Canto 7: " The Science of God"

                            Seventh Canto


                          Table of Contents


                             Chapter One

                The Supreme Lord Is Equal to Everyone


   In this chapter, in response to a question by Maharaja Pariksit, Sukadeva Gosvami gives his conclusions concerning how the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although the Supersoul, friend and protector of everyone, killed the Daityas, the demons, for the sake of Indra, the King of heaven. In his statements, he totally refutes the arguments of people in general who accuse the Supreme Lord of partiality. Sukadeva Gosvami proves that because the body of the conditioned soul is infected by the three qualities of nature, dualities arise such as enmity and friendship, attachment and detachment. For the Supreme Personality of Godhead, however, there are no such dualities. Even eternal time cannot control the activities of the Lord. Eternal time is created by the Lord, and it acts under His control. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, therefore, is always transcendental to the influence of the modes of nature, maya, the Lord's external energy, which acts in creation and annihilation. Thus all the demons killed by the Supreme Lord attain salvation immediately.

   The second question raised by Pariksit Maharaja concerns how Sisupala, although inimical toward Krsna from his very childhood and always blaspheming Krsna, attained salvation in oneness when Krsna killed him. Sukadeva Gosvami explains that because of their offenses at the feet of devotees, two attendants of the Lord in Vaikuntha named Jaya and Vijaya became Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyaksa in Satya-yuga, Ravana and Kumbhakarna in the next yuga, Treta-yuga, and Sisupala and Dantavakra at the end of Dvapara-yuga. Because of their fruitive acts, Jaya and Vijaya agreed to become the Lord's enemies, and when killed in that mentality, they attained salvation in oneness. Thus even if one thinks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in envy, he attains salvation. What then is to be said of devotees who always engage in the Lord's service with love and faith?


                                TEXT 1





                      samah priyah suhrd brahman

                       bhutanam bhagavan svayam

                     indrasyarthe katham daityan

                         avadhid visamo yatha




   sri-raja uvaca--Maharaja Pariksit said; samah--equal; priyah--beloved; suhrt--friend; brahman--O brahmana (Sukadeva); bhutanam--toward all living entities; bhagavan--the Supreme Lord, Visnu; svayam--Himself; indrasya--of Indra; arthe--for the benefit; katham--how; daityan--the demons; avadhit--killed; visamah--partial; yatha--as if.




   King Pariksit inquired: My dear brahmana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, being everyone's well-wisher, is equal and extremely dear to everyone. How, then, did He become partial like a common man for the sake of Indra and thus kill Indra's enemies? How can a person equal to everyone be partial to some and inimical toward others?




   In Bhagavad-gita (9.29) the Lord says, samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah: "I am equal to everyone. No one is dear to Me, nor is anyone My enemy." In the previous canto, however, it has been observed that the Lord sided with Indra by killing the demons on his account (hata-putra ditih sakra-parsni-grahena visnuna). Therefore, the Lord was clearly partial to Indra, although He is the Supersoul in everyone's heart. The soul is extremely dear to everyone, and similarly the Supersoul is also dear to everyone. Thus there cannot be any faulty action on the part of the Supersoul. The Lord is always kind to all living entities, irrespective of form and situation, yet He took the side of Indra just like an ordinary friend. This was the subject of Pariksit Maharaja's inquiry. As a devotee of Lord Krsna, he knew very well that Krsna cannot be partial to anyone, but when he saw that Krsna acted as the enemy of the demons, he was somewhat doubtful. Therefore he posed this question to Sukadeva Gosvami for a clear answer.

   A devotee cannot accept that Lord Visnu has material qualifications. Maharaja Pariksit knew perfectly well that Lord Visnu, being transcendental, has nothing to do with material qualities, but to confirm his conviction he wanted to hear from the authority Sukadeva Gosvami. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says, samasya katham vaisamyam: since the Lord is equally disposed toward everyone, how can He be partial? Priyasya katham asuresu prity-abhavah. The Lord, being the Supersoul, is extremely dear to everyone. Why, then, should the Lord display unsympathetic behavior toward the asuras? How is this impartial? Suhrdas ca katham tesv asauhardam. Since the Lord says that He is suhrdam sarva-bhutanam, the well-wisher of all living entities, how could He act with partiality by killing demons? These questions arose in the heart of Pariksit Maharaja, and therefore he inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami.


                                TEXT 2




                     na hy asyarthah sura-ganaih

                       saksan nihsreyasatmanah

                        naivasurebhyo vidveso

                        nodvegas cagunasya hi




   na--not; hi--certainly; asya--His; arthah--benefit, interest; sura-ganaih--with the demigods; saksat--personally; nihsreyasa--of the highest bliss; atmanah--whose nature; na--not; eva--certainly; asurebhyah--for the demons; vidvesah--envy; na--not; udvegah--fear; ca--and; agunasya--who possesses no material qualities; hi--certainly.




   Lord Visnu Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the reservoir of all pleasure. Therefore, what benefit would He derive from siding with the demigods? What interest would He fulfill in this way? Since the Lord is transcendental, why should He fear the asuras, and how could He be envious of them?




   We should always remember the distinction between spiritual and material. That which is material is infected by material qualities, but these qualities cannot touch that which is spiritual, or transcendental. Krsna is absolute, whether He is in the material world or spiritual world. When we see partiality in Krsna, this vision is due to His external energy. Otherwise how could His enemies attain salvation after being killed by Him? Everyone who deals with the Supreme Personality of Godhead gradually acquires the qualities of the Lord. The more one advances in spiritual consciousness, the less he is affected by the duality of material qualities. The Supreme Lord, therefore, must certainly be freed from these qualities. His enmity and friendship are external features presented by the material energy. He is always transcendental. He is absolute, whether He kills or bestows His favor.

   Envy and friendship arise in one who is imperfect. We fear our enemies because in the material world we are always in need of help. The Lord, however, does not need anyone's help, for He is atmarama. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.26):


                      patram puspam phalam toyam

                      yo me bhaktya prayacchati

                       tad aham bhakty-upahrtam

                         asnami prayatatmanah


   "If a devotee offers Me with devotion a little leaf, a flower, fruit or water, I shall accept it." Why does the Lord say this? Is He dependent on the offering of the devotee? He is not actually dependent, but He likes to be dependent upon His devotee. This is His mercy. Similarly, He does not fear the asuras. Thus there is no question of partiality in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                                TEXT 3




                         iti nah sumaha-bhaga

                         narayana-gunan prati

                        samsayah sumahan jatas

                      tad bhavams chettum arhati




   iti--thus; nah--our; su-maha-bhaga--O glorious one; narayana-gunan--the qualities of Narayana; prati--toward; samsayah--doubt; su-mahan--very great; jatah--born; tat--that; bhavan--Your Lordship; chettum arhati--please dispel.




   O greatly fortunate and learned brahmana, whether Narayana is partial or impartial has become a subject of great doubt. Kindly dispel my doubt with positive evidence that Narayana is always neutral and equal to everyone.




   Since Lord Narayana is absolute, His transcendental qualities are described as one. Thus His punishments and His offerings of favor are both of the same value. Essentially, His inimical actions are not displays of enmity toward His so-called enemies, but in the material field one thinks that Krsna is favorable to devotees and unfavorable to nondevotees. When Krsna finally instructs in Bhagavad-gita, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja, this is meant not only for Arjuna but for every living entity within this universe.


                              TEXTS 4-5




                            sri-rsir uvaca

                        sadhu prstam maharaja

                        hares caritam adbhutam

                       yad bhagavata-mahatmyam



                        giyate paramam punyam

                         rsibhir naradadibhih

                         natva krsnaya munaye

                       kathayisye hareh katham




   sri-rsih uvaca--the sage Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; sadhu--excellent; prstam--inquiry; maha-raja--O great King; hareh--of the Supreme Lord, Hari; caritam--activities; adbhutam--wonderful; yat--from which; bhagavata--of the Lord's devotee (Prahlada); mahatmyam--the glories; bhagavat-bhakti--devotion to the Lord; vardhanam--increasing; giyate--is sung; paramam--foremost; punyam--pious; rsibhih--by the sages; narada-adibhih--headed by Sri Narada Muni; natva--after offering obeisances; krsnaya--to Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa; munaye--the great sage; kathayisye--I shall narrate; hareh--of Hari; katham--the topics.




   The great sage Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, you have put before me an excellent question. Discourses concerning the activities of the Lord, in which the glories of His devotees are also found, are extremely pleasing to devotees. Such wonderful topics always counteract the miseries of the materialistic way of life. Therefore great sages like Narada always speak upon Srimad-Bhagavatam because it gives one the facility to hear and chant about the wonderful activities of the Lord. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Srila Vyasadeva and then begin describing topics concerning the activities of Lord Hari.




   In this verse Sukadeva Gosvami offers his respectful obeisances krsnaya munaye, which means to Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa. One must first offer one's respectful obeisances to one's spiritual master. Sukadeva Gosvami's spiritual master is his father, Vyasadeva, and therefore he first offers his respectful obeisances to Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa and then begins describing topics of Lord Hari.

   Whenever there is an opportunity to hear about the transcendental activities of the Lord, we must take it. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu recommends, kirtaniyah sada harih: one should always engage in krsna-katha by chanting and talking about Krsna and hearing about Him. That is the only occupation of a Krsna conscious person.


                                TEXT 6




                      nirguno 'pi hy ajo 'vyakto

                       bhagavan prakrteh parah

                        sva-maya-gunam avisya

                       badhya-badhakatam gatah




   nirgunah--without material qualities; api--although; hi--certainly; ajah--unborn; avyaktah--unmanifest; bhagavan--the Supreme Lord; prakrteh--to material nature; parah--transcendental; sva-maya--of His own energy; gunam--material qualities; avisya--entering; badhya--obligation; badhakatam--the condition of being obliged; gatah--accepts.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, is always transcendental to material qualities, and therefore He is called nirguna, or without qualities. Because He is unborn, He does not have a material body to be subjected to attachment and hatred. Although the Lord is always above material existence, through His spiritual potency He appeared and acted like an ordinary human being, accepting duties and obligations, apparently like a conditioned soul.




