaya
babhasa etat pratilabdha-vag asau
tatah--thereafter; samadhaya--controlling; manah--the mind; manisaya--by his intelligence; babhasa--spoke; etat--this; pratilabdha--recovering; vak--speech; asau--that one (King Citraketu); niyamya--controlling; sarva-indriya--of all the senses; bahya--external; vartanam--the wandering; jagat-gurum--who is the spiritual master of everyone; satvata--of devotional service; sastra--of the holy scriptures; vigraham--the personified form.
Thereafter, by controlling his mind with his intelligence and thus restricting his senses from external engagements, he recovered suitable words with which to express his feelings. Thus he began offering prayers to the Lord, who is the personification of the holy scriptures [the satvata-samhitas like the Brahma-samhita and the Narada-pancaratra] and who is the spiritual master of all. He offered his prayers as follows.
One cannot offer prayers to the Lord with mundane words. One must become spiritually advanced by controlling the mind and senses. Then he can find suitable words to offer in prayers to the Lord. Quoting the following verse from the Padma Purana, Srila Sanatana Gosvami forbids us to sing any song not sung by authorized devotees.
sravanam naiva kartavyam
sarpocchistam yatha payah
The words or songs of a person not fixed in Vaisnava behavior, not strictly following the rules and regulations and chanting the Hare Krsna mantra should not be accepted by pure devotees. The words satvata-sastra-vigraham indicate that the sac-cid-ananda body of the Lord can never be accepted to be made of maya. Devotees do not offer prayers to the Lord in an imaginary form. The existence of the Lord's form is supported by all Vedic literature.
ajita jitah sama-matibhih
sadhubhir bhavan jitatmabhir bhavata
vijitas te 'pi ca bhajatam
akamatmanam ya atmado 'ti-karunah
citraketuh uvaca--King Citraketu said; ajita--O my unconquerable Lord; jitah--conquered; sama-matibhih--by persons who have conquered the mind; sadhubhih--the devotees; bhavan--Your Lordship; jita-atmabhih--who have completely controlled the senses; bhavata--by You; vijitah--conquered; te--they; api--also; ca--and; bhajatam--to those who always engage in Your service; akama-atmanam--with no motives for material profit; yah--who; atma-dah--giving Yourself; ati-karunah--extremely merciful.
Citraketu said: O unconquerable Lord, although You cannot be conquered by anyone, You are certainly conquered by devotees who have control of the mind and senses. They can keep You under their control because You are causelessly merciful to devotees who desire no material profit from You. Indeed, You give Yourself to them, and because of this You also have full control over Your devotees.
The Lord and the devotees both conquer. The Lord is conquered by the devotees, and the devotees are conquered by the Lord. Because of being conquered by one another, they both derive transcendental bliss from their relationship. The highest perfection of this mutual conquering is exhibited by Krsna and the gopis. The gopis conquered Krsna, and Krsna conquered the gopis. Thus whenever Krsna played His flute, He conquered the minds of the gopis, and without seeing the gopis Krsna could not be happy. Other transcendentalists, such as jnanis and yogis, cannot conquer the Supreme personality of Godhead; only pure devotees can conquer Him.
Pure devotees are described as sama-mati, which means that they never deviate from devotional service under any circumstances. It is not that devotees worship the Supreme Lord only when happy; they worship Him even when in distress. Happiness and distress do not hamper the process of devotional service. Therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam says that devotional service is ahaituky apratihata, unmotivated and uninterrupted. When a devotee offers devotional service to the Lord without any motive (anyabhilasita-sunyam), his service cannot be hampered by any material condition (apratihata). Thus a devotee who offers service in all conditions of life can conquer the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
A special distinction between devotees and the other transcendentalists, namely the jnanis and yogis, is that jnanis and yogis artificially try to become one with the Supreme, whereas devotees never aspire for such an impossible accomplishment. Devotees know that their position is to be eternally servants of the Supreme Lord and never to be one with Him. Therefore they are called sama-mati or jitatma. They detest oneness with the Supreme. They have no lusty desires for oneness; instead, their desire is to be freed from all material hankering. Therefore they are called niskama, desireless. A living entity cannot exist without desires, but desires that can never be fulfilled are called kama, lusty desires. Kamais tais tair hrta jnanah: because of lusty desires, nondevotees are deprived of their intelligence. Thus they are unable to conquer the Supreme Lord, whereas devotees, being freed from such unreasonable desires, can conquer the Lord. Such devotees are also conquered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because they are pure, being free from all material desires, they fully surrender to the Supreme Lord, and therefore the Lord conquers them. Such devotees never aspire for liberation. They simply desire to serve the lotus feet of the Lord. Because they serve the Lord without desires for remuneration, they can conquer the mercy of the Lord. The Lord is by nature very merciful, and when He sees that His servant is working without desires for material profit, naturally He is conquered.
Devotees are always engaged in service.
sa vai manah krsna-padaravindayor
All the activities of their senses are engaged in the service of the Lord. Because of such devotion, the Lord gives Himself to His devotees as if they could use Him for any purpose they might desire. Of course, devotees have no purpose other than to serve. When a devotee fully surrenders and has no aspiration for material profit, the Lord certainly gives him all opportunities for service. This is the position of the Lord when conquered by His devotees.
tava vibhavah khalu bhagavan
visva-srjas te 'msamsas
tatra mrsa spardhanti prthag abhimatya
tava--Your; vibhavah--opulences; khalu--indeed; bhagavan--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; jagat--of the cosmic manifestation; udaya--the creation; sthiti--maintenance; laya-adini--dissolution and so on; visva-srjah--the creators of the manifested world; te--they; amsa-amsah--parts of Your plenary portion; tatra--in that; mrsa--in vain; spardhanti--rival one another; prthak--of separateness; abhimatya--by a false conception.
My dear Lord, this cosmic manifestation and its creation, maintenance and annihilation are all but Your opulences. Since Lord Brahma and the other creators are nothing but small portions of a portion of You, their partial power to create does not make them God [isvara]. Their consciousness of themselves as separate Lords is therefore merely false prestige. It is not valid.
A devotee who has fully surrendered to the lotus feet of the Lord knows very well that the creative energy of the living entities, from Lord Brahma down to the small ant, exists because the living entities are part and parcel of the Lord. In Bhagavad-gita (15.7) the Lord says, mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah: "The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts." The living entities are nothing but very small portions of the supreme spirit, like sparks of a fire. Because they are part of the Supreme, they have a creative quality in a very minute quantity.
The so-called scientists of the modern materialistic world are proud because they have created modern facilities like great airplanes, but the credit for creating the airplanes should go to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, not to the scientists who have invented or created the so-called wonderful products. The first consideration is the intelligence of the scientist; one must be elevated by the dictation of the Supreme Lord, who says in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "From Me comes remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." Because the Supreme Lord, as Supersoul, sits within the core of every living entity's heart, the dictation by which one advances in scientific knowledge or creative faculties comes from Him. Furthermore, the ingredients to manufacture wonderful machines like airplanes are also supplied by the Lord, not by the scientists. Before the airplane was created, its ingredients already existed, having been caused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but when the manifested creation of the airplane is ruined, the remaining debris is a problem for the so-called creators. Another example is that the West is creating many automobiles. The ingredients for these cars are supplied, of course, by the Supreme Lord, and the intelligence for the so-called creation is also supplied by the Lord. Ultimately, when the cars are demolished, the so-called creators are faced with the problem of what to do with their ingredients. The actual creator, the original creator, is the Personality of Godhead. Only in the interim does someone create something with intelligence supplied by the Lord, and later the creation again becomes a problem. Therefore the so-called creator is not to be credited with the act of creation; the only credit goes to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is rightly stated herein that the credit for all the opulences of creation, maintenance and annihilation belongs to the Supreme Lord, not to the living entities.
tvam ady-antantara-varti traya-vidhurah
adav ante 'pi ca sattvanam
yad dhruvam tad evantarale 'pi
parama-anu--of the atomic particle; parama-mahatoh--and of the biggest (the result of the combination of atoms); tvam--You; adi-anta--in both the beginning and the end; antara--and in the middle; varti--existing; traya-vidhurah--although without beginning, end or middle; adau--in the beginning; ante--at the end; api--also; ca--and; sattvanam--of all existences; yat--which; dhruvam--permanent; tat--that; eva--certainly; antarale--in the middle; api--also.
