Chapter Five

                       The Cause of All Causes


                                TEXT 1




                             narada uvaca

                       deva-deva namas te 'stu

                        bhuta-bhavana purvaja

                       tad vijanihi yaj jnanam





   naradah uvaca--Sri Narada said; deva--of all demigods; deva--the demigod; namah--obeisances; te--unto you as; astu--are; bhuta-bhavana--the generator of all living beings; purva-ja--the firstborn; tat vijanihi--please explain that knowledge; yat jnanam--which knowledge; atma-tattva--transcendental; nidarsanam--specifically directs.




   Sri Narada Muni asked Brahmaji: O chief amongst the demigods, O firstborn living entity, I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto you. Please tell me that transcendental knowledge which specifically directs one to the truth of the individual soul and the Supersoul.




   The perfection of the parampara system, or the path of disciplic succession, is further confirmed. In the previous chapter it has been established that Brahmaji, the firstborn living entity, received knowledge directly from the Supreme Lord, and the same knowledge was imparted to Narada, the next disciple. Narada asked to receive the knowledge, and Brahmaji imparted it upon being asked. Therefore, asking for transcendental knowledge from the right person and receiving it properly is the regulation of the disciplic succession. This process is recommended in the Bhagavad-gita (4.2). The inquisitive student must approach a qualified spiritual master to receive transcendental knowledge by surrender, submissive inquiries and service. Knowledge received by submissive inquiries and service is more effective than knowledge received in exchange for money. A spiritual master in the line of disciplic succession from Brahma and Narada has no demand for dollars and cents. A bona fide student has to satisfy him by sincere service to obtain knowledge of the relation and nature of the individual soul and the Supersoul.


                                TEXT 2




                      yad rupam yad adhisthanam

                       yatah srstam idam prabho

                    yat samstham yat param yac ca

                      tat tattvam vada tattvatah




   yat--what; rupam--the symptoms of manifestation; yat--what; adhisthanam--background; yatah--from where; srstam--created; idam--this world; prabho--O my father; yat--in which; samstham--conserved; yat--what; param--under control; yat--what are; ca--and; tat--of this; tattvam--the symptoms; vada--please describe; tattvatah--factually.




   My dear father, please describe factually the symptoms of this manifest world. What is its background? How is it created? How is it conserved? And under whose control is all this being done?




   The inquiries by Narada Muni on the basis of factual cause and effect appear very reasonable. The atheists, however, put forward many self-made theories without any touch of cause and effect. The manifested world, as well as the spirit soul, is still unexplained by the godless atheists through the medium of experimental knowledge, although they have put forward many theories manufactured by their fertile brains. Contrary to such mental speculative theories of creation, however, Narada Muni wanted to know all the facts of creation in truth, and not by theories.

   Transcendental knowledge regarding the soul and the Supersoul includes knowledge of the phenomenal world and the basis of its creation. In the phenomenal world three things are factually observed by any intelligent man: the living beings, the manifest world, and the ultimate control over them. The intelligent man can see that neither the living entity nor the phenomenal world are creations of chance. The symmetry of creation and its regulative actions and reactions suggests the plan of an intelligent brain behind them, and by genuine inquiry one may find out the ultimate cause with the help of one who knows them factually.


                                TEXT 3




                      sarvam hy etad bhavan veda


                        karamalaka-vad visvam

                         vijnanavasitam tava




   sarvam--all and everything; hi--certainly; etat--this; bhavan--your good self; veda--know; bhuta--all that is created or born; bhavya--all that will be created or born; bhavat--all that is being created; prabhuh--you, the master of everything; kara-amalaka-vat--just like a walnut within your grip; visvam--the universe; vijnana-avasitam--within your knowledge scientifically; tava--your.




   My dear father, all this is known to you scientifically because whatever was created in the past, whatever will be created in the future, or whatever is being created at present, as well as everything within the universe, is within your grip, just like a walnut.




   Brahma is the direct creator of the manifested universe and everything within the universe. He therefore knows what happened in the past, what will happen in the future, and what is happening at present. Three principal items, namely the living being, the phenomenal world and the controller, are all in continuous action--past, present and future--and the direct manager is supposed to know everything of such actions and reactions, as one knows about a walnut within the grip of one's palm. The direct manufacturer of a particular thing is supposed to know how he learned the art of manufacturing, where he got the ingredients, how he set it up and how the products in the manufacturing process are being turned out. Because Brahma is the firstborn living being, naturally he is supposed to know everything about creative functions.


                                TEXT 4




                        yad-vijnano yad-adharo

                      yat-paras tvam yad-atmakah

                         ekah srjasi bhutani

                        bhutair evatma-mayaya




   yat-vijnanah--the source of knowledge; yat-adharah--under whose protection; yat-parah--under whose subordination; tvam--you; yat-atmakah--in what capacity; ekah--alone; srjasi--you are creating; bhutani--the living entities; bhutaih--with the help of the material elements; eva--certainly; atma--self; mayaya--by potency.




   My dear father, what is the source of your knowledge? Under whose protection are you standing? And under whom are you working? What is your real position? Do you alone create all entities with material elements by your personal energy?




   It was known to Sri Narada Muni that Lord Brahma attained creative energy by undergoing severe austerities. As such, he could understand that there was someone else superior to Brahmaji who invested Brahma with the power of creation. Therefore he asked all the above questions. Discoveries of progressive scientific achievements are therefore not independent. The scientist has to attain the knowledge of a thing already existing by means of the wonderful brain made by someone else. A scientist can work with the help of such an awarded brain, but it is not possible for the scientist to create his own or a similar brain. Therefore no one is independent in the matter of any creation, nor is such creation automatic.


                                TEXT 5




                         atman bhavayase tani

                        na parabhavayan svayam

                        atma-saktim avastabhya

                         urnanabhir ivaklamah




   atman (atmani)--by self; bhavayase--manifest; tani--all those; na--not; parabhavayan--being defeated; svayam--yourself; atma-saktim--self-sufficient power; avastabhya--being employed; urna-nabhih--the spider; iva--like; aklamah--without help.




   As the spider very easily creates the network of its cobweb and manifests its power of creation without being defeated by others, so also you yourself, by employment of your self-sufficient energy, create without any other's help.




   The best example of self-sufficiency is the sun. The sun does not require to be illuminated by any other body. Rather, it is the sun which helps all other illuminating agents, for in the presence of the sun no other illuminating agent becomes prominent. Narada compared the position of Brahma to the self-sufficiency of the spider, who creates its own field of activities without any other's help by employment of its own energetic creation of saliva.


                                TEXT 6




                      naham veda param hy asmin

                        naparam na samam vibho

                       nama-rupa-gunair bhavyam

                       sad-asat kincid anyatah




   na--do not; aham--myself; veda--know; param--superior; hi--for; asmin--in this world; na--neither; aparam--inferior; na--nor; samam--equal; vibho--O great one; nama--name; rupa--characteristics; gunaih--by qualification; bhavyam--all that is created; sat--eternal; asat--temporary; kincit--or anything like that; anyatah--from any other source.




   Whatever we can understand by the nomenclature, characteristics and features of a particular thing--superior, inferior or equal, eternal or temporary--is not created from any source other than that of Your Lordship, thou so great.




   The manifested world is full of varieties of created beings in others. In human society the human being is considered to be the superior living being, and amongst the human beings there are also different varieties: good, bad, equal, etc. But Narada Muni took for granted that none of them has any source of generation besides his father, Brahmaji. Therefore he wanted to know all about them from Lord Brahma.


                                TEXT 7




                       sa bhavan acarad ghoram

                        yat tapah susamahitah

                       tena khedayase nas tvam

                       para-sankam ca yacchasi




   sah--he; bhavan--your good self; acarat--undertook; ghoram--severe; yat tapah--meditation; su-samahitah--in perfect discipline; tena--for that reason; khedayase--gives pain; nah--ourselves; tvam--your good self; para--the ultimate truth; sankam--doubts; ca--and; yacchasi--giving us a chance.




   Yet we are moved to wonder about the existence of someone more powerful than you when we think of your great austerities in perfect discipline, although your good self is so powerful in the matter of creation.




   Following in the footsteps of Sri Narada Muni, one should not blindly accept his spiritual master as God Himself. A spiritual master is duly respected on a par with God, but a spiritual master claiming to be God Himself should at once be rejected. Narada Muni accepted Brahma as the Supreme due to Lord Brahma's wonderful acts in creation, but doubts arose in him when he saw that Lord Brahma also worshiped some superior authority. The Supreme is supreme, and He has no worshipable superior. The ahangrahopasita, or the one who worships himself with the idea of becoming God Himself, is misleading, but the intelligent disciple can at once detect that the Supreme God does not need to worship anyone, including Himself, in order to become God. Ahangrahopasana may be one of the processes for transcendental realization, but the ahangrahopasita can never be God Himself. No one becomes God by undergoing a process of transcendental realization. Narada Muni thought of Brahmaji as the Supreme Person, but when he saw Brahmaji engaged in the process of transcendental realization, doubts arose in him. So he wanted to be clearly informed.


                                TEXT 8




                       etan me prcchatah sarvam

                        sarva-jna sakalesvara

                         vijanihi yathaivedam

                        aham budhye 'nusasitah




   etat--all those; me--unto me; prcchatah--inquisitive; sarvam--all that is inquired; sarva-jna--one who knows everything; sakala--over all; isvara--the controller; vijanihi--kindly explain; yatha--as; eva--they are; idam--this; aham--myself; budhye--can understand; anusasitah--just learning from you.




   My dear father, you know everything, and you are the controller of all. Therefore may all that I have inquired from you be kindly instructed to me so that I may be able to understand it as your student.




   The inquiries made by Narada Muni are very important for everyone concerned, and as such Narada requested Brahmaji to deem them suitable so that all others who may come in the line of disciplic succession of the Brahma-sampradaya may also know them properly without any difficulty.