   So-called attachment, detachment and obligations pertain to the material nature, which is an emanation from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but whenever the Lord descends and acts in this material world, He does so in His spiritual position. Although His activities materially appear different, spiritually they are absolute and nondifferent. Thus it is an imposition upon the Supreme Lord to say that He is envious of anyone or friendly to anyone.

   In Bhagavad-gita (9.11) the Lord clearly says, avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam: "Fools deride Me when I descend in a human form." Krsna appears on this earth or within this universe without any change in His spiritual body or spiritual qualities. Indeed, He is never influenced by the material qualities. He is always free from such qualities, but He appears to act under material influence. This understanding is aropita, or an imposition. Therefore Krsna says, janma karma ca me divyam: whatever He does, being always transcendental, has nothing to do with material qualities. Evam yo vetti tattvatah: only devotees can understand the truth of how He acts. The fact is that Krsna is never partial to anyone. He is always equal to everyone, but because of imperfect vision, influenced by material qualities, one imposes material qualities upon Krsna, and when one does so he becomes a mu-dha, a fool. When one can properly understand the truth, one becomes devoted and nirguna, free from material qualities. Simply by understanding the activities of Krsna one can become transcendental, and as soon as one is transcendental he is fit to be transferred to the transcendental world. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so 'rjuna: one who understands the activities of the Lord in truth is transferred to the spiritual world after he gives up his material body.


                                TEXT 7




                        sattvam rajas tama iti

                        prakrter natmano gunah

                        na tesam yugapad rajan

                         hrasa ullasa eva va




   sattvam--the mode of goodness; rajah--the mode of passion; tamah--the mode of ignorance; iti--thus; prakrteh--of material nature; na--not; atmanah--of the spirit soul; gunah--qualities; na--not; tesam--of them; yugapat--simultaneously; rajan--O King; hrasah--diminution; ullasah--prominence; eva--certainly; va--or.




   My dear King Pariksit, the material qualities--sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna--all belong to the material world and do not even touch the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These three gunas cannot act by increasing or decreasing simultaneously.




   The original position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is one of equality. There is no question of His being influenced by sattva-guna, rujo-guna or tamo-guna, for these material qualities cannot touch the Supreme Lord. The Lord is therefore called the supreme isvara. Isvarah paramah krsnah: He is the supreme controller. He controls the material qualities (daivi hy esa guna-mayi mama maya). Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate: material nature (prakrti) works under His order. How, then, can He be under the qualities of prakrti? Krsna is never influenced by the material qualities. Therefore there is no question of partiality in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                                TEXT 8




                        jaya-kale tu sattvasya

                        devarsin rajaso 'suran

                        tamaso yaksa-raksamsi

                        tat-kalanuguno 'bhajat




   jaya-kale--in the time of prominence; tu--indeed; sattvasya--of goodness; deva--the demigods; rsin--and the sages; rajasah--of passion; asuran--the demons; tamasah--of ignorance; yaksa-raksamsi--the Yaksas and Raksasas; tat-kala-anugunah--according to the particular time; abhajat--fostered.




   When the quality of goodness is prominent, the sages and demigods flourish with the help of that quality, with which they are infused and surcharged by the Supreme Lord. Similarly, when the mode of passion is prominent the demons flourish, and when ignorance is prominent the Yaksas and Raksasas flourish. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is present in everyone's heart, fostering the reactions of sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not partial to anyone. The conditioned soul is under the influence of the various modes of material nature, and behind material nature is the Supreme Personality of Godhead; but one's victory and loss under the influence of sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna are reactions of these modes, not of the Supreme Lord's partiality. Srila Jiva Gosvami, in the Bhagavata-sandarbha, has clearly said:


                        sattvadayo na santise

                        yatra ca prakrta gunah

                     sa suddhah sarva-suddhebhyah

                        puman adhyah prasidatu


                       hladini sandhini samvit

                      tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau

                        hlada-tapa-kari misra

                        tvayi no guna-varjite


   According to this statement of the Bhagavata-sandarbha, the Supreme Lord, being always transcendental to the material qualities, is never affected by the influence of these qualities. This same characteristic is also present in the living being, but because he is conditioned by material nature, even the pleasure potency of the Lord is manifested in the conditioned soul as troublesome. In the material world the pleasure enjoyed by the conditioned soul is followed by many painful conditions. For instance, we have seen that in the two great wars, which were conducted by the rajo-guna and tamo-guna, both parties were actually ruined. The German people declared war against the English to ruin them, but the result was that both parties were ruined. Although the Allies were apparently victorious, at least on paper, actually neither of them were victorious. Therefore it should be concluded that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not partial to anyone. Everyone works under the influence of various modes of material nature, and when the various modes are prominent, the demigods or demons appear victorious under the influence of these modes.

   Everyone enjoys the fruits of his qualitative activities. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (14.11-13):


                       sarva-dvaresu dehe 'smin

                          prakasa upajayate

                       jnanam yada tada vidyad

                      vivrddham sattvam ity uta


                      lobhah pravrttir arambhah

                        karmanam asamah sprha

                         rajasy etani jayante

                        vivrddhe bharatarsabha


                        aprakaso 'pravrttis ca

                         pramado moha eva ca

                         tamasy etani jayante

                        vivrddhe kuru-nandana


   "The manifestations of the modes of goodness can be experienced when all the gates of the body are illumined by knowledge.

   "O chief of the Bharatas, when there is an increase in the mode of passion, the symptoms of great attachment, uncontrollable desire, hankering, and intense endeavor develop.

   "O son of Kuru, when there is an increase in the mode of ignorance, madness, illusion, inertia and darkness are manifested."

   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is present in everyone's heart, simply gives the results of the increase in the various qualities, but He is impartial. He supervises victory and loss, but He does not take part in them.

   The various modes of material nature do not work all at once. The interactions of these modes are exactly like seasonal changes. Sometimes there is an increment of rajo-guna, sometimes of tamo-guna and sometimes sattva-guna. Generally the demigods are surcharged with sattva-guna, and therefore when the demons and the demigods fight, the demigods are victorious because of the prominence of their sattva-guna qualities. However, this is not the partiality of the Supreme Lord.


                                TEXT 9




                         jyotir-adir ivabhati

                        sanghatan na vivicyate

                      vidanty atmanam atma-stham

                       mathitva kavayo 'ntatah




   jyotih--fire; adih--and other elements; iva--just as; abhati--appear; sanghatat--from the bodies of demigods and others; na--not; vivicyate--are distinguished; vidanti--perceive; atmanam--the Supersoul; atma-stham--situated in the heart; mathitva--by discerning; kavayah--expert thinkers; antatah--within.




   The all-pervading Personality of Godhead exists within the heart of every living being, and an expert thinker can perceive how He is present there to a large or small extent. Just as one can understand the supply of fire in wood, the water in a waterpot, or the sky within a pot, one can understand whether a living entity is a demon or a demigod by understanding that living entity's devotional performances. A thoughtful man can understand how much a person is favored by the Supreme Lord by seeing his actions.




   In Bhagavad-gita (10.41) the Lord says:


                      yad yad vibhutimat sattvam

                        srimad urjitam eva va

                       tat tad evavagaccha tvam

                       mama tejo-'msa-sambhavam


   "Know that all beautiful, glorious and mighty creations spring from but a spark of My splendor." We have the practical experience of seeing that one person is able to do very wonderful things whereas another cannot do those same things and cannot even do things that require only a little common sense. Therefore, how much a devotee has been favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be tested by the activities the devotee has performed. In Bhagavad-gita (10.10) the Lord also says:


                        tesam satata-yuktanam

                       bhajatam priti-purvakam

                       dadami buddhi-yogam tam

                         yena mam upayanti te


   "To those who are constantly devoted and who worship Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me." This is very practical. A teacher instructs the student if the student is capable of taking more and more instructions. Otherwise, in spite of being instructed by the teacher, the student cannot make strides in his understanding. This has nothing to do with partiality. When Krsna says tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam. dadami buddhi-yogam tam, this indicates that Krsna is prepared to give bhakti-yoga to everyone, but one must be capable of receiving it. That is the secret. Thus when a person exhibits wonderful devotional activities, a thoughtful man understands that Krsna has been more favorable to this devotee.

   This is not difficult to understand, but envious persons do not accept that Krsna has bestowed His favor upon a particular devotee in accordance with his advanced position. Such foolish persons become envious and try to minimize an advanced devotee's activities. That is not Vaisnavism. A Vaisnava should appreciate the service rendered to the Lord by other Vaisnavas. Therefore a Vaisnava is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam as nirmatsara. Vaisnavas are never envious of other Vaisnavas or of anyone else, and therefore they are called nirmatsaranam satam.

   As Bhagavad-gita informs us, one can understand how one is saturated with sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna. In the examples given herewith, fire represents the mode of goodness. One can understand the constitution of a container for wood, petrol or other inflammable substances by the quantity of the fire. Similarly, water represents rajo-guna, the mode of passion. A small skin and the vast Atlantic Ocean both contain water, and by seeing the quantity of water in a container one can understand the size of the container. The sky represents the mode of ignorance. The sky is present in a small earthen pot and also in outer space. Thus by proper judgment one can see who is a devata, or demigod, and who is an asura, Yaksa or Raksasa according to the quantities of sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna. One cannot judge whether a person is a devata, an asura or a Raksasa by seeing him, but a sane man can understand this by the activities such a person performs. A general description is given in the padma purana: visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva asuras tad-viparyayah. A devotee of Lord Visnu is a demigod, whereas an asura or Yaksa is just the opposite. An asura is not a devotee of Lord Visnu; instead, for his sense gratification he is a devotee of the demigods, bhutas, pretas and so on. Thus one can judge who is a devata, who is a Raksasa and who is an asura by how they conduct their activities.