You exist in the beginning, middle and end of everything, from the most minute particle of the cosmic manifestation--the atom--to the gigantic universes and total material energy. Nonetheless, You are eternal, having no beginning, end or middle. You are perceived to exist in these three phases, and thus You are permanent. When the cosmic manifestation does not exist, You exist as the original potency.
The Brahma-samhita (5.33) says:
advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam
adyam purana-purusam nava-yauvanam ca
vedesu durlabham adurlabham atma-bhaktau
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
"I worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda [Krsna], who is the original person--absolute, infallible, without beginning, although expanded into unlimited forms, still the same original, the oldest, and the person always appearing as a fresh youth. Such eternal, blissful, all-knowing forms of the Lord cannot be understood even by the best Vedic scholars, but they are always manifest to pure, unalloyed devotees." The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no cause, for He is the cause of everything. The Lord is beyond the workings of cause and effect. He is eternally existing. In another verse the Brahma-samhita says, andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham: the Lord exists within the gigantic universe and within the atom. The descent of the Lord into the atom and the universe indicates that without His presence, nothing could factually exist. Scientists say that water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen, but when they see a vast ocean they are puzzled about where such a quantity of hydrogen and oxygen could have come from. They think that everything evolved from chemicals, but where did the chemicals come from? That they do not know. Since the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of all causes, He can produce immense quantities of chemicals to create a situation for chemical evolution. We actually see that chemicals are produced from living entities. For example, a lemon tree produces many tons of citric acid. The citric acid is not the cause of the tree; rather, the tree is the cause of the acid. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of everything. He is the cause of the tree that produces the citric acid (bijam mam sarva-bhutanam). Devotees can see that the original potencies causing the cosmic manifestation are not in chemicals but in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for He is the cause of the chemicals.
Everything is caused or manifested by the energy of the Supreme Lord, and when everything is annihilated or dissolved, the original potency enters the body of the Supreme Lord. Therefore this verse says, adav ante 'pi ca sattvanam yad dhruvam tad evantarale 'pi. The word dhruvam means "permanent." The permanent reality is Krsna, not this cosmic manifestation. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, aham adir hi devanam and mattah sarvam pravartate: Krsna is the original cause of everything. Arjuna recognized Lord Sri Krsna as the original person (purusam sasvatam divyam adi-devam ajam vibhum), and the Brahma-samhita describes Him as the original person (govindam adi-purusam). He is the cause of all causes, whether at the beginning, at the end or in the middle.
ksity-adibhir esa kilavrtah
saptabhir dasa-gunottarair anda-kosah
yatra pataty anu-kalpah
sahanda-koti-kotibhis tad anantah
ksiti-adibhih--by the ingredients of the material world, headed by earth; esah--this; kila--indeed; avrtah--covered; saptabhih--seven; dasa-guna-uttaraih--each ten times more than the previous one; anda-kosah--egg-shaped universe; yatra--in whom; patati--falls; anu-kalpah--like a minute atom; saha--with; anda-koti-kotibhih--millions of such universes; tat--therefore; anantah--(You are called) unlimited.
Every universe is covered by seven layers--earth, water, fire, air, sky, the total energy and false ego--each ten times greater than the previous one. There are innumerable universes besides this one, and although they are unlimitedly large, they move about like atoms in You. Therefore You are called unlimited [ananta].
The Brahma-samhita (5.48) says:
jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah
visnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-viseso
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
The origin of the material creation is Maha-Visnu, who lies in the Causal Ocean. While He sleeps in that ocean, millions of universes are generated as He exhales, and they are all annihilated when He inhales. This Maha-Visnu is a plenary portion of a portion of Visnu, Govinda (yasya kala-visesah). The word kala refers to a plenary portion of a plenary portion. From Krsna, or Govinda, comes Balarama; from Balarama comes Sankarsana; from Sankarsana, Narayana; from Narayana, the second Sankarsana; from the second Sankarsana, Maha-Visnu; from Maha-Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu; and from Garbhodakasayi Visnu, Ksirodakasayi Visnu. Ksirodakasayi Visnu controls every universe. This gives an idea of the meaning of ananta, unlimited. What is to be said of the unlimited potency and existence of the Lord? This verse describes the coverings of the universe (saptabhir dasa-gunottarair anda-kosah). The first covering is earth, the second is water, the third is fire, the fourth is air, the fifth is sky, the sixth is the total material energy, and the seventh is the false ego. Beginning with the covering of earth, each covering is ten times greater than the previous one. Thus we can only imagine how great each universe is, and there are many millions of universes. As confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (10.42):
kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam
ekamsena sthito jagat
"But what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe." The entire material world manifests only one fourth of the Supreme Lord's energy. Therefore He is called ananta.
ya upasate vibhutir na param tvam
tesam asisa isa
tad anu vinasyanti yatha raja-kulam
visaya-trsah--eager to enjoy sense gratification; nara-pasavah--manlike animals; ye--who; upasate--worship very gorgeously; vibhutih--small particles of the Supreme Lord (the demigods); na--not; param--the Supreme; tvam--You; tesam--of them; asisah--the benedictions; isa--O supreme controller; tat--them (the demigods); anu--after; vinasyanti--will be vanquished; yatha--just as; raja-kulam--those who are supported by the government (when the government is finished).
O Lord, O Supreme, unintelligent persons who thirst for sense enjoyment and who worship various demigods are no better than animals in the human form of life. Because of their animalistic propensities, they fail to worship Your Lordship, and instead they worship the insignificant demigods, who are but small sparks of Your glory. With the destruction of the entire universe, including the demigods, the benedictions received from the demigods also vanish, just like the nobility when a king is no longer in power.
Bhagavad-gita (7.20) says, kamais tais tair hrta jnanah prapadyante 'nya-devatah: "Those whose minds are distorted by material desires surrender unto the demigods." Similarly, this verse condemns worship of the demigods. We may show our respect to the demigods, but the demigods are not worshipable. The intelligence of those who worship the demigods is lost (hrta jnanah) because these worshipers do not know that when the entire material cosmic manifestation is annihilated, the demigods, who are the departmental heads of that manifestation, will be vanquished. When the demigods are vanquished, the benedictions given by the demigods to unintelligent men will also be vanquished. Therefore a devotee should not hanker to obtain material opulence by worshiping the demigods, but should engage in the service of the Lord, who will satisfy all his desires.
akamah sarva-kamo va
yajeta purusam param
"Whether full of all material desires, free from material desires or desiring liberation, a person who has broader intelligence must by all means worship the supreme whole, the Personality of Godhead." (Bhag. 2.3.10) This is the duty of a perfect human being. One who has the shape of a human being but whose actions are nothing but those of an animal is called nara-pasu or dvipada-pasu, a two-legged animal. A human being who is not interested in Krsna consciousness is condemned herewith as a nara-pasu.
kama-dhiyas tvayi racita
na parama rohanti yatha karambha-bijani
guna-ganato 'sya dvandva-jalani
kama-dhiyah--desires for sense gratification; tvayi--in You; racitah--performed; na--not; parama--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; rohanti--do grow (produce other bodies); yatha--just as; karambha-bijani--sterilized or fried seeds; jnana-atmani--in You, whose existence is in full knowledge; aguna-maye--who is not affected by the material qualities; guna-ganatah--from the material qualities; asya--of a person; dvandva-jalani--the networks of duality.