                                TEXT 9





                        samyak karunikasyedam

                        vatsa te vicikitsitam

                       yad aham coditah saumya





   brahma uvaca--Lord Brahma said; samyak--perfectly; karunikasya--of you, who are very kind; idam--this; vatsa--my dear boy; te--your; vicikitsitam--inquisitiveness; yat--by which; aham--myself; coditah--inspired; saumya--O gentle one; bhagavat--of the Personality of Godhead; virya--prowess; darsane--in the matter of.




   Lord Brahma said: My dear boy Narada, being merciful to all (including me) you have asked all these questions because I have been inspired to see into the prowess of the Almighty Personality of Godhead.




   Brahmaji, being so questioned by Naradaji, congratulated him, for it is usual for the devotees to become very enthusiastic whenever they are questioned concerning the Almighty personality of Godhead. That is the sign of a pure devotee of the Lord. Such discourses on the transcendental activities of the Lord purify the atmosphere in which such discussions are held, and the devotees thus become enlivened while answering such questions. It is purifying both for the questioners and for one who answers the questions. The pure devotees are not only satisfied by knowing everything about the Lord, but are also eager to broadcast the information to others, for they want to see that the glories of the Lord are known to everyone. Thus the devotee feels satisfied when such an opportunity is offered to him. This is the basic principle of missionary activities.


                               TEXT 10




                        nanrtam tava tac capi

                      yatha mam prabravisi bhoh

                         avijnaya param matta

                        etavat tvam yato hi me




   na--not; anrtam--false; tava--of yours; tat--that; ca--also; api--as you have stated; yatha--in the matter of; mam--of myself; prabravisi--as you describe; bhoh--O my son; avijnaya--without knowing; param--the Supreme; mattah--beyond myself; etavat--all that you have spoken; tvam--yourself; yatah--for the reason of; hi--certainly; me--about me.




   Whatever you have spoken about me is not false because unless and until one is aware of the Personality of Godhead, who is the ultimate truth beyond me, one is sure to be illusioned by observing my powerful activities.




   "The frog in the well" logic illustrates that a frog residing in the atmosphere and boundary of a well cannot imagine the length and breadth of the gigantic ocean. Such a frog, when informed of the gigantic length and breadth of the ocean, first of all does not believe that there is such an ocean, and if someone assures him that factually there is such a thing, the frog then begins to measure it by imagination by means of pumping its belly as far as possible, with the result that the tiny abdomen of the frog bursts and the poor frog dies without any experience of the actual ocean. Similarly, the material scientists also want to challenge the inconceivable potency of the Lord by measuring Him with their froglike brains and their scientific achievements, but at the end they simply die unsuccessfully, like the frog.

   Sometimes a materially powerful man is accepted as God or the incarnation of God without any knowledge of the factual God. Such a material assessment may be gradually extended, and the attempt may reach to the highest limit of Brahmaji, who is the topmost living being within the universe and has a duration of life unimaginable to the material scientist. As we get information from the most authentic book of knowledge, the Bhagavad-gita (8.17), Brahmaji's one day and night is calculated to be some hundreds of thousands of years on our planet. This long duration of life may not be believed by "the frog in the well," but persons who have a realization of the truths mentioned in the Bhagavad-gita accept the existence of a great personality who creates the variegatedness of the complete universe. It is understood from the revealed scriptures that the Brahmaji of this universe is younger than all the other Brahmas in charge of the many, many universes beyond this, but none of them can be equal to the Personality of Godhead.

   Naradaji is one of the liberated souls, and after his liberation he was known as Narada; otherwise, before his liberation, he was simply a son of a maidservant. The questions may be asked why Naradaji was not aware of the Supreme Lord and why he mis-conceived Brahmaji to be the Supreme Lord, although factually he was not. A liberated soul is never bewildered by such a mistaken idea, so why did Naradaji ask all those questions just like an ordinary man with a poor fund of knowledge? There was such bewilderment in Arjuna also, although he is eternally the associate of the Lord. Such bewilderment in Arjuna or in Narada takes place by the will of the Lord so that other, nonliberated persons may realize the real truth and knowledge of the Lord. The doubt arising in the mind of Narada about Brahmaji's becoming all-powerful is a lesson for the frogs in the well, that they may not be bewildered in misconceiving the identity of the Personality of Godhead (even by comparison to a personality like Brahma, so what to speak of ordinary men who falsely pose themselves as God or an incarnation of God). The Supreme Lord is always the Supreme, and as we have tried to establish many times in these purports, no living being, even up to the standard of Brahma, can claim to be one with the Lord. One should not be misled when people worship a great man as God after his death as a matter of hero worship. There were many kings like Lord Ramacandra, the King of Ayodhya, but none of them are mentioned as God in the revealed scriptures. To be a good king is not necessarily the qualification for being Lord Rama, but to be a great personality like Krsna is the qualification for being the Personality of Godhead. If we scrutinize the characters who took part in the Battle of Kuruksetra, we may find that Maharaja Yudhisthira was no less a pious king than Lord Ramacandra, and by character study Maharaja Yudhisthira was a better moralist than Lord Krsna. Lord Krsna asked Maharaja Yudhisthira to lie, but Maharaja Yudhisthira protested. But that does not mean that Maharaja Yudhisthira could be equal to Lord Ramacandra or Lord Krsna. The great authorities have estimated Maharaja Yudhisthira to be a pious man, but they have accepted Lord Rama or Krsna as the Personality of Godhead. The Lord is therefore a different identity in all circumstances, and no idea of anthropomorphism can be applied to Him. The Lord is always the Lord, and a common living being can never be equal to Him.


                               TEXT 11




                        yena sva-rocisa visvam

                        rocitam rocayamy aham

                      yatharko 'gnir yatha somo





   yena--by whom; sva-rocisa--by His own effulgence; visvam--all the world; rocitam--already created potentially; rocayami--do manifest; aham--I; yatha--as much; arkah--the sun; agnih--fire; yatha--as; somah--the moon; yatha--as also; rksa--the firmament; graha--the influential planets; tarakah--the stars.




   I create after the Lord's creation by His personal effulgence [known as the brahmajyoti], just as when the sun manifests its fire, the moon, the firmament, the influential planets and the twinkling stars also manifest their brightness.




   Lord Brahmaji said to Narada that his impression that Brahma was not the supreme authority in the creation was correct. Sometimes less intelligent men have the foolish impression that Brahma is the cause of all causes. But Narada wanted to clear the matter by the statements of Brahmaji, the supreme authority in the universe. As the decision of the supreme court of a state is final, similarly the judgment of Brahmaji, the supreme authority in the universe, is final in the Vedic process of acquiring knowledge. As we have already affirmed in the previous verse, Naradaji was a liberated soul; therefore, he was not one of the less intelligent men who accept a false god or gods in their own ways. He represented himself as less intelligent and yet intelligently presented a doubt to be cleared by the supreme authority so that the uninformed might take note of it and be rightly informed about the intricacies of the creation and the creator.

   In this verse Brahmaji clears up the wrong impression held by the less intelligent and affirms that he creates the universal variegatedness after the potential creation by the glaring effulgence of Lord Sri Krsna. Brahmaji has also separately given this statement in the samhita known as the Brahma-samhita (5.40), where he says:


               yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-

                kotisv asesa-vasudhadi-vibhuti-bhinnam

               tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam

                govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami


   "I serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose transcendental bodily effulgence, known as the brahmajyoti, which is unlimited, unfathomed and all-pervasive, is the cause of the creation of unlimited numbers of planets, etc., with varieties of climates and specific conditions of life."

   The same statement is in the Bhagavad-gita (14.27). Lord Krsna is the background of the brahmajyoti (brahmano hi pratisthaham). In the Nirukti, or Vedic dictionary, the import of pratistha is mentioned as "that which establishes." So the brahmajyoti is not independent or self-sufficient. Lord Sri Krsna is ultimately the creator of the brahmajyoti, mentioned in this verse as sva-rocisa, or the effulgence of the transcendental body of the Lord. This brahmajyoti is all-pervading, and all creation is made possible by its potential power; therefore the Vedic hymns declare that everything that exists is being sustained by the brahmajyoti (sarvam khalv idam brahma). Therefore the potential seed of all creation is the brahmajyoti, and the same brahmajyoti, unlimited and unfathomed, is established by the Lord. Therefore the Lord (Sri Krsna) is ultimately the supreme cause of all creation (aham sarvasya prabhavah).

   One should not expect the Lord to create like a blacksmith with a hammer and other instruments. The Lord creates by His potencies. He has His multifarious potencies (parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate). Just as the small seed of a banyan fruit has the potency to create a big banyan tree, the Lord disseminates all varieties of seeds by His potential brahmajyoti (sva-rocisa), and the seeds are made to develop by the watering process of persons like Brahma. Brahma cannot create the seeds, but he can manifest the seed into a tree, just as a gardener helps plants and orchards to grow by the watering process. The example cited here of the sun is very appropriate. In the material world the sun is the cause of all illumination: fire, electricity, the rays of the moon, etc. All luminaries in the sky are creations of the sun, the sun is the creation of the brahmajyoti, and the brahmajyoti is the effulgence of the Lord. Thus the ultimate cause of creation is the Lord.


                               TEXT 12




                        tasmai namo bhagavate

                          vasudevaya dhimahi

                         yan-mayaya durjayaya

                       mam vadanti jagad-gurum




   tasmai--unto Him; namah--offer my obeisances; bhagavate--unto the Personality of Godhead; vasudevaya--unto Lord Krsna; dhimahi--do meditate upon Rim; yat--by whose; mayaya--potencies; durjayaya--invincible; mam--unto me; vadanti--they say; jagat--the world; gurum--the master.




   I offer my obeisances and meditate upon Lord Krsna [Vasudeva], the Personality of Godhead, whose invincible potency influences them [the less intelligent class of men] to call me the supreme controller.




   As will be more clearly explained in the next verse, the illusory potency of the Lord bewilders the less intelligent to accept Brahmaji, or for that matter any other person, as the Supreme Lord. Brahmaji, however, refuses to be called this, and he directly offers his respectful obeisances unto Lord Vasudeva, or Sri Krsna, the Personality of Godhead, as he has already offered the same respects to Him in the Brahma-samhita (5.1):


                        isvarah paramah krsnah


                         anadir adir govindah



   "The Supreme Lord is the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, the primeval Lord in His transcendental body, the ultimate cause of all causes. I worship that primeval Lord Govinda."

