Canto 9: " Liberation"

                             Ninth Canto


                          Table of Contents


                             Chapter One

                    King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman


   This chapter describes how Sudyumna became a woman and how the dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu was amalgamated with the Soma-vamsa, the dynasty coming from the moon.

   By the desire of Maharaja Pariksit, Sukadeva Gosvami told about the dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu, who was formerly King Satyavrata, the ruler of Dravida. While describing this dynasty, he also described how the Supreme Personality of Godhead, while lying down in the waters of devastation, gave birth to Lord Brahma from a lotus generated from His navel. From the mind of Lord Brahma, Marici was generated, and his son was Kasyapa. From Kasyapa, through Aditi, Vivasvan was generated, and from Vivasvan came Sraddhadeva Manu, who was born from the womb of Samjna. Sraddhadeva's wife, Sraddha, gave birth to ten sons, such as Iksvaku and Nrga.

   Sraddhadeva, or Vaivasvata Manu, the father of Maharaja Iksvaku, was sonless before Iksvaku's birth, but by the grace of the great sage Vasistha he performed a yajna to satisfy Mitra and Varuna. Then, although Vaivasvata Manu wanted a son, by the desire of his wife he got a daughter named Ila. Manu, however, was not satisfied with the daughter. Consequently, for Manu's satisfaction, the great sage Vasistha prayed for Ila to be transformed into a boy, and his prayer was fulfilled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus Ila became a beautiful young man named Sudyumna.

   Once upon a time, Sudyumna went on tour with his ministers. At the foot of the mountain Sumeru there is a forest named Sukumara, and as soon as they entered that forest, they were all transformed into women. When Maharaja Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami about the reason for this transformation, Sukadeva Gosvami described how Sudyumna, being transformed into a woman, accepted Budha, the son of the moon, as her husband and had a son named Pururava. By the grace of Lord Siva, Sudyumna received the benediction that he would live one month as a woman and one month as a man. Thus he regained his kingdom and had three sons, named Utkala, Gaya and Vimala, who were all very religious. Thereafter, he entrusted his kingdom to Pururava and took the order of vanaprastha life.


                                TEXT 1





                         manvantarani sarvani

                        tvayoktani srutani me

                       viryany ananta-viryasya

                        hares tatra krtani ca




   sri-raja uvaca--King Pariksit said; manvantarani--all about the periods of the various Manus; sarvani--all of them; tvaya--by you; uktani--have been described; srutani--have been listened to; me--by me; viryani--wonderful activities; ananta-viryasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has unlimited potency; hareh--of the Supreme Lord, Hari; tatra--in those manvantara periods; krtani--which have been performed; ca--also.




   King Pariksit said: My lord, Sukadeva Gosvami, you have elaborately described all the periods of the various Manus and, within those periods, the wonderful activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has unlimited potency. I am fortunate to have heard all of this from you.


                              TEXTS 2-3




                       yo 'sau satyavrato nama

                        rajarsir dravidesvarah

                       jnanam yo 'tita-kalpante

                         lebhe purusa-sevaya


                       sa vai vivasvatah putro

                        manur asid iti srutam

                      tvattas tasya sutah prokta

                        iksvaku-pramukha nrpah




   yah asau--he who was known; satyavratah--Satyavrata; nama--by the name; raja-rsih--the saintly king; dravida-isvarah--the ruler of the Dravida countries; jnanam--knowledge; yah--one who; atita-kalpa-ante--at the end of the period of the last Manu, or at the end of the last millennium; lebhe--received; purusa-sevaya--by rendering service to the Supreme personality of Godhead; sah--he; vai--indeed; vivasvatah--of Vivasvan; putrah--son; manuh asit--became the Vaivasvata Manu; iti--thus; srutam--I have already heard; tvattah--from you; tasya--his; sutah--sons; proktah--have been explained; iksvaku-pramukhah--headed by Iksvaku; nrpah--many kings.