O Supreme Lord, if persons obsessed with material desires for sense gratification through material opulence worship You, who are the source of all knowledge and are transcendental to material qualities, they are not subject to material rebirth, just as sterilized or fried seeds do not produce plants. Living entities are subjected to the repetition of birth and death because they are conditioned by material nature, but since You are transcendental, one who is inclined to associate with You in transcendence escapes the conditions of material nature.
This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.9), wherein the Lord says:
janma karma ca me divyam
evam yo vetti tattvatah
tyaktva deham punar janma
naiti mam eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." If one simply engages in Krsna consciousness to understand Krsna, he surely becomes immune to the process of repeated birth and death. As clearly stated in Bhagavad-gita, tyaktva deham punar janma naiti: such a person, simply by engaging in Krsna consciousness or understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, becomes quite fit to return home, back to Godhead. Even those who are obsessed with material desires may also come to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead so steadily that they go back to Godhead. The fact is that if one comes to Krsna consciousness, although he may have many material desires, he becomes increasingly attracted to the lotus feet of Krsna through associating with the Supreme Lord by chanting His holy name. The Supreme Lord and His holy name are identical. Thus he becomes uninterested in attachment to material enjoyment. The perfection of life is to be uninterested in material enjoyment and interested in Krsna. If one comes to Krsna consciousness somehow or other, even for material gain, the result is that he will be liberated. Kamad dvesad bhayat snehat. Whether for the satisfaction of material desires, because of the influence of envy, because of fear, because of affection or because of any other reason, if one comes to Krsna, his life is successful.
jitam ajita tada bhavata
yadaha bhagavatam dharmam anavadyam
niskincana ye munaya
atmarama yam upasate 'pavargaya
jitam--conquered; ajita--O unconquerable one; tada--then; bhavata--by Your Lordship; yada--when; aha--spoke; bhagavatam--which helps the devotee approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dharmam--the religious process; anavadyam--faultless (free from contamination); niskincanah--who have no desire to be happy with material opulences; ye--those who; munayah--great philosophers and exalted sages; atma-aramah--who are self-satisfied (being completely aware of their constitutional position as eternal servants of the Lord); yam--whom; upasate--worship; apavargaya--for achieving liberation from material bondage.
O unconquerable one, when You spoke about bhagavata-dharma, which is the uncontaminated religious system for achieving the shelter of Your lotus feet, that was Your victory. Persons who have no material desires, like the Kumaras, who are self-satisfied sages, worship You to be liberated from material contamination. In other words, they accept the process of bhagavata-dharma to achieve shelter at Your lotus feet.
As stated by Srila Rupa Gosvami in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu:
silanam bhaktir uttama
"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Krsna favorably and without desires for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service."
The Narada-pancaratra also says:
sevanam bhaktir ucyate
"One should be free from all material designations and cleansed of all material contamination. He should be restored to his pure identity, in which he engages his senses in the service of the proprietor of the senses. That is called devotional service." This is also called bhagavata-dharma. Without material aspirations, one should simply serve Krsna, as advised in Bhagavad-gita, Narada-pancaratra and Srimad-Bhagavatam. Bhagavata-dharma is the process of religion enunciated by pure devotees, direct representatives of the Supreme Personality of Godhead like Narada, Sukadeva Gosvami and their humble servants in the disciplic succession. By understanding bhagavata-dharma, one immediately becomes free from material contamination. Living entities, who are part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are loitering in this material world suffering. When they are instructed by the Lord Himself about bhagavata-dharma and they adopt it, that is victory for the Lord, for He then reclaims these fallen souls. A devotee following the principles of bhagavata-dharma feels very much obligated to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He can understand the difference between life without bhagavata-dharma and life with bhagavata-dharma and thus he ever remains obliged to the Lord. Taking to Krsna consciousness and bringing fallen souls to Krsna consciousness is victory for Lord Krsna.
sa vai pumsam paro dharmo
yato bhaktir adhoksaje
"The supreme occupation [dharma] for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted in order to completely satisfy the self." (Bhag. 1.2.6) Therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam is the pure transcendental process of religion.
visama-matir na yatra nrnam
tvam aham iti mama taveti ca yad anyatra
visama-dhiya racito yah
sa hy avisuddhah ksayisnur adharma-bahulah
visama--unequal (your religion, my religion; your belief, my belief); matih--consciousness; na--not; yatra--in which; nrnam--of human society; tvam--you; aham--I; iti--thus; mama--my; tava--your; iti--thus; ca--also; yat--which; anyatra--elsewhere (in religious systems other than bhagavata-dharma); visama-dhiya--by this unequal intelligence; racitah--made; yah--that which; sah--that system of religion; hi--indeed; avisuddhah--not pure; ksayisnuh--temporary; adharma-bahulah--full of irreligion.
Being full of contradictions, all forms of religion but bhagavata-dharma work under conceptions of fruitive results and distinctions of "you and I" and "yours and mine." The followers of Srimad-Bhagavatam have no such consciousness. They are all Krsna conscious, thinking that they are Krsna's and Krsna is theirs. There are other, low-class religious systems, which are contemplated for the killing of enemies or the gain of mystic power, but such religious systems, being full of passion and envy, are impure and temporary. Because they are full of envy, they are full of irreligion.
Bhagavata-dharma has no contradictions. Conceptions of "your religion" and "my religion" are completely absent from bhagavata-dharma. Bhagavata-dharma means following the orders given by the Supreme Lord, Bhagavan, as stated in Bhagavad-gita: sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja. God is one, and God is for everyone. Therefore everyone must surrender to God. That is the pure conception of religion. Whatever God orders constitutes religion (dharmam tu saksad bhagavat-pranitam). In bhagavata-dharma there is no question of "what you believe" and "what I believe." Everyone must believe in the Supreme Lord and carry out His orders. Anukulyena krsnanusilanam: whatever Krsna says--whatever God says--should be directly carried out. That is dharma, religion.
If one is actually Krsna conscious, he cannot have any enemies. Since his only engagement is to induce others to surrender to Krsna, or God, how can he have enemies? If one advocates the Hindu religion, the Muslim religion, the Christian religion, this religion or that religion, there will be conflicts. History shows that the followers of religious systems without a clear conception of God have fought with one another. There are many instances of this in human history, but systems of religion that do not concentrate upon service to the Supreme are temporary and cannot last for long because they are full of envy. There are many activities directed against such religious systems, and therefore one must give up the idea of "my belief" and "your belief." Everyone should believe in God and surrender unto Him. That is bhagavata-dharma.
Bhagavata-dharma is not a concocted sectarian belief, for it entails research to find how everything is connected with Krsna (isavasyam idam sarvam). According to the Vedic injunctions, sarvam khalv idam brahma: Brahman, the Supreme, is present in everything. Bhagavata-dharma captures this presence of the Supreme. Bhagavata-dharma does not consider everything in the world to be false. Because everything emanates from the Supreme, nothing can be false; everything has some use in the service of the Supreme. For example, we are now dictating into a microphone and recording on a dictating machine, and thus we are finding how the machine can be connected to the Supreme Brahman. Since we are using this machine in the service of the Lord, it is Brahman. This is the meaning of sarvam khalv idam brahma. Everything is Brahman because everything can be used for the service of the Supreme Lord. Nothing is mithya, false; everything is factual.
Bhagavata-dharma is called sarvotkrsta, the best of all religious systems, because those who follow bhagavata-dharma are not envious of anyone. Pure bhagavatas, pure devotees, invite everyone, without envy, to join the Krsna consciousness movement. A devotee is therefore exactly like the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam: he is the friend of all living entities. Therefore this is the best of all religious systems. Whereas so-called religions are meant for a particular type of person who believes in a particular way, such discrimination has no place in Krsna consciousness, or bhagavata-dharma. If we scrutinize the religious systems meant for worship of demigods or anyone else but the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we will find that they are full of envy and therefore impure.
kah ksemo nija-parayoh
kiyan varthah sva-para-druha dharmena
sva-drohat tava kopah
para-sampidaya ca tathadharmah
kah--what; ksemah--benefit; nija--to oneself; parayoh--and to others; kiyan--how much; va--or; arthah--purpose; sva-para-druha--which is envious of the performer and of others; dharmena--with the religious system; sva-drohat--from being envious of one's own self; tava--of You; kopah--anger; para-sampidaya--by giving pain to others; ca--also; tatha--as well as; adharmah--irreligion.