   Brahmaji is conscious of his actual position, and he knows how less intelligent persons, bewildered by the illusory energy of the Lord, whimsically accept anyone and everyone as God. A responsible personality like Brahmaji refuses to be addressed as the Supreme Lord by his disciples or subordinates, but foolish persons praised by men of the nature of dogs, hogs, camels and asses feel flattered to be addressed as the Supreme Lord. Why such persons take pleasure in being addressed as God, or why such persons are addressed as God by foolish admirers, is explained in the following verse.


                               TEXT 13




                         vilajjamanaya yasya

                       sthatum iksa-pathe 'muya

                         vimohita vikatthante

                        mamaham iti durdhiyah




   vilajjamanaya--by one who is ashamed; yasya--whose; sthatum--to stay; iksa-pathe--in front; amuya--by the bewildering energy; vimohitah--those who are bewildered; vikatthante--talk nonsense; mama--it is mine; aham--I am everything; iti--thus vituperating; durdhiyah--thus ill conceived.




   The illusory energy of the Lord cannot take precedence, being ashamed of her position, but those who are bewildered by her always talk nonsense, being absorbed in thoughts of "It is I" and "It is mine."




   The invincibly powerful deluding energy of the Personality of God, or the third energy, representing nescience, can bewilder the entire world of animation, but still she is not strong enough to be able to stand in front of the Supreme Lord. Nescience is behind the Personality of Godhead, where she is powerful enough to mislead the living beings, and the primary symptom of bewildered persons is that they talk nonsense. Nonsensical talks are not supported by the principles of Vedic literatures, and first-grade nonsense talk is "It is I, it is mine." A godless civilization is exclusively conducted by such false ideas, and such persons, without any factual realization of God, accept a false God or falsely declare themselves to be God to mislead persons who are already bewildered by the deluding energy. Those who are before the Lord, however, and who surrender unto Him, cannot be influenced by the deluding energy; therefore they are free from the misconception of "It is I, it is mine," and therefore they do not accept a false God or pose themselves as equal to the Supreme Lord. Identification of the bewildered person is distinctly given in this verse.


                               TEXT 14




                      dravyam karma ca kalas ca

                         svabhavo jiva eva ca

                        vasudevat paro brahman

                    na canyo 'rtho 'sti tattvatah




   dravyam--the ingredients (earth, water, fire, air and sky); karma--the interaction; ca--and; kalah--eternal time; ca--also; sva-bhavah--intuition or nature; jivah--the living being; eva--certainly; ca--and; vasudevat--from Vasudeva; parah--differentiated parts; brahman--O brahmana; na--never; ca--also; anyah--separate; arthah--value; asti--there is; tattvatah--in truth.




   The five elementary ingredients of creation, the interaction thereof set up by eternal time, and the intuition or nature of the individual living beings are all differentiated parts and parcels of the Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, and in truth there is no other value in them.




   This phenomenal world is impersonally the representation of Vasudeva because the ingredients of its creation, their interaction and the enjoyer of the resultant action, the living being, are all produced by the external and internal energies of Lord Krsna. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7.4-5). The ingredients, namely earth, water, fire, air and sky, as well as the conception of material identity, intelligence and the mind, are produced of the external energy of the Lord. The living entity who enjoys the interaction of the above gross and subtle ingredients, as set up by eternal time, is an offshoot of internal potency, with freedom to remain either in the material world or in the spiritual world. In the material world the living entity is enticed by deluding nescience, but in the spiritual world he is in the normal condition of spiritual existence without any delusion. The living entity is known as the marginal potency of the Lord. But in all circumstances, neither the material ingredients nor the spiritual parts and parcels are independent of the Personality of Godhead Vasudeva, for all things, whether products of the external, internal or marginal potencies of the Lord, are simply displays of the same effulgence of the Lord, just as light, heat and smoke are displays of fire. None of them are separate from the fire--all of them combine together to be called fire; similarly, all phenomenal manifestations, as well as the effulgence of the body of Vasudeva, are His impersonal features, whereas He eternally exists in His transcendental form called sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah, distinct from all conceptions of the material ingredients mentioned above.


                               TEXT 15




                          narayana-para veda

                         deva narayanangajah

                          narayana-para loka

                         narayana-para makhah




   narayana--the Supreme Lord; parah--is the cause and is meant for; vedah--knowledge; devah--the demigods; narayana--the Supreme Lord; anga-jah--assisting hands; narayana--the personality of Godhead; parah--for the sake of; lokah--the planets; narayana--the Supreme Lord; parah--just to please Him; makhah--all sacrifices.




   The Vedic literatures are made by and are meant for the Supreme Lord, the demigods are also meant for serving the Lord as parts of His body, the different planets are also meant for the sake of the Lord, and different sacrifices are performed just to please Him.




   According to the Vedanta-sutras (sastra-yonitvat), the Supreme Lord is the author of all revealed scriptures, and all revealed scriptures are for knowing the Supreme Lord. Veda means knowledge that leads to the Lord. The Vedas are made just to revive the forgotten consciousness of the conditioned souls, and any literature not meant for reviving God consciousness is rejected at once by the narayana-para devotees. Such deluding books of knowledge, not having Narayana as their aim, are not at all knowledge, but are the playgrounds for crows who are interested in the rejected refuse of the world. Any book of knowledge (science or art) must lead to the knowledge of Narayana; otherwise it must be rejected. That is the way of advancement of knowledge. The supreme worshipable Deity is Narayana. The demigods are recommended secondarily for worship in relation to Narayana because the demigods are assisting hands in the management of the universal affairs. As the officers of a kingdom are respected due to their relation to the king, the demigods are worshiped due to their relation to the Lord. Without the Lord's relation, worship of the demigods is unauthorized (avidhi-purvakam), just as it is improper to water the leaves and branches of a tree without watering its root. Therefore the demigods are also dependent on Narayana. The lokas, or different planets, are attractive because they have different varieties of life and bliss partially representing the sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. Everyone wants the eternal life of bliss and knowledge. In the material world such an eternal life of bliss and knowledge is progressively realized in the upper planets, but after reaching there one is inclined to achieve further progress along the path back to Godhead. Duration of life, with a proportionate quantity of bliss and knowledge, may be increased from one planet to another. One can increase the duration of life to thousands and hundreds of thousands of years in different planets, but nowhere is there eternal life. But one who can reach the highest planet, that of Brahma, can aspire to reach the planets in the spiritual sky, where life is eternal. Therefore, the progressive journey from one planet to another culminates in reaching the supreme planet of the Lord (mad-dhama), where life is eternal and full of bliss and knowledge. All different kinds of sacrifice are performed just to satisfy Lord Narayana with a view to reach Him, and the best sacrifice recommended in this age of Kali is sankirtana-yajna, the mainstay of the devotional service of a narayana-para devotee.


                               TEXT 16




                          narayana-paro yogo

                         narayana-param tapah

                        narayana-param jnanam

                         narayana-para gatih




   narayana-parah--just to know Narayana; yogah--concentration of mind; narayana-param--just with an aim to achieve Narayana; tapah--austerity; narayana-param--just to realize a glimpse of Narayana; jnanam--culture of transcendental knowledge; narayana-para--the path of salvation ends by entering the kingdom of Narayana; gatih--progressive path.




   All different types of meditation or mysticism are means for realizing Narayana. All austerities are aimed at achieving Narayana. Culture of transcendental knowledge is for getting a glimpse of Narayana, and ultimately salvation is entering the kingdom of Narayana.




   In meditation, there are two systems of yoga, namely astanga-yoga and sankhya-yoga. Astanga-yoga is practice in concentrating the mind, releasing oneself from all engagements by the regulative processes of meditation, concentration, sitting postures, blocking the movements of the internal circulation of air, etc. Sankhya-yoga is meant to distinguish the truth from ephemerals. But ultimately both the systems are meant for realizing the impersonal Brahman, which is but a partial representation of Narayana, the Personality of Godhead. As we have explained before, the impersonal Brahman effulgence is only a part of the Personality of Godhead. Impersonal Brahman is situated on the person of the Supreme personality of Godhead, and as such, Brahman is the glorification of the personality of the Godhead. This is confirmed both in the Bhagavad-gita and in the Matsya Purana. Gati refers to the ultimate destination, or the last word in liberation. Oneness with the impersonal brahmajyoti is not ultimate liberation; superior to that is the sublime association of the Personality of Godhead in one of the innumerable spiritual planets in the Vaikuntha sky. Therefore the conclusion is that Narayana, or the Personality of Godhead, is the ultimate destination for all kinds of yoga systems as well as all kinds of liberation.


                               TEXT 17




                        tasyapi drastur isasya


                       srjyam srjami srsto 'ham





   tasya--His; api--certainly; drastuh--of the seer; isasya--of the controller; kuta-sthasya--of the one who is over everyone's intelligence; akhila-atmanah--of the Supersoul; srjyam--that which is already created; srjami--do I discover; srstah--created; aham--myself; iksaya--by glance over; eva--exactly; abhicoditah--being inspired by Him.




   Inspired by Him only, I discover what is already created by Him [Narayana] under His vision as the all-pervading Supersoul, and I also am created by Him only.