   The word atmanam in this verse means paramatmanam. The Paramatma, or Supersoul, is situated in the core of everyone's heart (antatah). This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (18.61). Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati. The isvara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, being situated in everyone's heart, gives directions to everyone in terms of one's capabilities in taking the instructions. The instructions of Bhagavad-gita are open to everyone, but some people understand them properly, whereas others understand them so improperly that they cannot even believe in the existence of Krsna, although reading Krsna's book. Although the Gita says sri-bhagavan uvaca, indicating that Krsna spoke, they cannot understand Krsna. This is due to their misfortune or incapability, which is caused by rajo-guna and tamo-guna, the modes of passion and ignorance. It is because of these modes that they cannot even understand Krsna, whereas an advanced devotee like Arjuna understands Him and glorifies Him, saying, param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan: "You are the Supreme Brahman, the supreme abode and purifier." Krsna is open to everyone, but one needs the capability to understand Him.

   By external features one cannot understand who is favored by Krsna and who is not. According to one's attitude, Krsna becomes one's direct adviser, or Krsna becomes unknown. This is not Krsna's partiality; it is His response to one's ability to understand Him. According to one's receptiveness--whether one be a devata, asura, Yaksa or Raksasa--Krsna's quality is proportionately exhibited. This proportionate exhibition of Krsna's power is misunderstood by less intelligent men to be Krsna's partiality, but actually it is no such thing. Krsna is equal to everyone, and according to one's ability to receive the favor of Krsna, one advances in Krsna consciousness. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura gives a practical example in this connection. In the sky there are many luminaries. At night, even in darkness, the moon is extremely brilliant and can be directly perceived. The sun is also extremely brilliant. When covered by clouds, however, these luminaries are not distinctly visible. Similarly, the more one advances in sattva-guna, the more his brilliance is exhibited by devotional service, but the more one is covered by rajo-guna and tamo-guna, the less visible his brilliance, for he is covered by these qualities. The visibility of one's qualities does not depend on the partiality of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; it is due to various coverings in different proportions. Thus one can understand how far he has advanced in terms of sattva-guna and how much he is covered by rajo-guna and tamo-guna.


                               TEXT 10




                   yada sisrksuh pura atmanah paro

                  rajah srjaty esa prthak sva-mayaya

                  sattvam vicitrasu riramsur isvarah

                    sayisyamanas tama irayaty asau




   yada--when; sisrksuh--desiring to create; purah--material bodies; atmanah--for the living entities; parah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rajah--the mode of passion; srjati--manifests; esah--He; prthak--separately, predominantly; sva-mayaya--by His own creative energy; sattvam--the mode of goodness; vicitrasu--in various types of bodies; riramsuh--desiring to act; isvarah--the Personality of Godhead; sayisyamanah--being about to conclude; tamah--the mode of ignorance; irayati--causes to rise; asau--that Supreme.




   When the Supreme Personality of Godhead creates different types of bodies, offering a particular body to each living entity according to his character and fruitive actions, the Lord revives all the qualities of material nature--sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna. Then, as the Supersoul, He enters each body and influences the qualities of creation, maintenance and annihilation, using sattva-guna for maintenance, rajo-guna for creation and tamo-guna for annihilation.




   Although material nature is conducted by the three qualities--sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna--nature is not independent. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.10):


                        mayadhyaksena prakrtih

                         suyate sa-caracaram

                         hetunanena kaunteya

                         jagad viparivartate


   "This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and it is producing all moving and unmoving beings. By its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again." The different changes in the material world take place as actions and reactions of the three gunas, but above the three gunas is their director, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the various types of bodies given to the living entities by material nature (yantrarudhani mayaya), either sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna is prominent. The body is produced by material nature according to the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore it is said here, yada sisrksuh pura atmanah parah, indicating that the body is certainly created by the Lord. Karmana daiva-netrena: according to the karma of the living entity, a body is prepared under the Supreme Lord's supervision. Whether the body is of sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna, everything is done by the direction of the Supreme Lord through the agency of the external energy (prthak sva-mayaya). In this way, in different types of bodies, the Lord (isvara) gives directions as Paramatma, and again, to destroy the body, He employs the tamo-guna. This is the way the living entities receive different types of bodies.


                               TEXT 11




                   kalam carantam srjatisa asrayam

                pradhana-pumbhyam nara-deva satya-krt




   kalam--time; carantam--moving; srjati--creates; isah--the Supreme personality of Godhead; asrayam--shelter; pradhana--for the material energy; pumbhyam--and the living entity; nara-deva--O ruler of men; satya--true; krt--creator.




   O great King, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of the material and spiritual energies, who is certainly the creator of the entire cosmos, creates the time factor to allow the material energy and the living entity to act within the limits of time. Thus the Supreme Personality is never under the time factor nor under the material energy.




   One should not think that the Lord is dependent on the time factor. He actually creates the situation by which material nature acts and by which the conditioned soul is placed under material nature. Both the conditioned soul and the material nature act within the time factor, but the Lord is not subject to the actions and reactions of time, for time has been created by Him. To be more clear, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that creation, maintenance and annihilation are all under the supreme will of the Lord.

   In Bhagavad-gita (4.7) the Lord says:


                        yada yada hi dharmasya

                        glanir bhavati bharata

                       abhyutthanam adharmasya

                        tadatmanam srjamy aham


   "Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion--at that time I descend Myself." Since Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the controller of everything, when He appears He is not within the limitations of material time (janma karma ca me divyam). In this verse the words kalam carantam srjatisa asrayam indicate that although the Lord acts within time, whether sattva-guna, rajo-guna or tamo-guna is prominent, one should not think that the Lord is under time's control. Time is within His control, for He creates time to act in a certain way; He is not working under the control of time. The creation of the material world is one of the Lord's pastimes. Everything is fully under His control. Since creation takes place when rajo-guna is prominent, the Lord creates the necessary time to give facilities for rajo-guna. Similarly, He also creates the necessary times for maintenance and annihilation. Thus this verse establishes that the Lord is not under the limitations of time.

   As stated in the Brahma-samhita, isvarah paramah krsnah: Krsna is the supreme controller. Sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah: He possesses a blissful, spiritual body. Anadih: He is not subordinate to anything. As the Lord confirms in Bhagavad-gita (7.7), mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: "O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna], there is no truth superior to Me." Nothing can be above Krsna, for He is the controller and creator of everything.

   The Mayavadi philosophers say that this material world is mithya, false, and that one should therefore not bother about this mithya creation (brahma satyam jagan mithya). But this is not correct. Here it is said, satya-krt: whatever is created by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, satyam param, cannot be called mithya. The cause of the creation is satya, true, so how can the effect of the cause be mithya? The very word satya-krt is used to establish that everything created by the Lord is factual, never false. The creation may be temporary, but it is not false.


                               TEXT 12




                     ya esa rajann api kala isita

                  sattvam suranikam ivaidhayaty atah

                  tat-pratyanikan asuran sura-priyo

                  rajas-tamaskan praminoty urusravah




   yah--which; esah--this; rajan--O King; api--even; kalah--time; isita--the Supreme Lord; sattvam--the mode of goodness; sura-anikam--numbers of demigods; iva--certainly; edhayati--causes to increase; atah--hence; tat-pratyanikan--inimical to them; asuran--the demons; sura-priyah--being the friend of the demigods; rajah-tamaskan--covered by passion and ignorance; praminoti--destroys; uru-sravah--whose glories are widespread.




   O King, this time factor enhances the sattva-guna. Thus although the Supreme Lord is the controller, He favors the demigods, who are mostly situated in sattva-guna. Then the demons, who are influenced by tamo-guna, are annihilated. The Supreme Lord induces the time factor to act in different ways, but He is never partial. Rather, His activities are glorious, therefore He is called Urusrava.




   The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.29), samo'ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah: "I envy no one, nor am I partial to anyone. I am equal to all." The Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot be partial; He is always equal to everyone. Therefore when the demigods are favored and the demons killed, this is not His partiality but the influence of the time factor. A good example in this regard is that an electrician connects both a heater and a cooler to the same electrical energy. The cause of the heating and cooling is the electrician's manipulation of the electrical energy according to his desire, but factually the electrician has nothing to do with causing heat or cold, nor with the enjoyment or suffering that results.

   There have been many historical incidents in which the Lord killed a demon, but the demon attained a higher position by the mercy of the Lord. Putana is an example. Putana's purpose was to kill Krsna. Aho baki yam stana-kala-kutam. She approached the house of Nanda Maharaja with the purpose of killing Krsna by smearing poison on her breast, yet when she was killed she attained the highest position, achieving the status of Krsna's mother. Krsna is so kind and impartial that because he sucked Putana's breast, He immediately accepted her as His mother. This superfluous activity of killing Putana did not diminish the Lord's impartiality. He is suhrdam sama-bhutanam, the friend of everyone. Therefore partiality cannot apply to the character of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who always maintains His position as the supreme controller. The Lord killed Putana as an enemy, but because of His being the supreme controller, she attained an exalted position as His mother. Srila Madhva Muni therefore remarks, kale kala-visaye 'pisita. dehadi-karanatvat suranikam iva sthitam sattvam. Ordinarily a murderer is hanged, and in the Manu-samhita it is said that a king bestows mercy upon a murderer by killing him, thus saving him from various kinds of suffering. Because of his sinful activities, such a murderer is killed by the mercy of the king. Krsna, the supreme judge, deals with matters in a similar way because He is the supreme controller. The conclusion, therefore, is that the Lord is always impartial and always very kind to all living entities.


                               TEXT 13




                        atraivodahrtah purvam

                          itihasah surarsina

                       pritya maha-kratau rajan

                        prcchate 'jata-satrave




   atra--in this connection; eva--certainly; udahrtah--was recited; purvam--previously; itihasah--an old story; sura-rsina--by the great sage Narada; pritya--with joy; maha-kratau--at the great Rajasuya sacrifice; rajan--O King; prcchate--to the inquiring; ajata-satrave--Maharaja Yudhisthira, who had no enemy.