How can a religious system that produces envy of one's self and of others be beneficial for oneself and for them? What is auspicious about following such a system? What is actually to be gained? By causing pain to one's own self due to self-envy and by causing pain to others, one arouses Your anger and practices irreligion.
Any religious system but the process of bhagavata-dharma--service as an eternal servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead--is a system of envy of one's own self and of others. For example, there are many systems of religion in which animal sacrifices are recommended. Such animal sacrifices are inauspicious both for the performer and for the animal. Although one is sometimes permitted to sacrifice an animal before the goddess Kali and eat it instead of purchasing meat from a slaughterhouse, permission to eat meat after a sacrifice in the presence of the goddess Kali is not the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is simply a concession for the miserable person who will not give up eating meat. It is meant to restrict his desire for unrestricted meat-eating. Such a religious system is condemned. Therefore Krsna says, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "Give up all other duties and surrender unto Me." That is the last word in religion.
One may argue that the sacrifice of animals is recommended in the Vedas. This recommendation, however, is a restriction. Without Vedic restrictions on the purchase of meat, people will purchase meat from the market, which will be overflooded with meat shops, and slaughterhouses will increase. To restrict this, sometimes the Vedas say that one may eat meat after sacrificing an insignificant animal like a goat before the goddess Kali. In any case, a system of religion in which animal sacrifices are recommended is inauspicious for those who perform the sacrifices and for the animals. Envious persons who perform ostentatious animal sacrifices are condemned in Bhagavad-gita (16.17) as follows:
yajante nama-yajnais te
"Self-complacent and always impudent, deluded by wealth and false prestige, they sometimes perform sacrifices in name only without following any rules or regulations." Sometimes animal sacrifices are performed very gorgeously with grand arrangements for worshiping the goddess Kali, but such festivals, although performed in the name of yajna, are not actually yajna, for yajna means to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore it is recommended that in this age specifically, yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah: those who have good intelligence satisfy the yajna-purusa, Visnu, by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra. Envious persons, however, are condemned by the Supreme Personality of Godhead as follows:
ahankaram balam darpam
kamam krodham ca samsritah
tan aham dvisatah kruran
ksipamy ajasram asubhan
asurisv eva yonisu
"Bewildered by false ego, strength, pride, lust and anger, the demon becomes envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is situated in his own body and in the bodies of others, and blasphemes against the real religion. Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life." (Bg. 16.18-19) These persons are condemned by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as indicated by the words tava kopah. A person who commits murder is envious of himself and also the person he has killed, for the result of committing murder is that he will be arrested and hanged. If one transgresses the laws of a man-made government, he may escape being killed by the state, but one cannot escape the laws of God. A killer of any animal must be killed in his next life by the same animal. This is the law of nature. One must follow the instructions of the Supreme Lord: sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja. If one follows any other system of religion, he is subject to punishment by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in many different ways. Therefore if one follows a concocted system of religion, he is envious not only of others but also of himself. Consequently his system of religion is useless.
Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.8) says:
dharmah svanusthitah pumsam
notpadayed yadi ratim
srama eva hi kevalam
"Duties (dharma) executed by men, regardless of occupation, are only so much useless labor if they do not provoke attraction for the message of the Supreme Lord." Following a system of religion that does not awaken one's Krsna consciousness, or God consciousness, is merely a waste of time and labor.
na vyabhicarati taveksa
yaya hy abhihito bhagavato dharmah
aprthag-dhiyo yam upasate tv aryah
na--not; vyabhicarati--fails; tava--Your; iksa--outlook; yaya--by which; hi--indeed; abhihitah--declared; bhagavatah--in relationship with Your instructions and activities; dharmah--religious principle; sthira--nonmoving; cara--moving; sattva-kadambesu--among the living entities; aprthak-dhiyah--who do not consider distinctions; yam--which; upasate--follow; tu--certainly; aryah--those who are advanced in civilization.
My dear Lord, one's occupational duty is instructed in Srimad-Bhagavatam and Bhagavad-gita according to Your point of view, which never deviates from the highest goal of life. Those who follow their occupational duties under Your supervision, being equal to all living entities, moving and nonmoving, and not considering high and low, are called Aryans. Such Aryans worship You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Bhagavata-dharma and krsna-katha are identical. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu wanted everyone to become a guru and preach the instructions of Krsna everywhere from Bhagavad-gita, Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Puranas, Vedanta-sutra and similar Vedic literatures. Aryans, who are advanced in civilization, follow bhagavata-dharma. Prahlada Maharaja, although merely a child of five years, recommended:
kaumara acaret prajno
dharman bhagavatan iha
durlabham manusam janma
tad apy adhruvam arthadam
Prahlada Maharaja preached bhagavata-dharma among his classmates as soon as an opportunity was afforded by the absence of his teachers from the classroom. He said that from the very beginning of life, from the age of five, children should be instructed about bhagavata-dharma because the human form of life, which is very rarely obtained, is meant for understanding this subject.
Bhagavata-dharma means living according to the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In Bhagavad-gita we find that the Supreme Lord has arranged human society in four social divisions, namely brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra. Again, the Puranas and other Vedic literatures set forth four asramas, which are the divisions of spiritual life. Therefore bhagavata-dharma means the varnasrama-dharma of the four social and four spiritual divisions.
The members of human society who strictly follow the principles of bhagavata-dharma and live according to the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are called Aryans or arya. A civilization of Aryans who strictly follow the instructions of the Lord and never deviate from those instructions is perfect. Such civilized men do not discriminate between trees, animals, human beings and other living entities. panditah sama-darsinah: because they are completely educated in Krsna consciousness, they see all living beings equally. Aryans do not kill even a small plant unnecessarily, not to speak of cutting trees for sense gratification. At the present moment, throughout the world, killing is prominent. Men are killing trees, they are killing animals, and they are killing other human beings also, all for sense gratification. This is not an Aryan civilization. As stated here, sthira-cara-sattva-kadambesv aprthag-dhiyah. The word aprthag-dhiyah indicates that Aryans do not distinguish between lower and higher grades of life. All life should be protected. All living beings have a right to live, even the trees and plants. This is the basic principle of an Aryan civilization. Apart from the lower living entities, those who have come to the platform of human civilization should be divided into a society of brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras. The brahmanas should follow the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as stated in Bhagavad-gita and other Vedic literatures. The criterion must be guna and karma. In other words, one should acquire the qualities of a brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya or sudra and act accordingly. This is the civilization accepted by the Aryans. Why do they accept it? They accept it because they are very much eager to satisfy Krsna. This is perfect civilization.
Aryans do not deviate from the instructions of Krsna, nor do they have doubts about Krsna, but non-Aryans and other demoniac people fail to follow the instructions of Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam. This is because they have been trained in sense gratification at the cost of all other living entities. Nunam pramattah kurute vikarma: their only business is to indulge in all kinds of forbidden activities for sense gratification. Yad indriya-pritaya aprnoti: they deviate in this way because they want to gratify their senses. They have no other occupation or ambition. Their method of civilization is condemned in the previous verse. Kah ksemo nija-parayoh kiyan varthah sva-para-druha dharmena: "What is the meaning of a civilization that kills oneself and others?"