   Even Brahma, the creator of the universe, admits that he is not the actual creator but is simply inspired by the Lord Narayana and therefore creates under His superintendence those things already created by Him, the Supersoul of all living entities. Two identities of soul, the Supersoul and the individual soul, are admitted to be in the living entity, even by the greatest authority of the universe. The Supersoul is the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, whereas the individual soul is the eternal servitor of the Lord. The Lord inspires the individual soul to create what is already created by the Lord, and by the good will of the Lord a discoverer of something in the world is accredited as the discoverer. It is said that Columbus discovered the Western Hemisphere, but actually the tract of land was not created by Columbus. The vast tract of land was already there by the omnipotency of the Supreme Lord, and Columbus, by dint of his past service unto the Lord, was blessed with the credit of discovering America. Similarly, no one can create anything without the sanction of the Lord, since everyone sees according to his ability. This ability is also awarded by the Lord according to one's willingness to render service unto the Lord. One must therefore be voluntarily willing to render service unto the Lord, and thus the Lord will empower the doer in proportion to his surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord. Lord Brahma is a great devotee of the Lord; therefore he has been empowered or inspired by the Lord to create such a universe as the one manifested before us. The Lord also inspired Arjuna to fight in the field of Kuruksetra as follows:


                  tasmat tvam uttistha yaso labhasva

                jitva satrun bhunksva rajyam samrddham

                    mayaivaite nihatah purvam eva

                   nimitta-matram bhava savyasacin


   (Bg. 11.33)


   The Battle of Kuruksetra, or any other battle at any place or at any time, is made by the will of the Lord, for no one can arrange such mass annihilation without the sanction of the Lord. The party of Duryodhana insulted Draupadi, a great devotee of Krsna, and she appealed to the Lord as well as to all the silent observers of this unwarranted insult. Arjuna was then advised by the Lord to fight and take credit; otherwise the party of Duryodhana would be killed anyway by the will of the Lord. So Arjuna was advised just to become the agent and take the credit for killing great generals like Bhisma and Karna.

   In the Vedic writings such as the Katha Upanisad, the Lord is described as the sarva-bhuta-antaratma, or the Personality of Godhead who resides in everyone's body and who directs everything for one who is a soul surrendered unto Him. Those who are not surrendered souls are put under the care of the material nature (bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya); therefore, they are allowed to do things on their own account and suffer the consequences themselves. Devotees like Brahma and Arjuna do not do anything on their own account, but as fully surrendered souls they always await indications from the Lord; therefore they attempt to do something which appears very wonderful to ordinary vision. One of the Lord's names is Urukrama, or one whose actions are very wonderful and are beyond the imagination of the living being, so the actions of His devotees sometimes appear very wonderful due to the direction of the Lord. Beginning from Brahma, the topmost intelligent living entity within the universe, down to the smallest ant, every living entity's intelligence is overseen by the Lord in His transcendental position as the witness of all actions. The subtle presence of the Lord is felt by the intelligent man who can study the psychic effects of thinking, feeling and willing.


                               TEXT 18




                        sattvam rajas tama iti

                       nirgunasya gunas trayah


                         grhita mayaya vibhoh




   sattvam--the mode of goodness; rajah--the mode of passion; tamah--the mode of ignorance; iti--all these; nirgunasya--of the Transcendence; gunah trayah--are three qualities; sthiti--maintenance; sarga--creation; nirodhesu--in destruction; grhitah--accepted; mayaya--by the external energy; vibhoh--of the Supreme.




   The Supreme Lord is pure spiritual form, transcendental to all material qualities, yet for the sake of the creation of the material world and its maintenance and annihilation, He accepts through His external energy the material modes of nature called goodness, passion and ignorance.




   The Supreme Lord is the master of the external energy manifested by the three material modes, namely goodness, passion and ignorance, and as master of this energy He is ever unaffected by the influence of such bewildering energy. The living entities, the jivas, however, are affected by or susceptible to being influenced by such modes of material nature--that is the difference between the Lord and the living entities. The living entities are subjected by those qualities, although originally the living entities are qualitatively one with the Lord. In other words, the material modes of nature, being products of the energy of the Lord, are certainly connected with the Lord, but the connection is just like that between the master and the servants. The Supreme Lord is the controller of the material energy, whereas the living entities, who are entangled in the material world, are neither masters nor controllers. Rather, they become subordinate to or controlled by such energy. Factually the Lord is eternally manifested by His internal potency or spiritual energy just like the sun and its rays in the clear sky, but at times He creates the material energy, as the sun creates a cloud in the clear sky. As the sun is ever increasingly unaffected by a spot of cloud, so also the unlimited Lord is unaffected by the spot of material energy manifested at times in the unlimited span of the Lord's rays of brahmajyoti.


                               TEXT 19






                       badhnanti nityada muktam

                        mayinam purusam gunah




   karya--effect; karana--cause; kartrtve--in activities; dravya--material; jnana--knowledge; kriya-asrayah--manifested by such symptoms; badhnanti--conditions; nityada--eternally; muktam--transcendental; mayinam--affected by material energy; purusam--the living entity; gunah--the material modes.




   These three modes of material nature, being further manifested as matter, knowledge and activities, put the eternally transcendental living entity under conditions of cause and effect and make him responsible for such activities.




   Because they are between the internal and external potencies, the eternally transcendental living entities are called the marginal potency of the Lord. Factually, the living entities are not meant to be so conditioned by material energy, but due to their being affected by the false sense of lording it over the material energy, they come under the influence of such potency and thus become conditioned by the three modes of material nature. This external energy of the Lord covers up the pure knowledge of the living entity's eternally existing with Him, but the covering is so constant that it appears that the conditioned soul is eternally ignorant. Such is the wonderful action of maya, or external energy manifested as if materially produced. By the covering power of the material energy, the material scientist cannot look beyond the material causes, but factually, behind the material manifestations, there are adhibhuta, adhyatma and adhidaiva actions, which the conditioned soul in the mode of ignorance cannot see. The adhibhuta manifestation entails repetitions of births and deaths with old age and diseases, the adhyatma manifestation conditions the spirit soul, and the adhidaiva manifestation is the controlling system. These are the material manifestations of cause and effect and the sense of responsibility of the conditioned actors. They are, after all, manifestations of the conditioned state, and the human being's freedom from such a conditioned state is the highest perfectional attainment.


                               TEXT 20




                       sa esa bhagaval lingais

                       tribhir etair adhoksajah

                       svalaksita-gatir brahman

                        sarvesam mama cesvarah




   sah--He; esah--this; bhagavan--the Personality of Godhead; lingaih--by the symptoms; tribhih--by the three; etaih--by all these; adhoksajah--the Superseer Transcendence; su-alaksita--veritably unseen; gatih--movement; brahman--O Narada; sarvesam--of everyone; mama--mine; ca--as also; isvarah--the controller.




   O Brahmana Narada, the Superseer, the transcendent Lord, is beyond the perception of the material senses of the living entities because of the above-mentioned three modes of nature. But He is the controller of everyone, including me.




   In the Bhagavad-gita (7.24-25) the Lord has declared very clearly that the impersonalist, who gives more importance to the transcendental rays of the Lord as brahmajyoti and who concludes that the Absolute Truth is ultimately impersonal and only manifests a form at a time of necessity, is less intelligent than the personalist, however much the impersonalist may be engaged in studying the Vedanta. The fact is that such impersonalists are covered by the above-mentioned three modes of material nature; therefore, they are unable to approach the transcendental Personality of the Lord. The Lord is not approachable by everyone because He is curtained by His yogamaya potency. But one should not wrongly conclude that the Lord was formerly unmanifested and has now manifested Himself in the human form. This misconception of the formlessness of the Supreme personality of Godhead is due to the yogamaya curtain of the Lord and can be removed only by the Supreme Will, as soon as the conditioned soul surrenders unto Him. The devotees of the Lord who are transcendental to the above-mentioned three modes of material nature can see the all-blissful transcendental form of the Lord with their vision of love in the attitude of pure devotional service.


                               TEXT 21




                       kalam karma svabhavam ca

                         mayeso mayaya svaya

                       atman yadrcchaya praptam

                          vibubhusur upadade




   kalam--eternal time; karma--the fate of the living entity; svabhavam--nature; ca--also; maya--potency; isah--the controller; mayaya--by the energy; svaya--of His own; atman (atmani)--unto His Self; yadrcchaya--independently; praptam--being merged in; vibubhusuh--appearing differently; upadade--accepted for being created again.




   The Lord, who is the controller of all energies, thus creates, by His own potency, eternal time, the fate of all living entities, and their particular nature, for which they were created, and He again merges them independently.




   The creation of the material world, wherein the conditioned souls are allowed to act subordinately by the Supreme Lord, takes place again and again after being repeatedly annihilated. The material creation is something like a cloud in the unlimited sky. The real sky is the spiritual sky, eternally filled with the rays of the brahmajyoti, and a portion of this unlimited sky is covered by the mahat-tattva cloud of the material creation, in which the conditioned souls, who want to lord it against the will of the Lord, are put into play as they desire under the control of the Lord by the agency of His external energy. As the rainy season appears and disappears regularly, the creation takes place and is again annihilated under the control of the Lord, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (8.19). So the creation and annihilation of the material worlds is a regular action of the Lord just to allow the conditioned souls to play as they like and thereby create their own fate of being differently created again in terms of their independent desires at the time of annihilation. The creation, therefore, takes place at a historical date (as we are accustomed to think of everything which has a beginning in our tiny experience). The process of creation and annihilation is called anadi, or without reference to date regarding the time the creation first took place, because the duration of even a partial creation is 8,640,000,000 years. The law of creation is, however, as mentioned in the Vedic literatures, that it is created at certain intervals and is again annihilated by the will of the Lord. The whole material or even the spiritual creation is a manifestation of the energy of the Lord, just as the light and heat of a fire are different manifestations of the fire's energy. The Lord therefore exists in His impersonal form by such expansion of energy, and the complete creation rests on His impersonal feature. Nonetheless He keeps Himself distinct from such creation as the purnam (or complete), and so no one should wrongly think that His personal feature is not existent due to His impersonal unlimited expansions. The impersonal expansion is a manifestation of His energy, and He is always in His personal feature despite His innumerable unlimited expansions of impersonal energies (Bg. 9.5-7). For human intelligence it is very difficult to conceive how the whole creation rests on His expansion of energy, but the Lord has given a very good example in the Bhagavad-gita. It is said that although the air and the atoms rest within the huge expansion of the sky, which is like the resting reservoir of everything materially created, still the sky remains separate and unaffected. Similarly although the Supreme Lord maintains everything created by His expansion of energy, He always remains separate. This is accepted even by Sankaracarya, the great advocate of the impersonal form of the Absolute. He says narayanah paro 'vyaktat, or Narayana exists separately, apart from the impersonal creative energy. The whole creation thus merges within the body of transcendental Narayana at the time of annihilation, and the creation emanates from His body again with the same unchanging categories of fate and individual nature. The individual living entities, being parts and parcels of the Lord, are sometimes described as atma, qualitatively one in spiritual constitution. But because such living entities are apt to be attracted to the material creation, actively and subjectively, they are therefore different from the Lord.