   Formerly, O King, when Maharaja Yudhisthira was performing the Rajasuya sacrifice, the great sage Narada, responding to his inquiry, recited historical facts showing how the Supreme Personality of Godhead is always impartial, even when killing demons. In this regard he gave a vivid example.




   This relates to how the Lord exhibited His impartiality even when killing Sisupala in the arena of the Rajasuya yajna performed by Maharaja Yudhisthira.


                             TEXTS 14-15




                       drstva mahadbhutam raja

                         rajasuye maha-kratau

                          vasudeve bhagavati

                       sayujyam cedibhu-bhujah


                         tatrasinam sura-rsim

                       raja pandu-sutah kratau

                        papraccha vismita-mana

                        muninam srnvatam idam




   drstva--after seeing; maha-adbhutam--greatly wonderful; raja--the King; rajasuye--called Rajasuya; maha-kratau--at the great sacrifice; vasudeve--into Vasudeva; bhagavati--the Personality of Godhead; sayujyam--merging; cedibhu-bhujah--of Sisupala, the King of Cedi; tatra--there; asinam--seated; sura-rsim--Narada Muni; raja--the King; pandu-sutah--Yudhisthira, the son of Pandu; kratau--at the sacrifice; papraccha--asked; vismita-manah--being struck with wonder; muninam--in the presence of the sages; srnvatam--listening; idam--this.




   O King, at the Rajasuya sacrifice, Maharaja Yudhisthira, the son of Maharaja Pandu, personally saw Sisupala merge into the body of the Supreme Lord, Krsna. Therefore, struck with wonder, he inquired about the reason for this from the great sage Narada, who was seated there. While he inquired, all the sages present also heard him ask his question.


                               TEXT 16




                        sri-yudhisthira uvaca

                       aho aty-adbhutam hy etad

                        durlabhaikantinam api

                         vasudeve pare tattve

                      praptis caidyasya vidvisah




   sri-yudhisthirah uvaca--Maharaja Yudhisthira said; aho--oh; ati-adbhutam--very wonderful; hi--certainly; etat--this; durlabha--difficult to attain; ekantinam--for the transcendentalists; api--even; vasudeve--in Vasudeva; pare--the supreme; tattve--Absolute Truth; praptih--the attainment; caidyasya--of Sisupala; vidvisah--envious.




   Maharaja Yudhisthira inquired: It is very wonderful that the demon Sisupala merged into the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead even though extremely envious. This sayujya-mukti is impossible to attain even for great transcendentalists. How then did the enemy of the Lord attain it?




   There are two classes of transcendentalists--the jnanis and the bhaktas. The bhaktas do not aspire to merge into the existence of the Lord, but the jnanis do. Sisupala, however, was neither a jnani nor a bhakta, yet simply by envy of the Lord he attained an exalted position by merging into the Lord's body. Certainly this was astonishing, and therefore Maharaja Yudhisthira inquired about the cause for the Lord's mysterious mercy to Sisupala.


                               TEXT 17




                        etad veditum icchamah

                         sarva eva vayam mune

                        bhagavan-nindaya veno

                        dvijais tamasi patitah




   etat--this; veditum--to know; icchamah--desire; sarve--all; eva--certainly; vayam--we; mune--O great sage; bhagavat-nindaya--because of blaspheming the Lord; venah--Vena, the father of Prthu Maharaja; dvijaih--by the brahmanas; tamasi--into hell; patitah--was thrown.




   O great sage, we are all eager to know the cause for this mercy of the Lord. I have heard that formerly a king named Vena blasphemed the Supreme Personality of Godhead and that all the brahmanas consequently obliged him to go to hell. Sisupala should also have been sent to hell. How then did he merge into the Lord's existence?


                               TEXT 18




                         damaghosa-sutah papa

                        arabhya kala-bhasanat

                       sampraty amarsi govinde

                       dantavakras ca durmatih




   damaghosa-sutah--Sisupala, the son of Damaghosa; papah--sinful; arabhya--beginning; kala-bhasanat--from the unclear speech of a child; samprati--even until now; amarsi--envious; govinde--toward Sri Krsna; dantavakrah--Dantavakra; ca--also; durmatih--evil-minded.




   From the very beginning of his childhood, when he could not even speak properly, Sisupala, the most sinful son of Damaghosa, began blaspheming the Lord, and he continued to be envious of Sri Krsna until death. Similarly, his brother Dantavakra continued the same habits.


                               TEXT 19




                        sapator asakrd visnum

                       yad brahma param avyayam

                       svitro na jato jihvayam

                       nandham vivisatus tamah




   sapatoh--of both Sisupala and Dantavakra, who were blaspheming; asakrt--repeatedly; visnum--Lord Krsna; yat--which; brahma param--the Supreme Brahman; avyayam--without diminution; svitrah--white leprosy; na--not; jatah--appeared; jihvayam--on the tongue; na--not; andham--dark; vivisatuh--they did enter; tamah--hell.




   Although these two men--Sisupala and Dantavakra--repeatedly blasphemed the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu [Krsna], the Supreme Brahman, they were quite healthy. Indeed, their tongues were not attacked by white leprosy, nor did they enter the darkest region of hellish life. We are certainly most surprised by this.




   Krsna is described by Arjuna in Bhagavad-gita (10.12) as follows: param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan. "You are the Supreme Brahman, the supreme abode and purifier." Herein this is confirmed. Visnum yad brahma param avyayam. The Supreme Visnu is Krsna. Krsna is the cause of Visnu, not vice versa. Similarly, Brahman is not the cause of Krsna; Krsna is the cause of Brahman. Therefore Krsna is the Parabrahman (yad brahma param avyayam).


                               TEXT 20




                       katham tasmin bhagavati


                        pasyatam sarva-lokanam

                         layam iyatur anjasa




   katham--how; tasmin--that; bhagavati--in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; duravagrahya--difficult to attain; dhamani--whose nature; pasyatam--looked on; sarva-lokanam--while all the people; layam iyatuh--became absorbed; anjasa--easily.




   How was it possible for Sisupala and Dantavakra in the presence of many exalted persons, to enter very easily into the body of Krsna, whose nature is difficult to attain?.




   Sisupala and Dantavakra were formerly Jaya and Vijaya, the doorkeepers of Vaikuntha. Merging into the body of Krsna was not their final destination. For some time they remained merged, and later they received the liberations of sarupya and salokya, living on the same planet as the Lord in the same bodily form. The sastras give evidence that if one blasphemes the Supreme Lord, his punishment is to remain in hellish life for many millions of years more than one suffers by killing many brahmanas. Sisupala, however, instead of entering hellish life, immediately and very easily received sayujya-mukti. That such a privilege had been offered to Sisupala was not merely a story. Everyone saw it happen; there was no scarcity of evidence. How did it happen? Maharaja Yudhisthira was very much surprised.


                               TEXT 21




                      etad bhramyati me buddhir

                         diparcir iva vayuna

                       bruhy etad adbhutatamam

                       bhagavan hy atra karanam




   etat--concerning this; bhramyati--is flickering; me--my; buddhih--intelligence; dipa-arcih--the flame of a candle; iva--like; vayuna--by the wind; bruhi--please tell; etat--this; adbhutatamam--most wonderful; bhagavan--possessing all knowledge; hi--indeed; atra--here; karanam--the cause.




   This matter is undoubtedly very wonderful. Indeed, my intelligence has become disturbed, just as the flame of a candle is disturbed by a blowing wind. O Narada Muni, you know everything. Kindly let me know the cause of this wonderful event.




   The sastras enjoin, tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet: when one is perplexed by the difficult problems of life, to solve them one must approach a guru like Narada or his representative in the disciplic succession. Maharaja Yudhisthira therefore requested Narada to explain the cause for such a wonderful event.


                               TEXT 22




                        sri-badarayanir uvaca

                       rajnas tad vaca akarnya

                         narado bhagavan rsih

                       tustah praha tam abhasya

                      srnvatyas tat-sadah kathah




   sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; rajnah--of the King (Yudhisthira); tat--those; vacah--words; akarnya--after hearing; naradah--Narada Muni; bhagavan--powerful; rsih--sage; tustah--being satisfied; praha--spoke; tam--him; abhasya--after addressing; srnvatyah tat-sadah--in the presence of the assembly members; kathah--the topics.




   Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: After hearing the request of Maharaja Yudhisthira, Narada Muni, the most powerful spiritual master, who knew everything, was very pleased. Thus he replied in the presence of everyone taking part in the yajna.


                               TEXT 23




                           sri-narada uvaca


                       nyakkarartham kalevaram

                        pradhana-parayo rajann

                          avivekena kalpitam




   sri-naradah uvaca--Sri Narada Muni said; nindana--blasphemy; stava--praise; satkara--honor; nyakkara--dishonor; artham--for the purpose of; kalevaram--body; pradhana-parayoh--of nature and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rajan--O King; avivekena--without discrimination; kalpitam--created.




   The great sage Sri Naradaji said: O King, blasphemy and praise, chastisement and respect, are experienced because of ignorance. The body of the conditioned soul is planned by the Lord for suffering in the material world through the agency of the external energy.




   In Bhagavad-gita (18.61) it is said:


                        isvarah sarva-bhutanam

                       hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

                       bhramayan sarva-bhutani

                         yantrarudhani mayaya


   "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of material energy." A material body is manufactured by the external energy according to the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The conditioned soul, being seated on this machine, wanders throughout the universe, and because of his bodily conception of life he only suffers. Actually the suffering of being blasphemed and the enjoyment of being praised, the acceptance of a good welcome or of chastisement by harsh words, are felt in the material conception of life; but since the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not material but sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, He is unaffected by insults or greetings, blasphemy or prayers. Being always unaffected and complete, He does not feel extra pleasure when offered nice prayers by the devotee, although the devotee benefits by offering prayers to the Lord. Indeed, the Lord is very kind to His so-called enemy because one who always thinks of the Personality of Godhead as an enemy also benefits, although he thinks of the Lord adversely. If a conditioned soul, thinking of the Lord as an enemy or a friend, somehow or other becomes attached to the Lord, he receives great benefit.