This verse, therefore, advises that everyone become a member of the Aryan civilization and accept the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should conduct his social, political and religious affairs according to His instructions. We are spreading the Krsna consciousness movement to try to establish a society the way that Krsna wants it. This is the meaning of Krsna consciousness. We are therefore presenting Bhagavad-gita as it is and kicking out all kinds of mental concoction. Fools and rascals interpret Bhagavad-gita in their own way. When Krsna says, man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru--"Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me and offer your homage unto Me"--they comment that it is not Krsna to whom we must surrender. Thus they derive imaginary meanings from Bhagavad-gita. The Krsna consciousness movement, however, strictly follows bhagavata-dharma, the instructions of Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam for the complete welfare of human society. One who misinterprets Bhagavad-gita, twisting out some meaning for his sense gratification, is a non-Aryan. Therefore commentaries on Bhagavad-gita by such persons should be immediately rejected. One should try to follow Bhagavad-gita as it is. In Bhagavad-gita (12.6-7) Lord Sri Krsna says:
ye tu sarvani karmani
mayi sannyasya mat-parah
mam dhyayanta upasate
tesam aham samuddharta
bhavami na cirat partha
"For one who worships Me, giving up all his activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always meditating upon Me, who has fixed his mind upon Me, O son of Prtha, for him I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death."
na hi bhagavann aghatitam idam
tvad-darsanan nrnam akhila-papa-ksayah
yan-nama sakrc chravanat
pukkaso 'pi vimucyate samsarat
na--not; hi--indeed; bhagavan--O my Lord; aghatitam--not occurred; idam--this; tvat--of You; darsanat--by seeing; nrnam--of all human beings; akhila--all; papa--of sins; ksayah--annihilation; yat-nama--whose name; sakrt--only once; sravanat--by hearing; pukkasah--the lowest class, the candala; api--also; vimucyate--is delivered; samsarat--from the entanglement of material existence.
My Lord, it is not impossible for one to be immediately freed from all material contamination by seeing You. Not to speak of seeing You personally, merely by hearing the holy name of Your Lordship only once, even candalas, men of the lowest class, are freed from all material contamination. Under the circumstances, who will not be freed from material contamination simply by seeing You?
As stated in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (9.5.16), yan-nama-sruti-matrena puman bhavati nirmalah: simply by hearing the holy name of the Lord, one is immediately purified. Therefore, in this age of Kali, when all people are very contaminated, the chanting of the holy name of the Lord is recommended as the only means of improvement.
harer nama harer nama
harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva
nasty eva gatir anyatha
"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way." (Brhan-naradiya purana) Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu introduced this chanting of the holy name five hundred years ago, and now through the Krsna consciousness movement, the Hare Krsna movement, we are actually seeing that men who are considered to belong to the lowest class are being delivered from all sinful activities simply by hearing the holy name of the Lord. Samsara, material existence, is a result of sinful actions. Everyone in this material world is condemned, yet as there are different grades of prisoners, there are different grades of men. All of them, in all statuses of life, are suffering. To stop the suffering of material existence, one must take to the Hare Krsna movement of sankirtana or Krsna conscious life.
Herein it is said, yan-nama sakrc chravanat: the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is so powerful that if once heard without offenses, it can purify the lowest of men (kirata-hunandhra-pulinda-pulkasah). Such men, who are called candalas, are less than sudras, but they also can be purified simply by hearing the holy name of the Lord, not to speak of personally seeing the Lord. From our present position, the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be personally seen as the Deity in the temple. The Deity of the Lord is not different from the Supreme Lord. Because we cannot see the Supreme Lord with our present blunt eyes, the Lord has kindly consented to come before us in a form we can see. Therefore the Deity in the temple should not be considered material. By offering food to the Deity and by decorating and serving the Deity, one gets the same result that one derives from serving the Lord personally in Vaikuntha.
atha bhagavan vayam adhuna
sura-rsina yat kathitam
tavakena katham anyatha bhavati
atha--therefore; bhagavan--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; vayam--we; adhuna--at the present moment; tvat-avaloka--by seeing You; parimrsta--wiped away; asaya-malah--contaminated desires in the heart; sura-rsina--by the great sage of the demigods (Narada); yat--which; kathitam--spoken; tavakena--who is Your devotee; katham--how; anyatha--otherwise; bhavati--can it be.
Therefore, my dear Lord, simply seeing You has now wiped away all the contamination of sinful activities and their results of material attachment and lusty desires, which always filled my mind and the core of my heart. Whatever is predicted by the great sage Narada Muni cannot be otherwise. In other words, I have obtained Your audience as a result of being trained by Narada Muni.
This is the process of the perfect way. One must take lessons from authorities like Narada, Vyasa and Asita, and follow their principles. Then one will be able to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead even with one's own eyes. One only needs training. Atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih. With our blunt eyes and other senses we cannot perceive the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but if we engage our senses in the service of the Lord according to the instructions of the authorities, it will be possible to see Him. As soon as one sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead, all the sinful reactions in the core of one's heart are certainly vanquished.
viditam ananta samastam
tava jagad-atmano janair ihacaritam
kiyad iva savitur iva khadyotaih
viditam--well known; ananta--O unlimited; samastam--everything; tava--to You; jagat-atmanah--who are the Supersoul of all living entities; janaih--by the mass of people, or all living entities; iha--within this material world; acaritam--performed; vijnapyam--to be informed; parama-guroh--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme master; kiyat--how much; iva--certainly; savituh--to the sun; iva--like; khadyotaih--by the fireflies.
O unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead, whatever a living entity does in this material world is well known to You because You are the Supersoul. In the presence of the sun there is nothing to be revealed by the light of a glowworm. Similarly, because You know everything, in Your presence there is nothing for me to make known.
namas tubhyam bhagavate
kuyoginam bhida paramahamsaya
namah--all obeisances; tubhyam--unto You; bhagavate--Your Lordship; sakala--all; jagat--of the cosmic manifestation; sthiti--of the maintenance; laya--dissolution; udaya--and creation; isaya--unto the Supreme Lord; duravasita--impossible to understand; atma-gataye--whose own position; ku-yoginam--of those who are attached to the objects of the senses; bhida--by the false understanding of separateness; parama-hamsaya--unto the supreme pure.
My dear Lord, You are the creator, maintainer and annihilator of this cosmic manifestation, but persons who are too materialistic and who always see separateness do not have eyes with which to see You. They cannot understand Your real position, and therefore they conclude that the cosmic manifestation is independent of Your opulence. My Lord, You are the supreme pure, and You are full in all six opulences. Therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
Atheistic men think that the cosmic manifestation has come about by chance, by a combination of matter, without reference to God. Materialistic so-called chemists and atheistic philosophers always try to avoid even the name of God in relation to the cosmic manifestation. For them God's creation is impossible to understand because they are too materialistic. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is paramahamsa, or the supreme pure, whereas those who are sinful, being very much attached to material sense enjoyment and therefore engaging in material activities like asses, are the lowest of men. All their so-called scientific knowledge is null and void because of their atheistic temperament. Thus they cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
yam vai svasantam anu visva-srjah svasanti
yam cekitanam anu cittaya uccakanti
bhu-mandalam sarsapayati yasya murdhni
tasmai namo bhagavate 'stu sahasra-murdhne
yam--whom; vai--indeed; svasantam--endeavoring; anu--after; visva-srjah--the directors of the cosmic creation; svasanti--also endeavor; yam--whom; cekitanam--perceiving; anu--after; cittayah--all the knowledge-gathering senses; uccakanti--perceive; bhu-mandalam--the huge universe; sarsapayati--become like seeds of mustard; yasya--of whom; murdhni--on the head; tasmai--unto Him; namah--obeisances; bhagavate--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, full with six opulences; astu--may there be; sahasra-murdhne--who has thousands of hoods.
My dear Lord, it is after You endeavor that Lord Brahma, Indra and the other directors of the cosmic manifestation become occupied with their activities. It is after You perceive the material energy, My Lord, that the senses begin to perceive. The Supreme Personality of Godhead holds all the universes on His heads like seeds of mustard. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, that Supreme Personality, who has thousands of hoods.
samstuto bhagavan evam
anantas tam abhasata
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; samstutah--being worshiped; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; evam--in this way; anantah--Lord Ananta; tam--unto him; abhasata--replied; vidyadhara-patim--the King of the Vidyadharas; pritah--being very pleased; citraketum--King Citraketu; kuru-udvaha--O best of the Kuru dynasty, Maharaja Pariksit.