   Satyavrata, the saintly king of Dravidadesa who received spiritual knowledge at the end of the last millennium by the grace of the Supreme, later became Vaivasvata Manu, the son of Vivasvan, in the next manvantara [period of Manu]. I have received this knowledge from you. I also understand that such kings as Iksvaku were his sons, as you have already explained.


                                TEXT 4




                     tesam vamsam prthag brahman

                          vamsanucaritani ca

                        kirtayasva maha-bhaga

                       nityam susrusatam hi nah




   tesam--of all those kings; vamsam--the dynasties; prthak--separately; brahman--O great brahmana (Sukadeva Gosvami); vamsa-anucaritani ca--and their dynasties and characteristics; kirtayasva--kindly describe; maha-bhaga--O greatly fortunate one; nityam--eternally; susrusatam--who are engaged in your service; hi--indeed; nah--of ourselves.




   O greatly fortunate Sukadeva Gosvami, O great brahmana, kindly describe to us separately the dynasties and characteristics of all those kings, for we are always eager to hear such topics from you.


                                TEXT 5




                       ye bhuta ye bhavisyas ca

                       bhavanty adyatanas ca ye

                       tesam nah punya-kirtinam

                        sarvesam vada vikraman




   ye--all of whom; bhutah--have already appeared; ye--all of whom; bhavisyah--will appear in the future; ca--also; bhavanti--are existing; adyatanah--at present; ca--also; ye--all of whom; tesam--of all of them; nah--unto us; punya-kirtinam--who were all pious and celebrated; sarvesam--of all of them; vada--kindly explain; vikraman--about the abilities.




   Kindly tell us about the abilities of all the celebrated kings born in the dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu, including those who have already passed, those who may appear in the future, and those who exist at present.


                                TEXT 6




                            sri-suta uvaca

                         evam pariksita rajna

                        sadasi brahma-vadinam

                       prstah provaca bhagavan

                       chukah parama-dharma-vit




   sri-sutah uvaca--Sri Suta Gosvami said; evam--in this way; pariksita--by Maharaja Pariksit; rajna--by the King; sadasi--in the assembly; brahma-vadinam--of all the great saintly experts in Vedic knowledge; prstah--having been asked; provaca--answered; bhagavan--the most powerful; sukah--Suka Gosvami; parama-dharma-vit--the most learned scholar in religious principles.




   Suta Gosvami said: When Sukadeva Gosvami, the greatest knower of religious principles, was thus requested by Maharaja Pariksit in the assembly of all the scholars learned in Vedic knowledge, he then proceeded to speak.


                                TEXT 7




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        sruyatam manavo vamsah

                         pracuryena parantapa

                         na sakyate vistarato

                       vaktum varsa-satair api




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; sruyatam--just hear from me; manavah vamsah--the dynasty of Manu; pracuryena--as expansive as possible; parantapa--O King, who can subdue your enemies; na--not; sakyate--one is able; vistaratah--very broadly; vaktum--to speak; varsa-sataih api--even if he does so for hundreds of years.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O King, subduer of your enemies, now hear from me in great detail about the dynasty of Manu. I shall explain as much as possible, although one could not say everything about it, even in hundreds of years.


                                TEXT 8




                         paravaresam bhutanam

                        atma yah purusah parah

                        sa evasid idam visvam

                      kalpante 'nyan na kincana




   para-avaresam--of all living entities, in higher or lower statuses of life; bhutanam--of those who have taken material bodies (the conditioned souls); atma--the Supersoul; yah--one who is; purusah--the Supreme Person; parah--transcendental; sah--He; eva--indeed; asit--was existing; idam--this; visvam--universe; kalpa-ante--at the end of the millennium; anyat--anything else; na--not; kincana--anything whatsoever.




   The transcendental Supreme Person, the Supersoul of all living entities, who are in different statuses of life, high and low, existed at the end of the millennium, when neither this manifested cosmos nor anything else but Him existed.




   Taking the proper position from which to describe the dynasty of Manu, Sukadeva Gosvami begins by saying that when the entire world is inundated, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead exists, and nothing else. Sukadeva Gosvami will now describe how the Lord creates other things, one after another.