                               TEXT 24




                         himsa tad-abhimanena

                        danda-parusyayor yatha

                        vaisamyam iha bhutanam

                         mamaham iti parthiva




   himsa--suffering; tat--of this; abhimanena--by the false conception; danda-parusyayoh--when there is punishment and chastisement; yatha--just as; vaisamyam--misconception; iha--here (in this body); bhutanam--of the living entities; mama-aham--mine and I; iti--thus; parthiva--O lord of the earth.




   My dear King, the conditioned soul, being in the bodily conception of life, considers his body to be his self and considers everything in relationship with the body to be his. Because he has this wrong conception of life, he is subjected to dualities like praise and chastisement.




   Only when a conditioned soul accepts the body as himself does he feel the effects of chastisement or praise. Then he determines one person to be his enemy and another his friend and wants to chastise the enemy and welcome the friend. This creation of friends and enemies is a result of one's bodily conception of life.


                               TEXT 25




                      yan-nibaddho 'bhimano 'yam

                      tad-vadhat praninam vadhah

                       tatha na yasya kaivalyad

                        abhimano 'khilatmanah

                        parasya dama-kartur hi

                        himsa kenasya kalpyate




   yat--in which; nibaddhah--bound; abhimanah--false conception; ayam--this; tat--of that (body); vadhat--from the annihilation; praninam--of the living beings; vadhah--annihilation; tatha--similarly; na--not; yasya--of whom; kaivalyat--because of being absolute, one without a second; abhimanah--false conception; akhila-atmanah--of the Supersoul of all living entities; parasya--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dama-kartuh--the supreme controller; hi--certainly; himsa--harm; kena--how; asya--His; kalpyate--is performed.




   Because of the bodily conception of life, the conditioned soul thinks that when the body is annihilated the living being is annihilated. Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the supreme controller, the Supersoul of all living entities. Because He has no material body, He has no false conception of "I and mine." It is therefore incorrect to think that He feels pleasure or pain when blasphemed or offered prayers. This is impossible for Him. Thus He has no enemy and no friend. When He chastises the demons it is for their good, and when He accepts the prayers of the devotees it is for their good. He is affected neither by prayers nor by blasphemy.




   Because of being covered by material bodies, the conditioned souls, including even greatly learned scholars and falsely educated professors, all think that as soon as the body is finished, everything is finished. This is due to their bodily conception of life. Krsna has no such bodily conception, nor is His body different from His self. Therefore, since Krsna has no material conception of life, how can He be affected by material prayers and accusations? Krsna's body is described herewith as kaivalya, nondifferent from Himself. Since everyone has a material bodily conception of life, if Krsna had such a conception what would be the difference between Krsna and the conditioned soul? Krsna's instructions in Bhagavad-gita are accepted as final because He does not possess a material body. As soon as one has a material body he has four deficiencies, but since Krsna does not possess a material body, He has no deficiencies. He is always spiritually conscious and blissful. Isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah: His form is eternal, blissful knowledge. Sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah, ananda-cinmaya-rasa and kaivalya are the same.

   Krsna can expand Himself as Paramatma in the core of everyone's heart. In Bhagavad-gita (13.3) this is confirmed. Ksetrajnam capi mam viddhi sama-ksetresu bharata: the Lord is the Paramatma--the atma or Superself of all individual souls. Therefore it must naturally be concluded that He has no defective bodily conceptions. Although situated in everyone's body, He has no bodily conception of life. He is always free from such conceptions, and thus He cannot be affected by anything in relation to the material body of the jiva.

   Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (16.19):


                       tan aham dvisatah kruran

                         samsaresu naradhaman

                       ksipamy ajasram asubhan

                          asurisv eva yonisu


   "Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life." Whenever the Lord punishes persons like demons, however, such punishment is meant for the good of the conditioned soul. The conditioned soul, being envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, may accuse Him, saying, "Krsna is bad, Krsna is a thief" and so on, but Krsna, being kind to all living entities, does not consider such accusations. Instead, He takes account of the conditioned soul's chanting of "Krsna, Krsna" so many times. He sometimes punishes such demons for one life by putting them in a lower species, but then, when they have stopped accusing Him, they are liberated in the next life because of chanting Krsna's name constantly. Blaspheming the Supreme Lord or His devotee is not at all good for the conditioned soul, but Krsna, being very kind, punishes the conditioned soul in one life for such sinful activities and then takes him back home, back to Godhead. The vivid example for this is Vrtrasura, who was formerly Citraketu Maharaja, a great devotee. Because he derided Lord Siva, the foremost of all devotees, he had to accept the body of a demon called Vrtra, but then he was taken back to Godhead. Thus when Krsna punishes a demon or conditioned soul, He stops that soul's habit of blaspheming Him, and when the soul becomes completely pure, the Lord takes him back to Godhead.


                               TEXT 26




                        tasmad vairanubandhena

                        nirvairena bhayena va

                       snehat kamena va yunjyat

                       kathancin neksate prthak




   tasmat--therefore; vaira-anubandhena--by constant enmity; nirvairena--by devotion; bhayena--by fear; va--or; snehat--from affection; kamena--by lusty desires; va--or; yunjyat--one should concentrate; kathancit--somehow or other; na--not; iksate--sees; prthak--something else.




   Therefore by enmity or by devotional service, by fear, by affection or by lusty desire--by all of these or any one of them--if a conditioned soul somehow or other concentrates his mind upon the Lord, the result is the same, for the Lord, because of His blissful position, is never affected by enmity or friendship.




   From this verse one should not conclude that because Krsna is unaffected by favorable prayers or unfavorable blasphemy one should therefore blaspheme the Supreme Lord. This is not the regulative principle. Bhakti-yoga means anukulyena krsnanusilanam: one should serve Krsna very favorably. This is the real injunction. Here it is said that although an enemy thinks of Krsna unfavorably, the Lord is unaffected by such antidevotional service. Thus He offers His benedictions even to Sisupala and similarly inimical conditioned souls. This does not mean, however, that one should be inimical toward the Lord. The stress is given to the favorable execution of devotional service, not purposeful blasphemy of the Lord. It is said:


                      nindam bhagavatah srnvams

                        tat-parasya janasya va

                       tato napaiti yah so 'pi

                      yaty adhah sukrtac cyutah


   One who hears blasphemy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His devotees should immediately take action or should leave. Otherwise he will be put into hellish life perpetually. There are many such injunctions. Therefore as a regulative principle one should not be unfavorable toward the Lord but always favorably inclined toward Him.

   Sisupala's achievement of oneness with the Supreme Lord was different because Jaya and Vijaya, from the very beginning of their material existence, were ordained to treat the Supreme Lord as an enemy for three lives and then return home, back to Godhead. Jaya and Vijaya inwardly knew that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but they purposely became His enemies to be delivered from material life. From the very beginning of their lives they thought of Lord Krsna as an enemy, and even though blaspheming Lord Krsna, they chanted the holy name of Krsna constantly along with their inimical thoughts. Thus they were purified because of chanting the holy name of Krsna. It is to be understood that even a blasphemer can be freed from sinful activities by chanting the holy name of the Lord. Certainly, therefore, freedom is assured for a devotee who is always favorable to the service of the Lord. This will be clear from the following verse. By rapt attention fixed upon Krsna, one is purified, and thus one is delivered from material life.

   Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has very nicely explained the word bhayena, which means "by fear." When the gopis went to Krsna in the dead of night, they certainly feared chastisement by their relatives--their husbands, brothers and fathers--but nonetheless, not caring for their relatives, they went to Krsna. There was certainly fear, but this fear could not check their devotional service to Krsna.

   One should not mistakenly think that Lord Krsna must be worshiped by an inimical attitude like that of Sisupala. The injunction is anukulyasya grahanam pratikulyasya varjanam: one should give up unfavorable activities and accept only favorable conditions in devotional service. Generally, if one blasphemes the Supreme Personality of Godhead he is punished. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (16.19):


                       tan aham dvisatah kruran

                         samsaresu naradhaman

                       ksipamy ajasram asubhan

                          asurisv eva yonisu


   There are many such injunctions. One should not try to worship Krsna unfavorably; otherwise he must be punished, at least for one life, to be purified. As one should not try to be killed by embracing an enemy, a tiger or a snake, one should not blaspheme the Supreme Personality of Godhead and become His enemy in order to be put into hellish life.

   The purpose of this verse is to emphasize that even the enemy of the Lord can be delivered, not to speak of His friend. Srila Madhvacarya also says in many ways that one should not blaspheme Lord Visnu through one's mind, words or actions, for a blasphemer will go to hellish life along with his forefathers.


                         karmana manasa vaca

                      yo dvisyad visnum avyayam

                        majjanti pitaras tasya

                        narake sasvatih samah


   In Bhagavad-gita (16.19-20) the Lord says:


                       tan aham dvisatah kruran

                         samsaresu naradhaman

                       ksipamy ajasram asubhan

                          asurisv eva yonisu


                         asurim yonim apanna

                        mudha janmani janmani

                       mam aprapyaiva kaunteya

                       tato yanty adhamam gatim


   "Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life. Attaining repeated birth amongst the species of demoniac life, such persons can never approach Me. Gradually they sink down to the most abominable type of existence." One who blasphemes the Lord is put into a family of asuras, in which there is every chance of forgetting the service of the Lord. Lord Krsna further states in Bhagavad-gita (9.11-12):


                         avajananti mam mudha

                        manusim tanum asritam

                        param bhavam ajananto

                        mama bhuta-mahesvaram


   Mudhas, rascals, blaspheme the Supreme Lord because He appears exactly like a human being. They do not know the unlimited opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                        moghasa mogha-karmano

                        mogha-jnana vicetasah

                        raksasim asurim caiva

                       prakrtim mohinim sritah


   Anything done by those who have taken the attitude of enemies will be baffled (moghasah). If these enemies try to be liberated or to merge into the existence of Brahman, if they desire to be elevated to the higher planetary systems as karmis, or even if they desire to return home, back to Godhead, they will certainly be baffled.