Sukadeva Gosvami continued: The Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Anantadeva, being very much pleased with the prayers offered by Citraketu, the King of the Vidyadharas, replied to him as follows, O best of the Kuru dynasty, Maharaja Pariksit.
yan naradangirobhyam te
vyahrtam me 'nusasanam
samsiddho 'si taya rajan
vidyaya darsanac ca me
sri-bhagavan uvaca--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sankarsana, replied; yat--which; narada-angirobhyam--by the great sages Narada and Angira; te--unto you; vyahrtam--spoken; me--of Me; anusasanam--the worship; samsiddhah--completely perfected; asi--you are; taya--by that; rajan--O King; vidyaya--mantra; darsanat--from the direct sight; ca--as well as; me--of Me.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Anantadeva, replied as follows: O King, as a result of your having accepted the instructions spoken about Me by the great sages Narada and Angira, you have become completely aware of transcendental knowledge. Because you are now educated in the spiritual science, you have seen Me face to face. Therefore you are now completely perfect.
The perfection of life is to be spiritually educated and to understand the existence of the Lord and how He creates, maintains and annihilates the cosmic manifestation. When one is perfect in knowledge, he can develop his love of Godhead through the association of such perfect persons as Narada and Angira and the members of their disciplic succession. Then one is able to see the unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face. Although the Lord is unlimited, by His causeless mercy He becomes visible to the devotee, who is then able to see Him. In our present position of conditioned life we cannot see or understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
na bhaved grahyam indriyaih
sevonmukhe hi jihvadau
svayam eva sphuraty adah
"No one can understand the transcendental nature of the name, form, quality and pastimes of Sri Krsna through his materially contaminated senses. Only when one becomes spiritually saturated by transcendental service to the Lord are the transcendental name, form, quality and pastimes of the Lord revealed to him." (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 1.2.234) If one takes to spiritual life under the direction of Narada Muni or his representative and thus engages himself in the service of the Lord, he qualifies himself to see the Lord face to face. The Brahma-samhita (5.38) states:
santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti
yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
"I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda, who is always seen by the devotee whose eyes are anointed with the pulp of love. He is seen in His eternal form of Syamasundara situated within the heart of the devotee." One must follow the instructions of the spiritual master. Thus one becomes qualified and later sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as evinced by Maharaja Citraketu.
aham vai sarva-bhutani
sabda-brahma param brahma
mamobhe sasvati tanu
aham--I; vai--indeed; sarva-bhutani--expanded in different forms of living entities; bhuta-atma--the Supersoul of all living entities (the supreme director and enjoyer of them); bhuta-bhavanah--the cause for the manifestation of all living entities; sabda-brahma--the transcendental sound vibration (the Hare Krsna mantra); param brahma--the Supreme Absolute Truth; mama--My; ubhe--both (namely, the form of sound and the form of spiritual identity); sasvati--eternal; tanu--two bodies.
All living entities, moving and nonmoving, are My expansions and are separate from Me. I am the Supersoul of all living beings, who exist because I manifest them. I am the form of the transcendental vibrations like omkara and Hare Krsna Hare Rama, and I am the Supreme Absolute Truth. These two forms of Mine--namely, the transcendental sound and the eternally blissful spiritual form of the Deity, are My eternal forms; they are not material.
The science of devotional service has been instructed by Narada and Angira to Citraketu. Now, because of Citraketu's devotional service, he has seen the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By performing devotional service, one advances step by step, and when one is on the platform of love of Godhead (prema pumartho mahan) he sees the Supreme Lord at every moment. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, when one engages in devotional service twenty-four hours a day (tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam)n accordance with the instructions of the spiritual master, his devotional service becomes more and more pleasing. Then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is within the core of everyone's heart, speaks to the devotee (dadami buddhi-yogam tam yena mam upayanti te). Citraketu Maharaja was first instructed by his gurus, Angira and Narada, and now, having followed their instructions, he has come to the stage of seeing the Supreme Lord face to face. Therefore the Lord is now instructing him in the essence of knowledge.
The essence of knowledge is that there are two kinds of vastu, or substances, One is real, and the other, being illusory or temporary, is sometimes called nonfactual. One must consider these two kinds of existence. The real tattva, or truth, consists of Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvam yaj jnanam advayam
bhagavan iti sabdyate
"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan." The Absolute Truth exists eternally in three features. Therefore, Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan combined are the substance.
The categories of emanations from the nonsubstance are two--activities and forbidden activities (karma and vikarma). Karma refers to the pious life or material activities performed during the day and the mental activities of dreams at night. These are more or less desired activities. Vikarma, however, refers to illusory activities, which are something like the will-o'-the-wisp. These are activities that have no meaning. For example, modern scientists imagine that life can be produced from chemical combinations, and they are very busy trying to prove this in laboratories throughout the world, although no one in history has been able to produce the substance of life from material combinations. Such activities are called vikarma.
All material activities are actually illusory, and progress in illusion is simply a waste of time. These illusory activities are called akarya, and one must learn of them from the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.17):
karmano hy api boddhavyam
boddhavyam ca vikarmanah
akarmanas ca boddhavyam
gahana karmano gatih
"The intricacies of action are very hard to understand. Therefore one should know properly what action is, what forbidden action is, and what inaction is." One must learn of these directly from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who, as Anantadeva, is instructing King Citraketu because of the advanced stage of devotional service he achieved by following the instructions of Narada and Angira.
Herein it is said, aham vai sarva-bhutani: the Lord is everything (sarva-bhutani), including the living entities and the material or physical elements. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (7.4-5):
bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh
kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me
bhinna prakrtir astadha
apareyam itas tv anyam
prakrtim viddhi me param
yayedam dharyate jagat
"Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego--all together these eight comprise My separated material energies. Besides this inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is a superior energy of Mine, which consists of the living entities, who are struggling with material nature and are sustaining the universe." The living entity tries to lord it over the material or physical elements, but both the physical elements and the spiritual spark are energies emanating from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the Lord says, aham vai sarva-bhutani: "I am everything." Just as heat and light emanate from fire, these two energies--the physical elements and the living entities--emanate from the Supreme Lord. Therefore the Lord says, aham vai sarva-bhutani: "I expand the physical and spiritual categories."
Again, the Lord, as the Supersoul, guides the living entities who are conditioned by the physical atmosphere. Therefore he is called bhutatma bhuta-bhavanah. He gives the living entity the intelligence with which to improve his position so that he may return home, back to Godhead, or if he does not want to go back to Godhead, the Lord gives him the intelligence with which to improve his material position. This is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (15.15). Sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." From within, the Lord gives the living being the intelligence with which to work. Therefore the previous verse said that after the Supreme personality of Godhead endeavors, our endeavors begin. We cannot independently endeavor or act upon anything. Therefore the Lord is bhuta-bhavanah.
Another specific feature of the knowledge given in this verse is that sabda-brahma is also a form of the Supreme Lord. In His eternal, blissful form, Lord Krsna is accepted by Arjuna as param brahma. A living entity in the conditioned stage accepts something illusory as substantial. This is called maya or avidya--ignorance. Therefore according to the Vedic knowledge, one must become a devotee, and one must then distinguish between avidya and vidya, which are elaborately explained in the Isopanisad. When one is actually on the platform of vidya, he can personally understand the Personality of Godhead in His forms like those of Lord Rama, Lord Krsna and Sankarsana. The Vedic knowledge is described as the breathing of the Supreme Lord, and activities begin on the basis of Vedic knowledge. Therefore the Lord says that when He endeavors or breathes, the material universes come into existence, and various activities gradually develop. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita, pranavah sarva-vedesu: "I am the syllable om in all the Vedic mantras." Vedic knowledge begins with the vibration of the transcendental sound pranava, omkara. The same transcendental sound is Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. Abhinnatvan nama-naminoh: there is no difference between the holy name of the Lord and the Lord Himself.
loke vitatam atmanam
lokam catmani santatam
ubhayam ca maya vyaptam
mayi caivobhayam krtam
loke--in this material world; vitatam--expanded (in the spirit of material enjoyment); atmanam--the living entity; lokam--the material world; ca--also; atmani--in the living entity; santatam--spread; ubhayam--both (the material world of material elements and the living entity); ca--and; maya--by Me; vyaptam--pervaded; mayi--in Me; ca--also; eva--indeed; ubhayam--both of them; krtam--created.