                               TEXT 22




                        kalad guna-vyatikarah

                        parinamah svabhavatah

                        karmano janma mahatah

                        purusadhisthitad abhut




   kalat--from eternal time; guna-vyatikarah--transformation of the modes by reaction; parinamah--transformation; svabhavatah--from the nature; karmanah--of activities; janma--creation; mahatah--of the mahat-tattva; purusa-adhisthitat--because of the purusa incarnation of the Lord; abhut--it took place.




   After the incarnation of the first purusa [Karanarnavasayi Visnu], the mahat-tattva, or the principles of material creation, take place, and then time is manifested, and in course of time the three qualities appear. Nature means the three qualitative appearances. They transform into activities.




   By the omnipotency of the Supreme Lord, the whole material creation evolves by the process of transformation and reactions one after another, and by the same omnipotency, they are wound up again one after another and conserved in the body of the Supreme. Kala, or time, is the synonym of nature and is the transformed manifestation of the principles of material creation. As such, kala may be taken as the first cause of all creation, and by transformation of nature different activities of the material world become visible. These activities may be taken up as the natural instinct of each and every living being, or even of the inert objects, and after the manifestation of activities there are varieties of products and by-products of the same nature. Originally these are all due to the Supreme Lord. The Vedanta-sutras and the Bhagavatam thus begin with the Absolute Truth as the beginning of all creations (janmady asya yatah).


                               TEXT 23




                        mahatas tu vikurvanad


                      tamah-pradhanas tv abhavad





   mahatah--of the mahat-tattva; tu--but; vikurvanat--being transformed; rajah--the material mode of passion; sattva--the mode of goodness; upabrmhitat--because of being increased; tamah--the mode of darkness; pradhanah--being prominent; tu--but; abhavat--took place; dravya--matter; jnana--material knowledge; kriya-atmakah--predominantly material activities.




   Material activities are caused by the mahat-tattva's being agitated. At first there is transformation of the modes of goodness and passion, and later--due to the mode of ignorance--matter, its knowledge, and different activities of material knowledge come into play.




   Material creations of every description are more or less due to the development of the mode of passion (rajas). The mahat-tattva is the principle of material creation, and when it is agitated by the will of the Supreme at first the modes of passion and goodness are prominent, and afterwards the mode of passion, being generated in due course by material activities of different varieties, becomes prominent, and the living entities are thus involved more and more in ignorance. Brahma is the representation of the mode of passion, and Visnu is the representation of the mode of goodness, while the mode of ignorance is represented by Lord Siva, the father of material activities. Material nature is called the mother, and the initiator for materialistic life is the father, Lord Siva. All material creation by the living entities is therefore initiated by the mode of passion. With the advancement of the duration of life in a particular millennium, the different modes act by gradual development. In the age of Kali (when the mode of passion is most prominent) material activities of different varieties, in the name of advancement of human civilization, take place, and the living entities become more and more involved in forgetting their real identity--the spiritual nature. By a slight cultivation of the mode of goodness, a glimpse of spiritual nature is perceived, but due to the prominence of the mode of passion, the mode of goodness becomes adulterated. Therefore one cannot transcend the limits of the material modes, and therefore realization of the Lord, who is always transcendental to the modes of material nature, becomes very difficult for the living entities, even though prominently situated in the mode of goodness through cultivation of the various methods. In other words, the gross matters are adhibhutam, their maintenance is adhidaivam, and the initiator of material activities is called adhyatmam. In the material world these three principles act as prominent features, namely as raw material, its regular supplies, and its use in different varieties of material creations for sense enjoyment by the bewildered entities.


                               TEXT 24




                        so 'hankara iti prokto

                       vikurvan samabhut tridha

                        vaikarikas taijasas ca

                        tamasas ceti yad-bhida

                      dravya-saktih kriya-saktir

                       jnana-saktir iti prabho




   sah--the very same thing; ahankarah--ego; iti--thus; proktah--said; vikurvan--being transformed; samabhut--became manifested; tridha--in three features; vaikarikah--in the mode of goodness; taijasah--in the mode of passion; ca--and; tamasah--in the mode of ignorance; ca--also; iti--thus; yat--what is; bhida--divided; dravya-saktih--powers that evolve matter; kriya-saktih--initiation that creates; jnana-saktih--intelligence that guides; iti--thus; prabho--O master.




   The self-centered materialistic ego, thus being transformed into three features, becomes known as the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance in three divisions, namely the powers that evolve matter, knowledge of material creations, and the intelligence that guides such materialistic activities. Narada, you are quite competent to understand this.




   Materialistic ego, or the sense of identification with matter, is grossly self-centered, devoid of clear knowledge of the existence of God. And this self-centered egoism of the materialistic living entities is the cause of their being conditioned by the other paraphernalia and continuing their bondage of material existence. In the Bhagavad-gita this self-centered egoism is very nicely explained in the Seventh Chapter (verses 24 through 27). The self-centered impersonalist, without a clear conception of the personality of Godhead, concludes in his own way that the personality of Godhead takes a material shape from His original impersonal spiritual existence for a particular mission. And this misleading conception of the Supreme Lord by the self-centered impersonalist continues, even though he is seen to be very interested in the Vedic literatures such as the Brahma-sutras and other highly intellectual sources of knowledge. This ignorance of the personal feature of the Lord is due simply to ignorance of the mixture of different modes. The impersonalist thus cannot conceive of the Lord's eternal spiritual form of eternal knowledge, bliss and existence. The reason is that the Lord reserves the right of not exposing Himself to the nondevotee who, even after a thorough study of literature like the Bhagavad-gita, remains an impersonalist simply by obstinacy. This obstinacy is due to the action of yogamaya, a personal energy of the Lord that acts like an aide-de-camp by covering the vision of the obstinate impersonalist. Such a bewildered human being is described as mudha, or grossly ignorant, because he is unable to understand the transcendental form of the Lord as being unborn and unchangeable. If the Lord takes a form or material shape from His original impersonal feature, then it means that He is born and changeable from impersonal to personal. But He is not changeable. Nor does He ever take a new birth like a conditioned soul. The conditioned soul may take a form birth after birth due to his conditional existence in matter, but the self-centered impersonalists, by their gross ignorance, accept the Lord as one of them because of self-centered egoism, even after so-called advancement of knowledge in the Vedanta. The Lord, being situated in the heart of every individual living entity, knows very well the tendency of such conditioned souls in terms of past, present and future, but the bewildered conditioned soul hardly can know Him in His eternal form. By the will of the Lord, therefore, the impersonalist, even after knowing the Brahman and Paramatma features of the Lord, remains ignorant of His eternal personal feature as ever-existent Narayana, transcendental to all material creation.

   The cause of such gross ignorance is constant engagement by the materialistic man in the matter of artificially increasing material demands. To realize the Supreme personality of Godhead, one has to purify the materialistic senses by devotional service. The mode of goodness, or the brahminical culture recommended in the Vedic literatures, is helpful to such spiritual realization, and thus the jnana-sakti stage of the conditioned soul is comparatively better than the other two stages, namely dravya-sakti and kriya-sakti. The whole material civilization is manifested by a huge accumulation of materials, or, in other words, raw materials for industrial purposes, and the industrial enterprises (kriya-sakti) are all due to gross ignorance of spiritual life. In order to rectify this great anomaly of materialistic civilization, based on the principles of dravya-sakti and kriya-sakti, one has to adopt the process of devotional service of the Lord by adoption of the principles of karma-yoga, mentioned in the Bhagavad-gita (9.27) as follows:


                        yat karosi yad asnasi

                        yaj juhosi dadasi yat

                        yat tapasyasi kaunteya

                       tat kurusva mad-arpanam


   "O son of Kunti, all that you do, all that you eat, all that you offer and give away, as well as all austerities that you may perform, should be done as an offering unto Me."


                               TEXT 25




                         tamasad api bhutader

                       vikurvanad abhun nabhah

                       tasya matra gunah sabdo

                      lingam yad drastr-drsyayoh




   tamasat--from the darkness of false ego; api--certainly; bhuta-adeh--of the material elements; vikurvanat--because of transformation; abhut--generated; nabhah--the sky; tasya--its; matra--subtle form; gunah--quality; sabdah--sound; lingam--characteristics; yat--as its; drastr--the seer; drsyayoh--of what is seen.




   From the darkness of false ego, the first of the five elements, namely the sky, is generated. Its subtle form is the quality of sound, exactly as the seer is in relationship with the seen.




   The five elements, namely sky, air, fire, water and earth, are all but different qualities of the darkness of false ego. This means that the false ego in the sum total form of mahat-tattva is generated from the marginal potency of the Lord, and due to this false ego of lording it over the material creation, ingredients are generated for the false enjoyment of the living being. The living being is practically the dominating factor over the material elements as the enjoyer, though the background is the Supreme Lord. Factually, save and except the Lord, no one can be called the enjoyer, but the living entity falsely desires to become the enjoyer. This is the origin of false ego. When the bewildered living being desires this, the shadow elements are generated by the will of the Lord, and the living entities are allowed to run after them as after a phantasmagoria.