   As for Hiranyakasipu, although he was extremely inimical toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he always thought of his son, who was a great devotee. Therefore by the grace of his son, Prahlada Maharaja, Hiranyakasipu was also delivered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                         hiranyakasipus capi

                        bhagavan-nindaya tamah

                        vivaksur atyagat sunoh



   The conclusion is that one should not give up pure devotional service. For one's own benefit, one should not imitate Hiranyakasipu or Sisupala. This is not the way to achieve success.


                               TEXT 27




                        yatha vairanubandhena

                       martyas tan-mayatam iyat

                        na tatha bhakti-yogena

                         iti me niscita matih




   yatha--as; vaira-anubandhena--by constant enmity; martyah--a person; tat-mayatam--absorption in Him; iyat--may attain; na--not; tatha--in a like manner; bhakti-yogena--by devotional service; iti--thus; me--my; niscita--definite; matih--opinion.




   Narada Muni continued: By devotional service one cannot achieve such intense absorption in thought of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as one can through enmity toward Him. That is my opinion.




   Sriman Narada Muni, the topmost pure devotee, praises Krsna's enemies like Sisupala because their minds are always completely absorbed in Krsna. Indeed, he thinks himself deficient in the inspiration of being feelingly absorbed in Krsna consciousness. This does not mean, however, that the enemies of Krsna are more elevated than Krsna's pure devotees. In the Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 5.205) Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami also thinks of himself in such a humble way:


                 jagai madhai haite muni se papistha

                purisera kita haite muni se laghistha


   "I am a worse sinner than Jagai and Madhai and am even lower than the worms in the stool." A pure devotee always thinks himself more deficient than everyone else. If a devotee approaches Srimati Radharani to offer some service to Krsna, even Srimati Radharani thinks that the devotee is greater than She. Thus Narada Muni says that according to his opinion the enemies of Krsna are better situated because they are fully absorbed in thoughts of Krsna in terms of killing Him, just as a very lusty man always thinks of women and their association.

   The essential point in this connection is that one should be fully absorbed in thoughts of Krsna, twenty-four hours a day. There are many devotees in raga-marga, which is exhibited in Vrndavana. Whether in dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vatsalya-rasa or madhurya-rasa, all the devotees of Krsna are always overwhelmed by thoughts of Krsna. When Krsna is away from Vrndavana tending the cows in the forest, the gopis, in the madhurya-rasa, are always absorbed in thoughts of how Krsna walks in the forest. The soles of His feet are so soft that the gopis would not dare keep His lotus feet on their soft breasts. Indeed, they consider their breasts a very hard place for the lotus feet of Krsna, yet those lotus feet wander in the forest, which is full of thorny plants. The gopis are absorbed in such thoughts at home, although Krsna is away from them. Similarly, when Krsna plays with His young friends, mother Yasoda is very much disturbed by thoughts that Krsna, because of always playing and not taking His food properly, must be getting weak. These are examples of the exalted ecstasy felt in Krsna's service as manifested in Vrndavana. This service is indirectly praised by Narada Muni in this verse. Especially for the conditioned soul, Narada Muni recommends that one somehow or other be absorbed in thoughts of Krsna, for that will save one from all the dangers of material existence. Full absorption in thought of Krsna is the highest platform of bhakti-yoga.


                             TEXTS 28-29




                       kitah pesaskrta ruddhah

                        kudyayam tam anusmaran


                        vindate tat-svarupatam


                         evam krsne bhagavati

                          maya-manuja isvare

                        vairena puta-papmanas

                         tam apur anucintaya




   kitah--the grassworm; pesaskrta--by a bee; ruddhah--confined; kudyayam--in a hole in a wall; tam--that (bee); anusmaran--thinking of; samrambha-bhaya-yogena--through intense fear and enmity; vindate--attains; tat--of that bee; sva-rupatam--the same form; evam--thus; krsne--in Krsna; bhagavati--the Personality of Godhead; maya-manuje--who appeared by His own energy in His eternal humanlike form; isvare--the Supreme; vairena--by enmity; puta-papmanah--those purified of sins; tam--Him; apuh--attained; anucintaya--by thinking of.




   A grassworm confined in a hole of a wall by a bee always thinks of the bee in fear and enmity and later becomes a bee simply because of such remembrance. Similarly, if the conditioned souls somehow or other think of Krsna, who is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, they will become free from their sins. Whether thinking of Him as their worshipable Lord or an enemy, because of constantly thinking of Him they will regain their spiritual bodies.




   In Bhagavad-gita (4.10) the Lord says:



                        man-maya mam upasritah

                         bahavo jnana-tapasa

                        puta mad-bhavam agatah


   "Being freed from attachment, fear and anger, being fully absorbed in Me and taking refuge in Me, many, many persons in the past became purified by knowledge of Me--and thus they all attained transcendental love for Me." There are two ways of constantly thinking of Krsna--as a devotee and as an enemy. A devotee, of course, by his knowledge and tapasya, becomes free from fear and anger and becomes a pure devotee. Similarly, an enemy, although thinking of Krsna inimically, thinks of Him constantly and also becomes purified. This is confirmed elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (9.30), where the Lord says:


                         api cet su-duracaro

                       bhajate mam ananya-bhak

                       sadhur eva sa mantavyah

                       samyag vyavasito hi sah


   "Even if one commits the most abominable actions, if he engages in devotional service he is to be considered saintly because he is properly situated." A devotee undoubtedly worships the Lord with rapt attention. Similarly, if an enemy (suduracarah) always thinks of Krsna, he also becomes a purified devotee. The example given here concerns the grassworm that becomes beelike because of constantly thinking of the bee that forces it to enter a hole. By always thinking of the bee in fear, the grassworm starts to become a bee. This is a practical example. Lord Krsna appears within this material world for two purposes--paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam: to protect the devotees and annihilate the demons. The sadhus and devotees certainly think of the Lord always, but duskrtis, the demons like Kamsa and Sisupala, also think of Krsna in terms of killing Him. By thinking of Krsna, both the demons and devotees attain liberation from the clutches of material maya.

   This verse uses the word maya-manuje. When Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears in His original spiritual potency (sambhavamy atma-mayaya), He is not forced to accept a form made by material nature. Therefore the Lord is addressed as isvara, the controller of maya. He is not controlled by maya. When a demon continuously thinks of Krsna because of enmity toward Him, he is certainly freed from the sinful reactions of his life. To think of Krsna in any way, in terms of His name, form, qualities, paraphernalia or anything pertaining to Him, is beneficial for everyone. Srnvatam sva-kathah krsnah punya-sravana-kirtanah. Thinking of Krsna, hearing the holy name of Krsna or hearing the pastimes of Krsna will make one pure, and then he will become a devotee. Our Krsna consciousness movement is therefore trying to introduce the system of somehow or other letting everyone hear the holy name of Krsna and take Krsna's prasada. Thus one will gradually become a devotee, and his life will be successful.


                               TEXT 30




                      kamad dvesad bhayat snehad

                       yatha bhaktyesvare manah

                        avesya tad-agham hitva

                       bahavas tad-gatim gatah




   kamat--from lust; dvesat--from hatred; bhayat--from fear; snehat--from affection; yatha--as well as; bhaktya--by devotion; isvare--in the Supreme; manah--the mind; avesya--absorbing; tat--of that; agham--sin; hitva--giving up; bahavah--many; tat--of that; gatim--path of liberation; gatah--attained.




   Many, many persons have attained liberation simply by thinking of Krsna with great attention and giving up sinful activities. This great attention may be due to lusty desires, inimical feelings, fear, affection or devotional service. I shall now explain how one receives Krsna's mercy simply by concentrating one's mind upon Him.




   As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.39):


              vikriditam vraja-vadhubhir idam ca visnoh

              sraddhanvito 'nusrnuyad atha varnayed yah

              bhaktim param bhagavati pratilabhya kamam

                hrd-rogam asv apahinoty acirena dhirah


   If a bona fide listener hears of Krsna's pastimes with the gopis, which seem to be lusty affairs, the lusty desires in his heart, which constitute the heart disease of the conditioned soul, will be vanquished, and he will become a most exalted devotee of the Lord. If one who hears of the gopis' lusty behavior with Krsna becomes free from lusty desires, certainly the gopis who approached Krsna became free from all such desires. Similarly, Sisupala and others who were very much envious of Krsna and who constantly thought of Krsna became free from envy. Nanda Maharaja and mother Yasoda were fully absorbed in Krsna consciousness because of affection. When the mind is somehow or other fully absorbed in Krsna, the material part is very soon vanquished, and the spiritual part--attraction to Krsna--becomes manifest. This indirectly confirms that if one thinks of Krsna enviously, simply because of thinking of Krsna he becomes free from all sinful reactions and thus becomes a pure devotee. Examples of this are given in the following verse.


                               TEXT 31




                      gopyah kamad bhayat kamso

                       dvesac caidyadayo nrpah

                      sambandhad vrsnayah snehad

                      yuyam bhaktya vayam vibho




   gopyah--the gopis; kamat--out of lusty desires; bhayat--out of fear; kamsah--King Kamsa; dvesat--out of envy; caidya-adayah--Sisupala and others; nrpah--kings; sambandhat--out of kinship; vrsnayah--the Vrsnis or the Yadavas; snehat--out of affection; yuyam--you (the Pandavas); bhaktya--by devotional service; vayam--we; vibho--O great King.




   My dear King Yudhisthira, the gopis by their lusty desires, Kamsa by his fear, Sisupala and other kings by envy, the Yadus by their familial relationship with Krsna, you Pandavas by your great affection for Krsna, and we, the general devotees, by our devotional service, have obtained the mercy of Krsna.