                                TEXT 9




                       tasya nabheh samabhavat

                        padma-koso hiranmayah

                        tasmin jajne maharaja

                       svayambhus catur-ananah




   tasya--of Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); nabheh--from the navel; samabhavat--generated; padma-kosah--a lotus; hiranmayah--known as Hiranmaya, or golden; tasmin--on that golden lotus; jajne--appeared; maharaja--O King; svayambhuh--one who is self-manifested, who takes birth without a mother; catuh-ananah--with four heads.




   O King Pariksit, from the navel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead was generated a golden lotus, on which the four-faced Lord Brahma took his birth.


                               TEXT 10




                        maricir manasas tasya

                        jajne tasyapi kasyapah

                       daksayanyam tato 'dityam

                        vivasvan abhavat sutah




   maricih--the great saintly person known as Marici; manasah tasya--from the mind of Lord Brahma; jajne--took birth; tasya api--from Marici; kasyapah--Kasyapa (took birth); daksayanyam--in the womb of the daughter of Maharaja Daksa; tatah--thereafter; adityam--in the womb of Aditi; vivasvan--Vivasvan; abhavat--took birth; sutah--a son.




   From the mind of Lord Brahma, Marici took birth, and from the semen of Marici, Kasyapa appeared from the womb of the daughter of Daksa Maharaja. From Kasyapa, by the womb of Aditi, Vivasvan took birth.


                             TEXTS 11-12




                       tato manuh sraddhadevah

                        samjnayam asa bharata

                        sraddhayam janayam asa

                        dasa putran sa atmavan




                       narisyantam prsadhram ca

                       nabhagam ca kavim vibhuh




   tatah--from Vivasvan; manuh sraddhadevah--the Manu named Sraddhadeva; samjnayam--in the womb of Samjna (the wife of Vivasvan); asa--was born; bharata--O best of the Bharata dynasty; sraddhayam--in the womb of Sraddha (the wife of Sraddhadeva); janayam asa--begot; dasa--ten; putran--sons; sah--that Sraddhadeva; atmavan--having conquered his senses; iksvaku-nrga-saryati-dista-dhrsta-karusakan--named Iksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Dista, Dhrsta and Karusaka; narisyantam--Narisyanta; prsadhram ca--and Prsadhra; nabhagam ca--and Nabhaga; kavim--Kavi; vibhuh--the great.




   O King, best of the Bharata dynasty, from Vivasvan, by the womb of Samjna, Sraddhadeva Manu was born. Sraddhadeva Manu, having conquered his senses, begot ten sons in the womb of his wife, Sraddha. The names of these sons were Iksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Dista, Dhrsta, Karusaka, Narisyanta, Prsadhra, Nabhaga and Kavi.


                               TEXT 13




                        aprajasya manoh purvam

                        vasistho bhagavan kila

                        mitra-varunayor istim

                       prajartham akarod vibhuh




   aprajasya--of he who had no son; manoh--of Manu; purvam--formerly; vasisthah--the great saint Vasistha; bhagavan--powerful; kila--indeed; mitra-varunayoh--of the demigods named Mitra and Varuna; istim--a sacrifice; praja-artham--for the sake of getting sons; akarot--executed; vibhuh--the great person.




   Manu at first had no sons. Therefore, in order to get a son for him, the great saint Vasistha, who was very powerful in spiritual knowledge, performed a sacrifice to satisfy the demigods Mitra and Varuna.


                               TEXT 14




                      tatra sraddha manoh patni

                          hotaram samayacata

                        duhitrartham upagamya

                         pranipatya payovrata




   tatra--in that sacrifice; sraddha--Sraddha; manoh--of Manu; patni--the wife; hotaram--to the priest performing the yajna; samayacata--begged properly; duhitr-artham--for a daughter; upagamya--coming near; pranipatya--offering obeisances; payah-vrata--who was observing the vow of drinking only milk.




   During that sacrifice, Sraddha, Manu's wife, who was observing the vow of subsisting only by drinking milk, approached the priest offering the sacrifice, offered obeisances to him and begged for a daughter.