   It is said that first the tan-matra sound is created and then the sky, and in this verse it is confirmed that actually it is so, but sound is the subtle form of the sky, and the distinction is like that between the seer and the seen. The sound is the representation of the actual object, as the sound produced speaking of the object gives an idea of the description of the object. Therefore sound is the subtle characteristic of the object. Similarly, sound representation of the Lord, in terms of His characteristics, is the complete form of the Lord, as was seen by Vasudeva and Maharaja Dasaratha, the fathers of Lord Krsna and Lord Rama. The sound representation of the Lord is nondifferent from the Lord Himself because the Lord and His representation in sound are absolute knowledge. Lord Caitanya has instructed us that in the holy name of the Lord, as sound representation of the Lord, all the potencies of the Lord are invested. Thus one can immediately enjoy the association of the Lord by the pure vibration of the sound representation of His holy name, and the concept of the Lord is immediately manifested before the pure devotee. A pure devotee, therefore, is not aloof from the Lord even for a moment. The holy name of the Lord, as recommended in the sastras--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare--may therefore be constantly chanted by the devotee aspiring to be constantly in touch with the Supreme Lord. One who is thus able to associate with the Lord is sure to be delivered from the darkness of the created world, which is a product of false ego (tamasi ma jyotir gama).


                             TEXTS 26-29




                       nabhaso 'tha vikurvanad

                       abhut sparsa-guno 'nilah

                       paranvayac chabdavams ca

                        prana ojah saho balam


                         vayor api vikurvanat


                         udapadyata tejo vai

                       rupavat sparsa-sabdavat


                        tejasas tu vikurvanad

                        asid ambho rasatmakam

                       rupavat sparsavac cambho

                        ghosavac ca paranvayat


                        visesas tu vikurvanad

                       ambhaso gandhavan abhut

                       paranvayad rasa-sparsa-





   nabhasah--of the sky; atha--thus; vikurvanat--being transformed; abhut--generated; sparsa--touch; gunah--quality; anilah--air; para--previous; anvayat--by succession; sabdavan--full of sound; ca--also; pranah--life; ojah--sense perception; sahah--fat; balam--strength; vayoh--of the air; api--also; vikurvanat--by transformation; kala--time; karma--reaction of the past; svabhavatah--on the basis of nature; udapadyata--generated; tejah--fire; vai--duly; rupavat--with form; sparsa--touch; sabdavat--with sound also; tejasah--of the fire; tu--but; vikurvanat--on being transformed; asit--it so happened; ambhah--water; rasa-atmakam--composed of juice; rupavat--with form; sparsavat--with touch; ca--and; ambhah--water; ghosavat--with sound; ca--and; para--previous; anvayat--by succession; visesah--variegatedness; tu--but; vikurvanat--by transformation; ambhasah--of water; gandhavan--odorous; abhut--became; para--previous; anvayat--by succession; rasa--juice; sparsa--touch; sabda--sound; rupa-guna-anvitah--qualitative.




   Because the sky is transformed, the air is generated with the quality of touch, and by previous succession the air is also full of sound and the basic principles of duration of life: sense perception, mental power and bodily strength. When the air is transformed in course of time and nature's course, fire is generated, taking shape with the sense of touch and sound. Since fire is also transformed, there is a manifestation of water, full of juice and taste. As previously, it also has form and touch and is also full of sound. And water, being transformed from all variegatedness on earth, appears odorous and, as previously, becomes qualitatively full of juice, touch, sound and form respectively.




   The whole process of creation is an act of gradual evolution and development from one element to another, reaching up to the variegatedness of the earth as so many trees, plants, mountains, rivers, reptiles, birds, animals and varieties of human beings. The quality of sense perception is also evolutionary, namely generated from sound, then touch, and from touch to form. Taste and odor are also generated along with the gradual development of sky, air, fire, water and earth. They are all mutually the cause and effect of one another, but the original cause is the Lord Himself in plenary portion, as Maha-Visnu lying in the causal water of the mahat-tattva. As such, Lord Krsna is described in the Brahma-samhita as the cause of all causes, and this is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (10.8) as follows:


                        aham sarvasya prabhavo

                       mattah sarvam pravartate

                        iti matva bhajante mam

                        budha bhava-samanvitah


   The qualities of sense perception are fully represented in the earth, and they are manifested in other elements to a lesser extent. In the sky there is sound only, whereas in the air there are sound and touch. In the fire there are sound, touch and shape, and in the water there is taste also, along with the other perceptions, namely sound, touch and shape. In the earth, however, there are all the above-mentioned qualities with an extra development of odor also. Therefore on the earth there is a full display of variegatedness of life, which is originally started with the basic principle of air. Diseases of the body take place due to derangement of air within the earthly body of the living beings. Mental diseases result from special derangement of the air within the body, and as such, yogic exercise is especially beneficial to keep the air in order so that diseases of the body become almost nil by such exercises. When they are properly done the duration of life also increases, and one can have control over death also by such practices. A perfect yogi can have command over death and quit the body at the right moment, when he is competent to transfer himself to a suitable planet. The bhakti-yogi, however, surpasses all the yogis because, by dint of his devotional service, he is promoted to the region beyond the material sky and is placed in one of the planets in the spiritual sky by the supreme will of the Lord, the controller of everything.


                               TEXT 30




                        vaikarikan mano jajne

                         deva vaikarika dasa

                      dig-vatarka-praceto 'svi-





   vaikarikat--from the mode of goodness; manah--the mind; jajne--generated; devah--demigods; vaikarikah--in the mode of goodness; dasa--ten; dik--the controller of directions; vata--the controller of air; arka--the sun; pracetah--Varuna; asvi--the Asvini-kumaras; vahni--the fire-god; indra--the King of heaven; upendra--the deity in heaven; mitra--one of the twelve Adityas; kah--Prajapati Brahma.




   From the mode of goodness the mind is generated and becomes manifest, as also the ten demigods controlling the bodily movements. Such demigods are known as the controller of directions, the controller of air, the sun-god, the father of Daksa Prajapati, the Asvini-kumaras, the fire-god, the King of heaven, the worshipable deity in heaven, the chief of the Adityas, and Brahmaji, the Prajapati. All come into existence.




   Vaikarika is the neutral stage of creation, and tejas is the initiative of creation, while tamas is the full display of material creation under the spell of the darkness of ignorance. Manufacture of the "necessities of life" in factories and workshops, excessively prominent in the age of Kali, or in the age of the machine, is the summit stage of the quality of darkness. Such manufacturing enterprises by human society are in the mode of darkness because factually there is no necessity for the commodities manufactured. Human society primarily requires food for subsistence, shelter for sleeping, defense for protection, and commodities for satisfaction of the senses. The senses are the practical signs of life, as will be explained in the next verse. Human civilization is meant for purifying the senses, and objects of sense satisfaction should be supplied as much as absolutely required, but not for aggravating artificial sensory needs. Food, shelter, defense and sense gratification are all needs in material existence. Otherwise, in his pure, uncontaminated state of original life, the living entity has no such needs. The needs are therefore artificial, and in the pure state of life there are no such needs. As such, increasing the artificial needs, as is the standard of material civilization, or advancing the economic development of human society, is a sort of engagement in darkness, without knowledge. By such engagement, human energy is spoiled, because human energy is primarily meant for purifying the senses in order to engage them in satisfying the senses of the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lord, being the supreme possessor of spiritual senses, is the master of the senses, Hrsikesa. Hrsika means the senses, and isa means the master. The Lord is not the servant of the senses, or, in other words, He is not directed by the dictation of the senses, but the conditioned souls or the individual living entities are servants of the senses. They are conducted by the direction or dictation of the senses, and therefore material civilization is a kind of engagement in sense gratification only. The standard of human civilization should be to cure the disease of sense gratification, and one can do this simply by becoming an agent for satisfying the spiritual senses of the Lord. The senses are never to be stopped in their engagements, but one should purify them by engaging them in the pure service of sense gratification of the master of the senses. This is the instruction of the whole Bhagavad-gita. Arjuna wanted first of all to satisfy his own senses by his decision not to fight with his kinsmen and friends, but Lord Sri Krsna taught him the Bhagavad-gita just to purify Arjuna's decision for sense gratification. Therefore Arjuna agreed to satisfy the senses of the Lord, and thus he fought the Battle of Kuruksetra, as the Lord desired.

   The Vedas instruct us to get out of the existence of darkness and go forward on the path of light (tamasi ma jyotir gama). The path of light is therefore to satisfy the senses of the Lord. Misguided men, or less intelligent men, follow the path of self-realization without any attempt to satisfy the transcendental senses of the Lord by following the path shown by Arjuna and other devotees of the Lord. On the contrary, they artificially try to stop the activities of the senses (yoga system), or they deny the transcendental senses of the Lord (jnana system). The devotees, however, are above the yogis and the jnanis because pure devotees do not deny the senses of the Lord; they want to satisfy the senses of the Lord. Only because of the darkness of ignorance do the yogis and jnanis deny the senses of the Lord and thus artificially try to control the activities of the diseased senses. In the diseased condition of the senses there is too much engagement of the senses in increasing material needs. When one comes to see the disadvantage of aggravating the sense activities, one is called a jnani, and when one tries to stop the activities of the senses by the practice of yogic principles, he is called a yogi, but when one is fully aware of the transcendental senses of the Lord and tries to satisfy His senses, one is called a devotee of the Lord. The devotees of the Lord do not try to deny the senses of the Lord, nor do they artificially stop the actions of the senses. But they do voluntarily engage the purified senses in the service of the master of the senses, as was done by Arjuna, thereby easily attaining the perfection of satisfying the Lord, the ultimate goal of all perfection.


                               TEXT 31




                        taijasat tu vikurvanad

                         indriyani dasabhavan

                      jnana-saktih kriya-saktir

                      buddhih pranas ca taijasau

                    srotram tvag-ghrana-drg-jihva





   taijasat--by the passionate egoism; tu--but; vikurvanat--transformation of; indriyani--the senses; dasa--ten; abhavan--generated; jnana-saktih--the five senses for acquiring knowledge; kriya-saktih--the five senses of activities; buddhih--intelligence; pranah--the living energy; ca--also; taijasau--all products of the mode of passion; srotram--the sense for hearing; tvak--the sense for touching; ghrana--the sense for smelling; drk--the sense for seeing; jihvah--the sense for tasting; vak--the sense for speaking; doh--the sense for handling; medhra--the genitals; anghri--the legs; payavah--the sense for evacuating.