   Different persons achieve different types of mukti--sayujya, salokya, sarupya, samipya and sarsti--according to their own intense desire, which is called bhava. Thus it is described here that the gopis, by their lusty desires, which were based upon their intense love for Krsna, became the most beloved devotees of the Lord. Although the gopis at Vrndavana expressed their lusty desires in relationship with a paramour (parakiya-rasa), they actually had no lusty desires. This is significant of spiritual advancement. Their desires appeared lusty, but actually they were not the lusty desires of the material world. Caitanya-caritamrta compares the desires of the spiritual and material world to gold and iron. Both gold and iron are metal, but there is a vast difference in their value. The lusty desires of the gopis for Krsna are compared to gold, and material lusty desires are compared to iron.

   Kamsa and other enemies of Krsna merged into the existence of Brahman, but why should Krsna's friends and devotees have the same position? Krsna's devotees attain the association of the Lord as His constant companions, either in Vrndavana or in the Vaikuntha planets. Similarly, although Narada Muni wanders in the three worlds, he has exalted devotion for Narayana (aisvaryaman). The Vrsnis and Yadus and the father and mother of Krsna in Vrndavana all have familial relationships with Krsna; Krsna's foster father and mother in Vrndavana, however, are more exalted than Vasudeva and Devaki.


                               TEXT 32




                       katamo 'pi na venah syat

                        pancanam purusam prati

                        tasmat kenapy upayena

                        manah krsne nivesayet




   katamah api--anyone; na--not; venah--the atheistic King Vena; syat--would adopt; pancanam--of the five (previously mentioned); purusam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prati--in regard to; tasmat--therefore; kenapi--by any; upayena--means; manah--the mind; krsne--in Krsna; nivesayet--one should fix.




   Somehow or other, one must consider the form of Krsna very seriously. Then, by one of the five different processes mentioned above, one can return home, back to Godhead. Atheists like King Vena, however, being unable to think of Krsna's form in any of these five ways, cannot attain salvation. Therefore, one must somehow think of Krsna, whether in a friendly way or inimically.




   Impersonalists and atheists always try to circumvent the form of Krsna. Great politicians and philosophers of the modern age even try to banish Krsna from Bhagavad-gita. Consequently, for them there is no salvation. But Krsna's enemies think, "Here is Krsna, my enemy. I have to kill Him." They think of Krsna in His actual form, and thus they attain salvation. Devotees, therefore, who constantly think of Krsna's form, are certainly liberated. The only business of the Mayavadi atheists is to make Krsna formless, and consequently, because of this severe offense at the lotus feet of Krsna, they cannot expect salvation. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says in this connection: tena sisupaladi-bhinnah pratikula-bhavam didhisur yena iva narakam yatiti bhavah. Except for Sisupala, those who go against the regulative principles cannot attain salvation and are surely destined for hellish life. The regulative principle is that one must always think of Krsna, whether as a friend or enemy.


                               TEXT 33




                       matr-svasreyo vas caidyo

                        dantavakras ca pandava

                       parsada-pravarau visnor

                       vipra-sapat pada-cyutau




   matr-svasreyah--the son of the mother's sister (Sisupala); vah--your; caidyah--King Sisupala; dantavakrah--Dantavakra; ca--and; pandava--O Pandava; parsada-pravarau--two exalted attendants; visnoh--of Visnu; vipra--by brahmanas; sapat--because of a curse; pada--from their position in Vaikuntha; cyutau--fallen.




   Narada Muni continued: O best of the Pandavas, your two cousins Sisupala and Dantavakra, the sons of your maternal aunt, were formerly associates of Lord Visnu, but because they were cursed by brahmanas, they fell from Vaikuntha to this material world.




   Sisupala and Dantavakra were not ordinary demons, but were formerly personal associates of Lord Visnu. They apparently fell to this material world, but actually they came to assist the Supreme Personality of Godhead by nourishing His pastimes within this world.


                               TEXT 34




                        sri-yudhisthira uvaca

                        kidrsah kasya va sapo


                         asraddheya ivabhati

                        harer ekantinam bhavah




   sri-yudhisthirah uvaca--Maharaja Yudhisthira said; kidrsah--what kind of; kasya--whose; va--or; sapah--curse; hari-dasa--the servant of Hari; abhimarsanah--overcoming; asraddheyah--incredible; iva--as if; abhati--appears; hareh--of Hari; ekantinam--of those exclusively devoted as exalted attendants; bhavah--birth.




   Maharaja Yudhisthira inquired: What kind of great curse could affect even liberated visnu-bhaktas, and what sort of person could curse even the Lord's associates? For unflinching devotees of the Lord to fall again to this material world is impossible. I cannot believe this.




   In Bhagavad-gita (8.16) the Lord clearly states, mam upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate: one who is purified of material contamination and returns home, back to Godhead, does not return to this material world. Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (4.9) Krsna says:


                       janma karma ca me divyam

                       evam yo vetti tattvatah

                      tyaktva deham punar janma

                       naiti mam eti so 'rjuna


   "One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." Maharaja Yudhisthira, therefore, was surprised that a pure devotee could return to this material world. This is certainly a very important question.


                               TEXT 35







                         etad akhyatum arhasi




   deha--of a material body; indriya--material senses; asu--life breath; hinanam--of those devoid; vaikuntha-pura--of Vaikuntha; vasinam--of the residents; deha-sambandha--in a material body; sambaddham--bondage; etat--this; akhyatum arhasi--please describe.




   The bodies of the inhabitants of Vaikuntha are completely spiritual, having nothing to do with the material body, senses or life air. Therefore, kindly explain how associates of the Personality of Godhead were cursed to descend in material bodies like ordinary persons.




   This very significant question would be difficult for an ordinary person to answer, but Narada Muni, being an authority, could answer it. Therefore Maharaja Yudhisthira inquired from him, saying, etad akhyatum arhasi: "only you can explain the reason." From authoritative sources it can be discerned that associates of Lord Visnu who descend from Vaikuntha do not actually fall. They come with the purpose of fulfilling the desire of the Lord, and their descent to this material world is comparable to that of the Lord. The Lord comes to this material world through the agency of His internal potency, and similarly, when a devotee or associate of the Lord descends to this material world, he does so through the action of the spiritual energy. Any pastime conducted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead is an arrangement by yogamaya, not mahamaya. Therefore it is to be understood that when Jaya and Vijaya descended to this material world, they came because there was something to be done for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Otherwise it is a fact that no one falls from Vaikuntha.

   Of course, a living entity who desires sayujya-mukti remains in Krsna's Brahman effulgence, which is dependent on Krsna's body (brahmano hi pratisthaham). Such an impersonalist who takes shelter of the Brahman effulgence must surely fall down. This is stated in the sastra (Bhag. 10.2.32):


                 ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas

                tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah

                  aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah

                patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah


   "O Lord, the intelligence of those who think themselves liberated but who have no devotion is impure. Even though they rise to the highest point of liberation by dint of severe penances and austerities, they are sure to fall down again into material existence, for they do not take shelter at Your lotus feet." The impersonalists cannot reach the Vaikuntha planets to become associates of the Lord, and therefore, according to their desires, Krsna gives them sayujya-mukti. However, since sayujya-mukti is partial mukti, they must fall again to this material world. When it is said that the individual soul falls from Brahmaloka, this applies to the impersonalist.

   From authoritative sources it is learned that Jaya and Vijaya were sent to this material world to fulfill the Lord's desire to fight. The Lord also sometimes wants to fight, but who can fight with the Lord but a very confidential devotee of the Lord? Jaya and Vijaya descended to this world to fulfill the Lord's desire. Therefore in each of their three births--first as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu, second as Ravana and Kumbhakarna, and third as Sisupala and Dantavakra--the Lord personally killed them. In other words, these associates of the Lord, Jaya and Vijaya, descended to the material world to serve the Lord by fulfilling His desire to fight. Otherwise, as Maharaja Yudhisthira says, asraddheya ivabhati: the statement that a servant of the Lord could fall from Vaikuntha seems unbelievable. How Jaya and Vijaya came to this material world is explained by Narada Muni as follows.


                               TEXT 36




                           sri-narada uvaca

                        ekada brahmanah putra

                        visnu-lokam yadrcchaya

                         sanandanadayo jagmus

                        caranto bhuvana-trayam




   sri-naradah uvaca--Sri Narada Muni said; ekada--once upon a time; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; putrah--the sons; visnu--of Lord Visnu; lokam--the planet; yadrcchaya--by chance; sanandana-adayah--Sanandana and the others; jagmuh--went; carantah--traveling about; bhuvana-trayam--the three worlds.




   The great saint Narada said: Once upon a time when the four sons of Lord Brahma named Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat-kumara were wandering throughout the three worlds, they came by chance to Visnuloka.


                               TEXT 37





                        purvesam api purvajah

                       dig-vasasah sisun matva

                    dvah-sthau tan pratyasedhatam




   panca-sat-dha--five or six years; ayana--approaching; arbha-abhah--like boys; purvesam--the ancients of the universe (Marici and the rest); api--even though; purva-jah--born before; dik-vasasah--being naked; sisun--children; matva--thinking; dvah-sthau--the two gate guards, Jaya and Vijaya; tan--them; pratyasedhatam--forbade.




   Although these four great sages were older than Brahma's other sons like Marici, they appeared like small naked children only five or six years old. When Jaya and Vijaya saw them trying to enter Vaikunthaloka, these two gatekeepers, thinking them ordinary children, forbade them to enter.




   In this regard, Srila Madhvacarya says in his Tantra-sara:


              dvah-sthav ity anenadhikara-sthatvam uktam


                        adhikara-sthitas caiva

                       vimuktas ca dvidha janah

                       visnu-loka-sthitas tesam



                       adhikara-sthitam muktim

                        niyatam prapnuvanti ca

                       vimukty-anantaram tesam

                          vara-sapadayo nanu


                        dehendriyasu-yuktas ca

                     purvam pascan na tair yutah

                        apy abhimanibhis tesam

                      devaih svatmottamair yutah


   The purport is that the personal associates of Lord Visnu in Vaikunthaloka are always liberated souls. Even if sometimes cursed or blessed, they are always liberated and never contaminated by the material modes of nature. Before their liberation to Vaikunthaloka they possessed material bodies, but once they come to Vaikuntha they no longer have them. Therefore even if the associates of Lord Visnu sometimes descend as if cursed, they are always liberated.