                               TEXT 15




                       presito 'dhvaryuna hota

                        vyacarat tat samahitah

                          grhite havisi vaca

                       vasat-karam grnan dvijah




   presitah--being told to execute the sacrifice; adhvaryuna--by the rtvik priest; hota--the priest in charge of offering oblations; vyacarat--executed; tat--that (sacrifice); samahitah--with great attention; grhite havisi--upon taking the clarified butter for the first oblation; vaca--by chanting the mantra; vasat-karam--the mantra beginning with the word vasat; grnan--reciting; dvijah--the brahmana.




   Told by the chief priest "Now offer oblations," the person in charge of oblations took clarified butter to offer. He then remembered the request of Manu's wife and performed the sacrifice while chanting the word "vasat."


                               TEXT 16




                        hotus tad-vyabhicarena

                        kanyela nama sabhavat

                       tam vilokya manuh praha

                         natitustamana gurum




   hotuh--of the priest; tat--of the yajna; vyabhicarena--by that transgression; kanya--a daughter; ila--Ila; nama--by the name; sa--that daughter; abhavat--was born; tam--unto her; vilokya--seeing; manuh--Manu; praha--said; na--not; atitustamanah--very much satisfied; gurum--unto his guru.




   Manu had begun that sacrifice for the sake of getting a son, but because the priest was diverted by the request of Manu's wife, a daughter named Ila was born. Upon seeing the daughter, Manu was not very satisfied. Thus he spoke to his guru, Vasistha, as follows.




   Because Manu had no issue, he was pleased at the birth of the child, even though a daughter, and gave her the name Ila. Later, however, he was not very satisfied to see the daughter instead of a son. Because he had no issue, he was certainly very glad at the birth of Ila, but his pleasure was temporary.


                               TEXT 17




                       bhagavan kim idam jatam

                       karma vo brahma-vadinam

                        viparyayam aho kastam

                      maivam syad brahma-vikriya




   bhagavan--O my lord; kim idam--what is this; jatam--born; karma--fruitive activities; vah--of all of you; brahma-vadinam--of you, who are expert in chanting the Vedic mantras; viparyayam--deviation; aho--alas; kastam--painful; ma evam syat--thus it should not have been; brahma-vikriya--this opposite action of the Vedic mantras.




   My lord, all of you are expert in chanting the Vedic mantras. How then has the result been opposite to the one desired? This is a matter for lamentation. There should not have been such a reversal of the results of the Vedic mantras.




   In this age, the performance of yajna has been forbidden because no one can properly chant the Vedic mantras. If Vedic mantras are chanted properly, the desire for which a sacrifice is performed must be successful. Therefore the Hare Krsna chant is called the maha-mantra, the great, exalted mantra above all other Vedic mantras, because simply chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra brings so many beneficial effects. As explained by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (Siksastaka 1):


         ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam

        sreyah-kairava-candrika-vitaranam vidya-vadhu-jivanam

         anandambudhi-vardhanam prati-padam purnamrtasvadanam

        sarvatma-snapanam param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam


   "Glory to the Sri Krsna sankirtana, which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated birth and death. This sankirtana movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious."

   Therefore, the best performance of yajna given to us is the sankirtana-yajna. Yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah (Bhag. 11.5.32). Those who are intelligent take advantage of the greatest yajna in this age by chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra in congregation. When the Hare Krsna mantra is chanted by many men together, the chanting is called sankirtana, and as a result of such a yajna there will be clouds in the sky (yajnad bhavati parjanyah). In these days of drought, people can gain relief from scarcity of rain and food by the simple method of the Hare Krsna yajna. Indeed, this can relieve all of human society. At present there are droughts throughout Europe and America, and people are suffering, but if people take this Krsna consciousness movement seriously, if they stop their sinful activities and chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, all their problems will be solved without difficulty. In other processes of yajna there are difficulties because there are no learned scholars who can chant the mantras perfectly well, nor is it possible to secure the ingredients to perform the yajna. Because human society is poverty-stricken and men are devoid of Vedic knowledge and the power to chant the Vedic mantras, the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is the only shelter. people should be intelligent enough to chant it. Yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah. Those whose brains are dull cannot understand this chanting, nor can they take to it.