In this world of matter, which the conditioned soul accepts as consisting of enjoyable resources, the conditioned soul expands, thinking that he is the enjoyer of the material world. Similarly, the material world expands in the living entity as a source of enjoyment. In this way they both expand, but because they are My energies, they are both pervaded by Me. As the Supreme Lord, I am the cause of these effects, and one should know that both of them rest in Me.
The Mayavada philosophy sees everything as being equal in quality with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or the Supreme Brahman, and therefore sees everything as worshipable. This dangerous theory of the Mayavada school has turned people in general toward atheism. On the strength of this theory, one thinks that he is God, but this is not a fact. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina), the fact is that the entire cosmic manifestation is an expansion of the Supreme Lord's energies, which are manifested in the physical elements and the living entities. The living entities wrongly consider the physical elements to be resources meant for their enjoyment, and they think themselves to be the enjoyers. However, neither of them is independent; they are both energies of the Lord. The original cause for the material energy and spiritual energy is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. However, although the expansion of the Lord's energies is the original cause, one should not think that the Lord Himself has expanded in different ways. To condemn the theories of the Mayavadis, the Lord clearly says in Bhagavad-gita, mat-sthani sarva-bhutani na caham tesv avasthitah: "All beings are in Me, but I am not in them." Everything rests upon Him, and everything is but an expansion of His energies, but this does not mean that everything is as worshipable as the Lord Himself. The material expansion is temporary, but the Lord is not temporary. The living entities are parts of the Lord, but they are not the Lord Himself. The living entities in this material world are not inconceivable, but the Lord is. The theory that the Lord's energies, being expansions of the Lord, are as good as the Lord is mistaken.
yatha susuptah puruso
visvam pasyati catmani
manyate svapna utthitah
tad-drastaram param smaret
yatha--just as; susuptah--sleeping; purusah--a person; visvam--the whole universe; pasyati--perceives; ca--also; atmani--in himself; atmanam--himself; eka-desa-stham--lying down in one place; manyate--he considers; svapne--in the dreaming condition; utthitah--waking up; evam--in this way; jagarana-adini--the states of wakefulness and so on; jiva-sthanani--the living entity's different conditions of existence; ca--also; atmanah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-matrani--the exhibitions of the illusory potency; vijnaya--knowing; tat--of them; drastaram--the creator or seer of all such conditions; param--the Supreme; smaret--one should always remember.
When a person is in deep sleep, he dreams and sees in himself many other objects, such as great mountains and rivers or perhaps even the entire universe, although they are far away. Sometimes when one awakens from a dream he sees that he is in a human form, lying in his bed in one place. Then he sees himself, in terms of various conditions, as belonging to a particular nationality, family and so on. All the conditions of deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness are but energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should always remember the original creator of these conditions, the Supreme Lord, who is unaffected by them.
None of these conditions of the living entities--namely, deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness--is substantial. They are simply displays of various phases of conditional life. There may be many mountains, rivers, trees, bees, tigers and snakes that are situated far away, but in a dream one may imagine them to be nearby. Similarly, as one has subtle dreams at night, when the living entity is awake he lives in gross dreams of nation, community, society, possessions, skyscrapers, bank balance, position and honor. Under the circumstances, one should know that his position is due to his contact with the material world. One is situated in different positions in various forms of life that are all but creations of the illusory energy, which works under the direction of the Supreme personality of Godhead. Therefore the Supreme Lord is the ultimate actor, and the conditioned living entity should simply remember this original actor, Sri Krsna. As living entities, we are being carried away by the waves of prakrti, or nature, which works under the Lord's direction (mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram). Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings, (miche) mayara vase, yaccha bhese', khaccha habudubu, bhai: "Why are you being carried away by the waves of the illusory energy in various phases of dreaming and wakefulness? These are all creations of maya." Our only duty is to remember the supreme director of this illusory energy--Krsna. For us to do this, the sastra advises us, harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam: one should constantly chant the holy name of the Lord--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. The Supreme Lord is realized in three different phases, as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan, but Bhagavan is the ultimate realization. One who realizes Bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna--is the most perfect mahatma (vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah). In the human form of life, one should understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for then one will understand everything else. Yasmin vijnate sarvam evam vijnatam bhavati. According to this Vedic injunction, simply by understanding Krsna one understands Brahman, Paramatma, prakrti, the illusory energy, the spiritual energy and everything else. Everything will be revealed. prakrti, the material nature, is. working under the direction of the Supreme Lord, and we living entities are being carried away by various phases of prakrti. For self-realization, one should always remember Krsna. As stated in Padma Purana, smartavyah satatam visnuh: we should always remember Lord Visnu. Vismartavyo na jatucit: we should never forget the Lord. This is the perfection of life.
yena prasuptah purusah
svapam vedatmanas tada
sukham ca nirgunam brahma
tam atmanam avehi mam
yena--by whom (the Supreme Brahman); prasuptah--sleeping; purusah--a man; svapam--the subject of a dream; veda--knows; atmanah--of himself; tada--at that time; sukham--happiness; ca--also; nirgunam--without contact with the material environment; brahma--the supreme spirit; tam--Him; atmanam--the pervader; avehi--just know; mam--Me.
Know Me to be the Supreme Brahman, the all-pervading Supersoul through whom the sleeping living entity can understand his dreaming condition and his happiness beyond the activities of the material senses. That is to say, I am the cause of the activities of the sleeping living being.
When the living entity becomes free from false ego, he understands his superior position as a spirit soul, part and parcel of the pleasure potency of the Lord. Thus, due to Brahman, even while sleeping the living entity can enjoy. The Lord says, "That Brahman, that Paramatma and that Bhagavan are I Myself." This is noted by Srila Jiva Gosvami in his Krama-sandarbha.
ubhayam smaratah pumsah
taj jnanam brahma tat param
ubhayam--both types of consciousness (sleep and wakefulness); smaratah--remembering; pumsah--of the person; prasvapa--of consciousness during sleep; pratibodhayoh--and of consciousness while awake; anveti--extends through; vyatiricyeta--may reach beyond; tat--that; jnanam--knowledge; brahma--the Supreme Brahman; tat--that; param--transcendental.
If one's dreams during sleep are merely subject matters witnessed by the Supersoul, how can the living entity, who is different from the Supersoul, remember the activities of dreams? The experiences of one person cannot be understood by another. Therefore the knower of the facts, the living entity who inquires into the incidents manifested in dreams and wakefulness, is different from the circumstantial activities. That knowing factor is Brahman. In other words, the quality of knowing belongs to the living entities and to the Supreme Soul. Thus the living entity can also experience the activities of dreams and wakefulness. In both stages the knower is unchanged, but is qualitatively one with the Supreme Brahman.
In knowledge the living entity is qualitatively one with the Supreme Brahman, but the quantity of the Supreme Brahman is not the same as that of the living entity, who is part of Brahman. Because the living entity is Brahman in quality, he can remember the past activities of dreams and also know the present activities of wakefulness.
yad etad vismrtam pumso
mad-bhavam bhinnam atmanah
tatah samsara etasya
dehad deho mrter mrtih
yat--which; etat--this; vismrtam--forgotten; pumsah--of the living entity; mat-bhavam--My spiritual position; bhinnam--separation; atmanah--from the Supreme Soul; tatah--from that; samsarah--material, conditional life; etasya--of the living entity; dehat--from one body; dehah--another body; mrteh--from one death; mrtih--another death.