   By further transformation of the mode of passion, the sense organs like the ear, skin, nose, eyes, tongue, mouth, hands, genitals, legs, and the outlet for evacuating, together with intelligence and living energy, are all generated.




   The living condition in material existence depends more or less on one's intelligence and powerful living energy. Intelligence to counteract the hard struggle for existence is assisted by the senses for acquiring knowledge, and the living energy maintains himself by manipulating the active organs, like the hands and legs. But on the whole, the struggle for existence is an exertion of the mode of passion. Therefore all the sense organs, headed by intelligence and the living energy, prana, are different products and by-products of the second mode of nature, called passion. This mode of passion, however, is the product of the air element, as described before.


                               TEXT 32




                        yadaite 'sangata bhava



                       na sekur brahma-vittama




   yada--as long as; ete--all these; asangatah--without being assembled; bhavah--remained so situated; bhuta--elements; indriya--senses; manah--mind; gunah--modes of nature; yada--so long; ayatana--the body; nirmane--in being formed; na sekuh--was not possible; brahma-vit-tama--O Narada, the best knower of transcendental knowledge.




   O Narada, best of the transcendentalists, the forms of the body cannot take place as long as these created parts, namely the elements, senses, mind and modes of nature, are not assembled.




   The different types of bodily construction of the living entities are exactly like different types of motorcars manufactured by assembling the allied motor parts. When the car is ready, the driver sits in the car and moves it as he desires. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (18.61): the living entity is as if seated on the machine of the body, and the car of the body is moving by the control of material nature, just as the railway trains are moving under the direction of the controller. The living entities, however, are not the bodies; they are separate from the cars of the body. But the less intelligent material scientist cannot understand the process of assembling the parts of the body, namely the senses, the mind and the qualities of the material modes. Every living entity is a spiritual spark, part and parcel of the Supreme Being, and by the kindness of the Lord, for the Father is kind to His sons, the individual living beings are given a little freedom to act according to their will to lord it over the material nature. Just as a father gives some playthings to the crying child to satisfy him, the whole material creation is made possible by the will of the Lord to allow the bewildered living entities to lord it over things as they desire, although under the control of the agent of the Lord. The living entities are exactly like small children playing the material field under the control of the maidservant of the Lord (nature). They accept the maya, or the maidservant, as all in all and thus wrongly conceive the Supreme Truth to be feminine (goddess Durga, etc.). The foolish, childlike materialists cannot reach beyond the conception of the maidservant, material nature, but the intelligent grown-up sons of the Lord know well that all the acts of material nature are controlled by the Lord, just as a maidservant is under the control of the master, the father of the undeveloped children.

   The parts of the body, such as the senses, are the creation of the mahat-tattva, and when they are assembled by the will of the Lord, the material body comes into existence, and the living entity is allowed to use it for further activities. This is explained as follows.


                               TEXT 33




                       tada samhatya canyonyam


                         sad-asattvam upadaya

                       cobhayam sasrjur hy adah




   tada--all those; samhatya--being assembled; ca--also; anyonyam--one another; bhagavat--by the Personality of Godhead; sakti--energy; coditah--being applied; sat-asattvam--primarily and secondarily; upadaya--accepting; ca--also; ubhayam--both; sasrjuh--came into existence; hi--certainly; adah--this universe.




   Thus when all these became assembled by force of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this universe certainly came into being by accepting both the primary and secondary causes of creation.




   In this verse it is clearly mentioned that the Supreme Personality of Godhead exerts His different energies in the creation; it is not that He Himself is transformed into material creations. He expands Himself by His different energies, as well as by His plenary portions. In a corner of the spiritual sky of brahmajyoti a spiritual cloud sometimes appears, and the covered portion is called the mahat-tattva. The Lord then, by His plenary portion as Maha-Visnu, lies down within the water of the mahat-tattva, and the water is called the Causal Ocean (Karana-jala). While Maha-Visnu sleeps within the Causal Ocean, innumerable universes are generated along with His breathing. These universes are floating, and they are scattered all over the Causal Ocean. They stay only during the breathing period of Maha-Visnu. In each and every universal globe, the same Maha-Visnu enters again as Garbhodakasayi Visnu and lies there on the serpentlike Sesa incarnation. From His navel sprouts a lotus stem, and on the lotus, Brahma, the lord of the universe, is born. Brahma creates all forms of living beings of different shapes in terms of different desires within the universe. He also creates the sun, moon and other demigods.

   Therefore the chief engineer of the material creation is the Lord Himself, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10). It is He only who directs the material nature to produce all sorts of moving and nonmoving creations.

   There are two modes of material creation: the creation of the collective universes, as stated above, done by the Maha-Visnu, and the creation of the single universe. Both are done by the Lord, and thus the universal shape, as we can see, takes place.


                               TEXT 34





                        tad andam udake sayam


                         jivo 'jivam ajivayat




   varsa-puga--many years; sahasra-ante--of thousands of years; tat--that; andam--the universal globe; udake--in the causal water; sayam--being drowned; kala--eternal time; karma--action; svabhava-sthah--according to the modes of nature; jivah--the Lord of the living beings; ajivam--nonanimated; ajivayat--caused to be animated.




   Thus all the universes remained thousands of eons within the water [the Causal Ocean], and the Lord of living beings, entering in each of them, caused them to be fully animated.




   The Lord is described here as the jiva because He is the leader of all other jivas (living entities). In the Vedas He is described as the nitya, the leader of all other nityas. The Lord's relation with the living entities is like that of the father with the sons. The sons and the father are qualitatively equal, but the father is never the son, nor is the son ever the father who begets. So, as described above, the Lord as Garbhodakasayi Visnu or Hiranyagarbha Supersoul enters into each and every universe and causes it to be animated by begetting the living entities within the womb of the material nature, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (14.3). After each annihilation of the material creation, all the living entities are merged within the body of the Lord, and after creation they are again impregnated within the material energy. In material existence, therefore, the material energy is seemingly the mother of the living entities, and the Lord is the father. When, however, the animation takes place, the living entities revive their own natural activities under the spell of time and energy, and thus the varieties of living beings are manifested. The Lord, therefore, is ultimately the cause of all animation in the material world.


                               TEXT 35




                        sa eva purusas tasmad

                       andam nirbhidya nirgatah






   sah--He (the Lord); eva--Himself; purusah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tasmat--from within the universe; andam--Hiranyagarbha; nirbhidya--dividing; nirgatah--came out; sahasra--thousands; uru--thighs; anghri--legs; bahu--arms; aksah--eyes; sahasra--thousands of; anana--mouths; sirsavan--with heads also.




   The Lord [Maha-Visnu], although lying in the Causal Ocean, came out of it, and dividing Himself as Hiranyagarbha, He entered into each universe and assumed the virat-rupa, with thousands of legs, arms, mouths, heads, etc.




   The expansions of the planetary systems within each and every universe are situated in the different parts of the virat-rupa (universal form) of the Lord, and they are described as follows.


                               TEXT 36




                        yasyehavayavair lokan

                         kalpayanti manisinah

                       katy-adibhir adhah sapta

                      saptordhvam jaghanadibhih




   yasya--whose; iha--in the universe; avayavaih--by the limbs of the body; lokan--all the planets; kalpayanti--imagine; manisinah--great philosophers; kati-adibhih--down from the waist; adhah--downwards; sapta--seven systems; sapta urdhvam--and seven systems upwards; jaghana-adibhih--front portion.




   Great philosophers imagine that the complete planetary systems in the universe are displays of the different upper and lower limbs of the universal body of the Lord.




   The word kalpayanti, or "imagine," is significant. The virat universal form of the Absolute is an imagination of the speculative philosophers who are unable to adjust to the eternal two-handed form of Lord Sri Krsna. Although the universal form, as imagined by the great philosophers, is one of the features of the Lord, it is more or less imaginary. It is said that the seven upper planetary systems are situated above the waist of the universal form, whereas the lower planetary systems are situated below His waist. The idea impressed herein is that the Supreme Lord is conscious of every part of His body, and nowhere in the creation is there anything beyond His control.


                               TEXT 37




                       purusasya mukham brahma

                        ksatram etasya bahavah

                       urvor vaisyo bhagavatah

                       padbhyam sudro vyajayata




   purusasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mukham--mouth; brahma--is the brahmanas; ksatram--the royal order; etasya--of Him; bahavah--the arms; urvoh--the thighs; vaisyah--are the mercantile men; bhagavatah--of the Personality of Godhead; padbhyam--from His legs; sudrah--the laborer class; vyajayata--became manifested.




   The brahmanas represent His mouth, the ksatriyas His arms, the vaisyas His thighs, and the sudras are born of His legs.




   All living beings are stated to be the parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, and how they are so is explained in this verse. The four divisions of human society, namely the intelligent class (the brahmanas), the administrative class (the ksatriyas), the mercantile class (the vaisyas), and the laborer class (the sudras), are all in different parts of the body of the Lord. As such, no one is different from the Lord. The mouth of the body and the legs of the body are nondifferent constitutionally, but the mouth or the head of the body is qualitatively more important than the legs. At the same time, the mouth, the legs, the arms and the thighs are all component parts of the body. These limbs of the body of the Lord are meant to serve the complete whole. The mouth is meant for speaking and eating, the arms are meant for the protection of the body, the legs are meant for carrying the body, and the waist of the body is meant for maintaining the body. The intelligent class in society, therefore, must speak on behalf of the body, as well as accept foodstuff to satisfy the hunger of the body. The hunger of the Lord is to accept the fruits of sacrifice. The brahmanas, or the intelligent class, must be very expert in performing such sacrifices, and the subordinate classes must join in such sacrifices. To speak for the Supreme Lord means to glorify the Lord by means of propagating the knowledge of the Lord as it is, broadcasting the factual nature of the Lord and the factual position of all other parts of the whole body. The brahmanas, therefore, are required to know the Vedas, or the ultimate source of knowledge. Veda means knowledge, and anta means the end of it. According to Bhagavad-gita, the Lord is the source of everything (aham sarvasya prabhavah), and thus the end of all knowledge (Vedanta) is to know the Lord, to know our relationship with Him and to act according to that relationship only. The parts of the body are related to the body; similarly, the living being must know his relationship with the Lord. The human life is especially meant for this purpose, namely to know the factual relationship of every living being with the Supreme Lord. Without knowing this relationship, the human life is spoiled. The intelligent class of men, the brahmanas, are therefore especially responsible for broadcasting this knowledge of our relationship with the Lord and leading the general mass of people to the right path. The administrative class is meant for protecting the living beings so that they can serve this purpose; the mercantile class is meant for producing food grains and distributing them to the complete human society so that the whole population is given a chance to live comfortably and discharge the duties of human life. The mercantile class is also required to give protection to the cows in order to get sufficient milk and milk products, which alone can give the proper health and intelligence to maintain a civilization perfectly meant for knowledge of the ultimate truth. And the laborer class, who are neither intelligent nor powerful, can help by physical services to the other higher classes and thus be benefited by their cooperation. Therefore the universe is a complete unit in relationship with the Lord, and without this relationship with the Lord the whole human society is disturbed and is without any peace and prosperity. This is confirmed in the Vedas: brahmano 'sya mukham asid, bahu rajanyah krtah.