                               TEXT 18




                       yuyam brahma-vido yuktas

                        tapasa dagdha-kilbisah

                       kutah sankalpa-vaisamyam

                         anrtam vibudhesv iva




   yuyam--of all you; brahma-vidah--completely in awareness of the Absolute Truth; yuktah--self-controlled and well balanced; tapasa--by dint of austerity and penances; dagdha-kilbisah--all kinds of material contamination having been burnt out; kutah--then how; sankalpa-vaisamyam--discrepancy in the matter of determination; anrtam--false promise, false statement; vibudhesu--in the society of the demigods; iva--or.




   You are all self-controlled, well balanced in mind, and aware of the Absolute Truth. And because of austerities and penances you are completely cleansed of all material contamination. Your words, like those of the demigods, are never baffled. Then how is it possible that your determination has failed?




   We have learned from many Vedic literatures that a benediction or curse given by the demigods never proves false. By performing austerities and penances, by controlling the senses and mind, and by achieving full knowledge of the Absolute Truth, one is fully cleansed of material contamination. Then one's words and blessings, like those of the demigods, are never a failure.


                               TEXT 19




                       nisamya tad vacas tasya

                        bhagavan prapitamahah

                       hotur vyatikramam jnatva

                        babhase ravi-nandanam




   nisamya--after hearing; tat vacah--those words; tasya--of him (Manu); bhagavan--the most powerful; prapitamahah--the great-grandfather Vasistha; hotuh vyatikramam--discrepancy on the part of the hota priest; jnatva--understanding; babhase--spoke; ravi-nandanam--unto Vaivasvata Manu, son of the sun-god.




   The most powerful great-grandfather Vasistha, after hearing these words of Manu, understood the discrepancy on the part of the priest. Thus he spoke as follows to the son of the sun-god.


                               TEXT 20




                       etat sankalpa-vaisamyam

                        hotus te vyabhicaratah

                        tathapi sadhayisye te

                       suprajastvam sva-tejasa




   etat--this; sankalpa-vaisamyam--discrepancy in the objective; hotuh--of the priest; te--your; vyabhicaratah--from deviating from the prescribed purpose; tatha api--still; sadhayisye--I shall execute; te--for you; su-prajastvam--a very nice son; sva-tejasa--by my own prowess.




   This discrepancy in the objective is due to your priest's deviation from the original purpose. However, by my own prowess I shall give you a good son.


                               TEXT 21




                         evam vyavasito rajan

                        bhagavan sa maha-yasah

                         astausid adi-purusam

                        ilayah pumstva-kamyaya




   evam--thus; vyavasitah--deciding; rajan--O King Pariksit; bhagavan--the most powerful; sah--Vasistha; maha-yasah--very famous; astausit--offered prayers; adi-purusam--unto the Supreme Person, Lord Visnu; ilayah--of Ila; pumstva-kamyaya--for the transformation into a male.




   Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King Pariksit, after the most famous and powerful Vasistha made this decision, he offered prayers to the Supreme Person, Visnu, to transform Ila into a male.


                               TEXT 22




                       tasmai kama-varam tusto

                        bhagavan harir isvarah

                         dadav ilabhavat tena

                       sudyumnah purusarsabhah




   tasmai--unto him (Vasistha); kama-varam--the desired benediction; tustah--being pleased; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality; harih isvarah--the supreme controller, the Lord; dadau--gave; ila--the girl, Ila; abhavat--became; tena--because of this benediction; sudyumnah--by the name Sudyumna; purusa-rsabhah--a nice male.




   The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, being pleased with Vasistha, gave him the benediction he desired. Thus Ila was transformed into a very fine male named Sudyumna.