                               TEXT 38




                          asapan kupita evam

                       yuvam vasam na carhathah

                        rajas-tamobhyam rahite

                        pada-mule madhudvisah

                        papistham asurim yonim

                        balisau yatam asv atah




   asapan--cursed; kupitah--being full of anger; evam--thus; yuvam--you two; vasam--residence; na--not; ca--and; arhathah--deserve; rajah-tamobhyam--from passion and ignorance; rahite--free; pada-mule--at the lotus feet; madhu-dvisah--of Visnu, the slayer of the Madhu demon; papistham--most sinful; asurim--demoniac; yonim--to a womb; balisau--O you two fools; yatam--go; asu--quickly hereafter; atah--therefore.




   Thus checked by the doorkeepers Jaya and Vijaya, Sanandana and the other great sages very angrily cursed them. "You two foolish doorkeepers," they said. "Being agitated by the material qualities of passion and ignorance, you are unfit to live at the shelter of Madhudvisa's lotus feet, which are free from such modes. It would be better for you to go immediately to the material world and take your birth in a family of most sinful asuras."


                               TEXT 39




                       evam saptau sva-bhavanat

                       patantau tau krpalubhih

                     proktau punar janmabhir vam

                       tribhir lokaya kalpatam




   evam--thus; saptau--being cursed; sva-bhavanat--from their abode, Vaikuntha; patantau--falling down; tau--those two (Jaya and Vijaya); krpalubhih--by the merciful sages (Sanandana, etc.); proktau--addressed; punah--again; janmabhih--with births; vam--your; tribhih--three; lokaya--for the position; kalpatam--let it be possible.




   While Jaya and Vijaya, thus cursed by the sages, were falling to the material world, they were addressed as follows by the same sages, who were very kind to them. "O doorkeepers, after three births you will be able to return to your positions in Vaikuntha, for then the duration of the curse will have ended."


                               TEXT 40




                       jajnate tau diteh putrau


                        hiranyakasipur jyestho

                       hiranyakso 'nujas tatah




   jajnate--were born; tau--the two; diteh--of Diti; putrau--the sons; daitya-danava--by all the demons; vanditau--being worshiped; hiranyakasipuh--Hiranyakasipu; jyesthah--the elder; hiranyaksah--Hiranyaksa; anujah--the younger; tatah--thereafter.




   These two associates of the Lord--Jaya and Vijaya--later descended to the material world, taking birth as the two sons of Diti, Hiranyakasipu being the elder and Hiranyaksa the younger. They were very much respected by the Daityas and Danavas [demoniac species].


                               TEXT 41




                         hato hiranyakasipur

                         harina simha-rupina

                        hiranyakso dharoddhare

                       bibhrata saukaram vapuh




   hatah--killed; hiranyakasipuh--Hiranyakasipu; harina--by Hari, Visnu; simha-rupina--in the form of a lion (Lord Narasimha); hiranyaksah--Hiranyaksa; dhara-uddhare--to lift the earth; bibhrata--assuming; saukaram--the boarlike; vapuh--form.




   Appearing as Nrsimhadeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Hari, killed Hiranyakasipu. When the Lord delivered the planet earth, which had fallen in the Garbhodaka Ocean, Hiranyaksa tried to hinder Him, and then the Lord, as Varaha, killed Hiranyaksa.


                               TEXT 42




                        hiranyakasipuh putram

                       prahladam kesava-priyam

                        jighamsur akaron nana

                         yatana mrtyu-hetave




   hiranyakasipuh--Hiranyakasipu; putram--son; prahladam--Prahlada Maharaja; kesava-priyam--the beloved devotee of Kesava; jighamsuh--desirous of killing; akarot--enacted; nana--various; yatanah--tortures; mrtyu--death; hetave--to cause.




   Desiring to kill his son Prahlada, who was a great devotee of Lord Visnu, Hiranyakasipu tortured him in many ways.


                               TEXT 43




                      tam sarva-bhutatma-bhutam

                       prasantam sama-darsanam

                       bhagavat-tejasa sprstam

                      nasaknod dhantum udyamaih




   tam--Him; sarva-bhuta-atma-bhutam--the soul in all entities; prasantam--peaceful and without hatred, etc.; sama-darsanam--equal to everyone; bhagavat-tejasa--with the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sprstam--protected; na--not; asaknot--was able; hantum--to kill; udyamaih--by great attempts and various weapons.




   The Lord, the Supersoul of all living entities, is sober, peaceful and equal to everyone. Since the great devotee Prahlada was protected by the Lord's potency, Hiranyakasipu was unable to kill him, in spite of endeavoring to do so in various ways.




   In this verse the word sarva-bhutatma-bhutam is very significant. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati: the Lord is equally situated in the core of everyone's heart. Thus He cannot be envious of anyone or friendly to anyone; for Him everyone is the same. Although He is sometimes seen to punish someone, this is exactly like a father's punishing his child for the child's welfare. The Supreme Lord's punishment is also a manifestation of the Lord's equality. Therefore the Lord is described as prasantam sama-darsanam. Although the Lord has to execute His will properly, He is equipoised in all circumstances. He is equally disposed toward everyone.


                               TEXT 44




                       tatas tau raksasau jatau

                       kesinyam visravah-sutau

                       ravanah kumbhakarnas ca





   tatah--thereafter; tau--the two doorkeepers (Jaya and Vijaya); raksasau--demons; jatau--born; kesinyam--in the womb of Kesini; visravah-sutau--the sons of Visrava; ravanah--Ravana; kumbhakarnah--Kumbhakarna; ca--and; sarva-loka--to all people; upatapanau--giving misery.




   Thereafter the same Jaya and Vijaya, the two doorkeepers of Lord Visnu, took birth as Ravana and Kumbhakarna, begotten by Visrava in the womb of Kesini. They were extremely troublesome to all the people of the universe.


                               TEXT 45




                        tatrapi raghavo bhutva

                        nyahanac chapa-muktaye

                      rama-viryam srosyasi tvam

                       markandeya-mukhat prabho




   tatra api--thereupon; raghavah--as Lord Ramacandra; bhutva--manifesting; nyahanat--killed; sapa-muktaye--for freedom from the curse; rama-viryam--the prowess of Lord Rama; srosyasi--will hear; tvam--you; markandeya-mukhat--from the lips of the sage Markandeya; prabho--O lord.




   Narada Muni continued: My dear King, just to relieve Jaya and Vijaya of the brahmanas' curse, Lord Ramacandra appeared in order to kill Ravana and Kumbhakarna. It will be better for you to hear narrations about Lord Ramacandra's activities from Markandeya.


                               TEXT 46




                       tav atra ksatriyau jatau

                        matr-svasratmajau tava

                        adhuna sapa-nirmuktau





   tau--the two; atra--here, in the third birth; ksatriyau--ksatriyas or kings; jatau--born; matr-svasr-atma-jau--the sons of the mother's sister; tava--your; adhuna--now; sapa-nirmuktau--freed from the curse; krsna-cakra--by the disc weapon of Krsna; hata--destroyed; amhasau--whose sins.




   In their third birth, the same Jaya and Vijaya appeared in a family of ksatriyas as your cousins, the sons of your aunt. Because Lord Krsna has struck them with His disc, all their sinful reactions have been destroyed, and now they are free from the curse.




   In their last birth, Jaya and Vijaya did not become demons or Raksasas. Instead they took birth in a very exalted ksatriya family related to Krsna's family. They became first cousins of Lord Krsna and were practically on an equal footing with Him. By personally killing them with His own disc, Lord Krsna destroyed whatever sinful reactions were left in them because of the curse of the brahmanas. Narada Muni explained to Maharaja Yudhisthira that by entering Krsna's body, Sisupala reentered Vaikunthaloka as the Lord's associate. Everyone had seen this incident.


                               TEXT 47






                      nitau punar hareh parsvam

                       jagmatur visnu-parsadau




   vaira-anubandha--bond of hatred; tivrena--consisting of acute; dhyanena--by meditation; acyuta-satmatam--to the effulgence of the infallible Lord; nitau--attained; punah--again; hareh--of Hari; parsvam--the proximity; jagmatuh--they reached; visnu-parsadau--the gatekeeper associates of Visnu.




   These two associates of Lord Visnu--Jaya and Vijaya--maintained a feeling of enmity for a very long time. Because of always thinking of Krsna in this way, they regained the shelter of the Lord, having returned home, back to Godhead.




   Whatever their position, certainly Jaya and Vijaya always thought of Krsna. Therefore at the end of the mausala-lila, these two associates of the Lord returned to Krsna. There is no difference between Krsna's body and Narayana's body. Therefore although they visibly entered the body of Krsna, they actually reentered Vaikunthaloka as the doorkeepers of Lord Visnu. Through Lord Krsna's body, they returned to Vaikuntha, although they seemed to have attained sayujya-mukti in Krsna's body.


                               TEXT 48




                        sri-yudhisthira uvaca

                         vidveso dayite putre

                        katham asin mahatmani

                        bruhi me bhagavan yena





   sri-yudhisthirah uvaca--Maharaja Yudhisthira said; vidvesah--hatred; dayite--for his own beloved; putre--son; katham--how; asit--there was; maha-atmani--the great soul, Prahlada; bruhi--please tell; me--unto me; bhagavan--O exalted sage; yena--by which; prahladasya--of Prahlada Maharaja; acyuta--to Acyuta; atmata--great attachment.




   Maharaja Yudhisthira inquired: O my lord, Narada Muni, why was there such enmity between Hiranyakasipu and his beloved son Prahlada Maharaja? How did Prahlada Maharaja become such a great devotee of Lord Krsna? Kindly explain this to me.




   All the devotees of Lord Krsna are called acyutatma because they follow in the footsteps of Prahlada Maharaja. Acyuta refers to the infallible Lord Visnu, whose heart is always infallible. Because the devotees are attached to the infallible, they are called acyutatma.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Seventh Canto, First Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Supreme Lord Is Equal to Everyone."

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