                               TEXT 38




                     bhurlokah kalpitah padbhyam

                       bhuvarloko 'sya nabhitah

                         hrda svarloka urasa

                         maharloko mahatmanah




   bhuh--the lower planetary systems up to the stratum of the earth; lokah--the planets; kalpitah--it is so imagined or said; padbhyam--out of the legs; bhuvah--the upper; lokah--the planetary system; asya--of Him (the Lord); nabhitah--from the navel abdomen; hrda--by the heart; svarlokah--the planetary systems occupied by the demigods; urasa--by the chest; maharlokah--the planetary system occupied by great sages and saints; maha-atmanah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.




   The lower planetary systems, up to the limit of the earthly stratum, are said to be situated in His legs. The middle planetary systems, beginning from Bhuvarloka, are situated in His navel. And the still higher planetary systems, occupied by the demigods and highly cultured sages and saints, are situated in the chest of the Supreme Lord.




   There are fourteen spheres of planetary systems within this universe. The lower systems are called Bhurloka, the middle systems are called Bhuvarloka, and the higher planetary systems, up to Brahmaloka, the highest planetary system of the universe, are called Svarloka. And all of them are situated on the body of the Lord. In other words, no one within this universe is without a relationship with the Lord.


                               TEXT 39




                        grivayam janaloko 'sya

                        tapolokah stana-dvayat

                       murdhabhih satyalokas tu

                        brahmalokah sanatanah




   grivayam--up to the neck; janalokah--the Janaloka planetary system; asya--of Him; tapolokah--the Tapoloka planetary system; stana-dvayat--beginning from the breast; murdhabhih--by the head; satyalokah--the Satyaloka planetary system; tu--but; brahmalokah--the spiritual planets; sanatanah--eternal.




   From the forefront of the chest up to the neck of the universal form of the Lord are situated the planetary systems named Janaloka and Tapoloka, whereas Satyaloka, the topmost planetary system, is situated on the head of the form. The spiritual planets, however, are eternal.




   Many times in these pages we have discussed the spiritual planets situated beyond the material sky, and the description is corroborated in this verse. The word sanatana is significant. This very idea of eternity is expressed in the Bhagavad-gita (8.20), where it is said that beyond the material creation is the spiritual sky, where everything is eternal. Sometimes Satyaloka, the planet in which Brahma resides, is also called Brahmaloka. But the Brahmaloka mentioned here is not the same as the Satyaloka planetary system. This Brahmaloka is eternal, whereas the Satyaloka planetary system is not eternal. And to distinguish between the two, the adjective sanatana has been used in this case. According to Srila Jiva Gosvami, this Brahmaloka is the loka or abode of Brahman, or the Supreme Lord. In the spiritual sky all the planets are as good as the Lord Himself. The Lord is all spirit, and His name, fame, glories, qualities, pastimes, etc., are all nondifferent from Him because He is absolute. As such, the planets in the kingdom of God are also nondifferent from Him. In those planets there is no difference between the body and the soul, nor is there any influence of time as we experience it in the material world. And in addition to there being no influence of time, the planets in, Brahmaloka, due to being spiritual, are never annihilated. All variegatedness in the spiritual planets is also one with the Lord, and therefore the Vedic aphorism ekam evadvitiyam is fully realized in that sanatana atmosphere of spiritual variegatedness. This material world is only a shadow phantasmagoria of the spiritual kingdom of the Lord, and because it is a shadow it is never eternal; the variegatedness in the material world of duality (spirit and matter) cannot be compared to that of the spiritual world. Because of a poor fund of knowledge, less intelligent persons sometimes mistake the conditions of the shadow world to be equivalent to those of the spiritual world, and thus they mistake the Lord and His pastimes in the material world to be one with the conditioned souls and their activities. The Lord condemns such less intelligent persons in the Bhagavad-gita (9.11):


                         avajananti mam mudha

                        manusim tanum asritam

                        param bhavam ajananto

                        mama bhuta-mahesvaram


   Whenever the Lord incarnates, He does so in His full internal potency (atma-maya), and less intelligent persons mistake Him to be one of the material creations. Srila Sridhara Svami, therefore, rightly commenting on this verse, says that the Brahmaloka mentioned here is Vaikuntha, the kingdom of God, which is sanatana, or eternal, and is therefore not exactly like the material creations described above. The virat universal form of the Lord is an imagination for the material world. It has nothing to do with the spiritual world, or the kingdom of God.


                             TEXTS 40-41




                      tat-katyam catalam klptam

                       urubhyam vitalam vibhoh

                      janubhyam sutalam suddham

                       janghabhyam tu talatalam


                       mahatalam tu gulphabhyam

                        prapadabhyam rasatalam

                         patalam pada-talata

                         iti lokamayah puman




   tat--in His; katyam--waist; ca--also; atalam--the first planetary system below the earth; klptam--situated; urubhyam--on the thighs; vitalam--the second planetary system below; vibhoh--of the Lord; janubhyam--on the ankles; sutalam--the third planetary system below; suddham--purified; janghabhyam--on the joints; tu--but; talatalam--the fourth planetary system below; mahatalam--the fifth planetary system below; tu--but; gulphabhyam--situated on the calves; prapadabhyam--on the upper or front portion of the feet; rasatalam--the sixth planetary system below; patalam--the seventh planetary system below; pada-talatah--on the bottom or soles of the feet; iti--thus; loka-mayah--full of planetary systems; puman--the Lord.




   My dear son Narada, know from me that there are seven lower planetary systems out of the total fourteen. The first planetary system, known as Atala, is situated on the waist; the second, Vitala, is situated on the thighs; the third, Sutala, on the knees; the fourth, Talatala, on the shanks; the fifth, Mahatala, on the ankles; the sixth, Rasatala, on the upper portion of the feet; and the seventh, Patala, on the soles of the feet. Thus the virat form of the Lord is full of all planetary systems.




   Modern enterprisers (the astronauts who travel in space) may take information from Srimad-Bhagavatam that in space there are fourteen divisions of planetary systems. The situation is calculated from the earthly planetary system, which is called Bhurloka. Above Bhurloka is Bhuvarloka, and the topmost planetary system is called Satyaloka. These are the upper seven lokas, or planetary systems. And similarly, there are seven lower planetary systems, known as Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala lokas. All these planetary systems are scattered over the complete universe, which occupies an area of two billion times two billion square miles. The modern astronauts can travel only a few thousand miles away from the earth, and therefore their attempt to travel in the sky is something like child's play on the shore of an expansive ocean. The moon is situated in the third status of the upper planetary system, and in the Fifth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam we shall be able to know the distant situation of the various planets scattered over the vast material sky. There are innumerable universes beyond the one in which we are put, and all these material universes cover only an insignificant portion of the spiritual sky, which is described above as sanatana Brahmaloka. The Supreme Lord very kindly invites the intelligent human beings to return home, back to Godhead, in the following verse of the Bhagavad-gita (8.16):


                       a-brahma-bhuvanal lokah

                        punar avartino 'rjuna

                        mam upetya tu kaunteya

                        punar janma na vidyate


   Beginning from Satyaloka, the topmost planet of the universe, situated just below the eternal Brahmaloka, as described above, all the planets are material. And one's situation in any of the many material planets is still subject to the laws of material nature, namely birth, death, old age and disease. But one can get complete liberation from all the above-mentioned material pangs when one enters into the eternal Brahmaloka sanatana atmosphere, the kingdom of God. Therefore liberation, as contemplated by the speculative philosophers and the mystics, is possible only when one becomes a devotee of the Lord. Anyone who is not a devotee cannot enter into the kingdom of God. Only by attainment of a service attitude in the transcendental position can one enter into the kingdom of Godhead. Therefore the speculative philosophers, as well as the mystics, must first of all be attracted to the devotional cult before they can factually attain liberation.


                               TEXT 42




                     bhurlokah kalpitah padbhyam

                       bhuvarloko 'sya nabhitah

                      svarlokah kalpito murdhna

                         iti va loka-kalpana




   bhurlokah--the entire planetary system from Patala to the earthly planetary system; kalpitah--imagined; padbhyam--situated on the legs; bhuvarlokah--the Bhuvarloka planetary system; asya--of the universal form of the Lord; nabhitah--out of the navel abdomen; svarlokah--the higher planetary system, beginning with the heavenly planets; kalpitah--imagined; murdhna--from the chest to the head; iti--thus; va--either; loka--the planetary systems; kalpana--imagination.




   Others may divide the whole planetary system into three divisions, namely the lower planetary systems on the legs [up to the earth], the middle planetary systems on the navel, and the upper planetary systems [Svarloka] from the chest to the head of the Supreme Personality.




   The three divisions of the complete planetary systems are here mentioned; fourteen are imagined by others, and that is also explained.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Second Canto, Fifth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Cause of All Causes."

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