When a living entity, thinking himself different from Me, forgets his spiritual identity of qualitative oneness with Me in eternity, knowledge and bliss, his material, conditional life begins. In other words, instead of identifying his interest with Mine, he becomes interested in his bodily expansions like his wife, children and material possessions. In this way, by the influence of his actions, one body comes from another, and after one death, another death takes place.
Generally the Mayavadi philosophers or persons influenced by Mayavadi philosophers think themselves as good as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the cause of their conditional life. As stated by the Vaisnava poet Jagadananda Pandita in his Prema-vivarta:
krsna-bahirmukha hana bhoga vancha kare
nikata-stha maya tare japatiya dhare
As soon as a living entity forgets his constitutional position and endeavors to become one with the Supreme, his conditional life begins. The conception that the Supreme Brahman and the living entity are equal not only in quality but also in quantity is the cause of conditional life. If one forgets the difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entity, his conditional life begins. Conditional life means giving up one body to accept another and undergoing death to accept death again. The Mayavadi philosopher teaches the philosophy of tat tvam asi, saying, "You are the same as God." He forgets that tat tvam asi applies in terms of the marginal position of the living entity, who is like sunshine. There is heat and light in the sun, and there is heat and light in the sunshine, and thus they are qualitatively one. But one should not forget that the sunshine rests on the sun. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita, brahmano hi pratisthaham: "I am the original source of Brahman." The sunshine is important because of the presence of the sun globe. It is not that the sun globe is important because of the all-pervasiveness of the sunshine. Forgetfulness and misunderstanding of this fact is called maya. Because of forgetfulness of one's constitutional position and that of the Supreme Lord, one comes into maya, or samsara--conditional life. In this regard, Madhvacarya says:
vismaran samsared iha
abhinnam samsmaran yati
tamo nasty atra samsayah
When one thinks that the living entity is nondifferent in all respects from the Supreme Lord, there is no doubt that he is in ignorance (tamah).
labdhveha manusim yonim
atmanam yo na buddhyeta
na kvacit ksemam apnuyat
labdhva--achieving; iha--in this material world (especially in this pious land of Bharata-varsa, India); manusim--the human; yonim--species; jnana--of knowledge through Vedic scriptures; vijnana--and practical application of that knowledge in life; sambhavam--wherein there is a possibility; atmanam--one's real identity; yah--anyone who; na--not; buddhyeta--understands; na--never; kvacit--at any time; ksemam--success in life; apnuyat--can obtain.
A human being can attain perfection in life by self-realization through the Vedic literature and its practical application. This is possible especially for a human being born in India, the land of piety. A man who obtains birth in such a convenient position but does not understand his self is unable to achieve the highest perfection, even if he is exalted to life in the higher planetary systems.
This statement is confirmed in Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 9.41). Lord Caitanya said:
bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara
janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara
Everyone born in India, especially as a human being, can achieve the supreme success through the Vedic literature and its practical application in life. When one is perfect, he can render a service for the self-realization of the entire human society. This is the best way to perform humanitarian work.
abhayam capy anihayam
sankalpad viramet kavih
smrtva--remembering; ihayam--in the field of activities with fruitive results; pariklesam--the waste of energy and the miserable conditions; tatah--from that; phala-viparyayam--the opposite of the desired result; abhayam--fearlessness; ca--also; api--indeed; anihayam--when there is no desire for fruitive results; sankalpat--from material desire; viramet--should cease; kavih--one who is advanced in knowledge.
Remembering the great trouble found in the field of activities performed for fruitive results, and remembering how one receives the reverse of the results one desires--whether from material actions or from the fruitive activities recommended in the Vedic literatures--an intelligent man should cease from the desire for fruitive actions, for by such endeavors one cannot achieve the ultimate goal of life. On the other hand, if one acts without desires for fruitive results--in other words, if one engages in devotional activities--he can achieve the highest goal of life with freedom from miserable conditions. Considering this, one should cease from material desires.
kurvate dampati kriyah
tato 'nivrttir apraptir
duhkhasya ca sukhasya ca
sukhaya--for happiness; duhkha-moksaya--for release from the unhappy state; kurvate--perform; dam-pati--the wife and husband; kriyah--activities; tatah--from that; anivrttih--no cessation; apraptih--no achievement; duhkhasya--of distress; ca--also; sukhasya--of happiness; ca--also.
As husband and wife, a man and woman plan together to attain happiness and decrease unhappiness, working jointly in many ways, but because their activities are full of desires, these activities are never a source of happiness, and they never diminish distress. On the contrary, they are a cause of great unhappiness.
evam viparyayam buddhva
atmanas ca gatim suksmam
nirmuktah svena tejasa
mad-bhaktah puruso bhavet
evam--in this way; viparyayam--reversal; buddhva--realizing; nrnam--of men; vijna-abhimaninam--who think of themselves as full of scientific knowledge; atmanah--of the self; ca--also; gatim--the progress; suksmam--extremely difficult to understand; sthana-traya--the three conditions of life (deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness); vilaksanam--apart from; drsta--directly perceived; srutabhih--or understood by information from authorities; matrabhih--from objects; nirmuktah--being freed; svena--by one's own; tejasa--strength of consideration; jnana-vijnana--with knowledge and practical application of the knowledge; santrptah--being fully satisfied; mat-bhaktah--My devotee; purusah--a person; bhavet--should become.
One should understand that the activities of persons who are proud of their material experience bring only results contradictory to those such persons conceive while awake, sleeping and deeply sleeping. One should further understand that the spirit soul, although very difficult for the materialist to perceive, is above all these conditions, and by the strength of one's discrimination, one should give up the desire for fruitive results in the present life and in the next. Thus becoming experienced in transcendental knowledge, one should become My devotee.
etavan eva manujair
svarthah sarvatmana jneyo
etavan--this much; eva--indeed; manujaih--by human beings; yoga--by the process of linking with the Supreme by bhakti-yoga; naipunya--endowed with expertise; buddhibhih--who have intelligence; sva-arthah--the ultimate goal of life; sarva-atmana--by all means; jneyah--to be known; yat--which; para--of the transcendental Lord; atma--and of the soul; eka--of the oneness; darsanam--understanding.
Persons who try to reach the ultimate goal of life must expertly observe the Supreme Absolute Person and the living entity, who are one in quality in their relationship as part and whole. This is the ultimate understanding of life. There is no better truth than this.
tvam etac chraddhaya rajann
apramatto vaco mama
dharayann asu sidhyasi
tvam--you; etat--this; sraddhaya--with great faith and allegiance; rajan--O King; apramattah--without being mad or deviated to any other conclusion; vacah--instruction; mama--of Me; jnana-vijnana-sampannah--being fully aware of knowledge and its practical application in life; dharayan--accepting; asu--very soon; sidhyasi--you will become the most perfect.
O King, if you accept this conclusion of Mine, being unattached to material enjoyment, adhering to Me with great faith and thus becoming proficient and fully aware of knowledge and its practical application in life, you will achieve the highest perfection by attaining Me.
asvasya bhagavan ittham
pasyatas tasya visvatma
tatas cantardadhe harih
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; asvasya--assuring; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ittham--thus; citraketum--King Citraketu; jagat-guruh--the supreme spiritual master; pasyatah--while looking on; tasya--he; visva-atma--the Supersoul of the whole universe; tatah--from there; ca--also; antardadhe--disappeared; harih--Lord Hari.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: After thus instructing Citraketu and assuring him of perfection in this way, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme spiritual master, the supreme soul, Sankarsana, disappeared from that place as Citraketu looked on.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Sixteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "King Citraketu Meets the Supreme Lord."