                             TEXTS 23-24




                          sa ekada maharaja

                         vicaran mrgayam vane

                        vrtah katipayamatyair

                       asvam aruhya saindhavam


                        pragrhya ruciram capam

                       sarams ca paramadbhutan

                        damsito 'numrgam viro

                         jagama disam uttaram




   sah--Sudyumna; ekada--once upon a time; maharaja--O King Pariksit; vicaran--touring; mrgayam--for hunting; vane--in the forest; vrtah--accompanied; katipaya--a few; amatyaih--by ministers or associates; asvam--upon a horse; aruhya--riding; saindhavam--born in the Sindhupradesa; pragrhya--holding in hand; ruciram--beautiful; capam--bow; saran ca--and arrows; parama-adbhutan--very wonderful, uncommon; damsitah--wearing armor; anumrgam--behind the animals; virah--the hero; jagama--went toward; disam uttaram--the north.




   O King Pariksit, that hero Sudyumna, accompanied by a few ministers and associates and riding on a horse brought from Sindhupradesa, once went into the forest to hunt. He wore armor and was decorated with bows and arrows, and he was very beautiful. While following the animals and killing them, he reached the northern part of the forest.


                               TEXT 25




                         sukumara-vanam meror

                        adhastat pravivesa ha

                       yatraste bhagavan charvo

                          ramamanah sahomaya




   sukumara-vanam--the forest known as Sukumara; meroh adhastat--at the foot of Mount Meru; pravivesa ha--he entered; yatra--wherein; aste--was; bhagavan--the most powerful (demigod); sarvah--Lord Siva; ramamanah--engaged in enjoyment; saha umaya--with Uma, his wife.




   There in the north, at the bottom of Mount Meru, is a forest known as Sukumara where Lord Siva always enjoys with Uma. Sudyumna entered that forest.


                               TEXT 26




                        tasmin pravista evasau

                        sudyumnah para-vira-ha

                       apasyat striyam atmanam

                        asvam ca vadavam nrpa




   tasmin--in that forest; pravistah--having entered; eva--indeed; asau--he; sudyumnah--Prince Sudyumna; para-vira-ha--who could very well subdue his enemies; apasyat--observed; striyam--female; atmanam--himself; asvam ca--and his horse; vadavam--a mare; nrpa--O King Pariksit.




   O King Pariksit, as soon as Sudyumna, who was expert in subduing enemies, entered the forest, he saw himself transformed into a female and his horse transformed into a mare.


                               TEXT 27




                        tatha tad-anugah sarve


                       drstva vimanaso 'bhuvan

                        viksamanah parasparam




   tatha--similarly; tat-anugah--the companions of Sudyumna; sarve--all of them; atma-linga-viparyayam--the transformation of their sex into the opposite; drstva--seeing; vimanasah--morose; abhuvan--they became; viksamanah--looking over; parasparam--one another.




   When his followers also saw their identities transformed and their sex reversed, they were all very morose and just looked at one another.


                               TEXT 28





                        katham evam guno desah

                        kena va bhagavan krtah

                       prasnam enam samacaksva

                       param kautuhalam hi nah




   sri-raja uvaca--Maharaja Pariksit said; katham--how; evam--this; gunah--quality; desah--the country; kena--why; va--either; bhagavan--O most powerful; krtah--it was so done; prasnam--question; enam--this; samacaksva--just deliberate; param--very much; kautuhalam--eagerness; hi--indeed; nah--our.




   Maharaja Pariksit said: O most powerful brahmana, why was this place so empowered, and who made it so powerful? Kindly answer this question, for I am very eager to hear about this.


                               TEXT 29




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        ekada girisam drastum

                        rsayas tatra suvratah

                         diso vitimirabhasah

                        kurvantah samupagaman




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; ekada--once upon a time; girisam--Lord Siva; drastum--to see; rsayah--very saintly persons; tatra--in that forest; su-vratah--highly elevated in spiritual power; disah--all directions; vitimira-abhasah--having been cleared of all darkness whatsoever; kurvantah--doing so; samupagaman--arrived.




   Sukadeva Gosvami answered: Great saintly persons who strictly observed the spiritual rules and regulations and whose own effulgence dissipated all the darkness of all directions once came to see Lord Siva in that forest.


                               TEXT 30




                        tan vilokyambika devi

                        vivasa vridita bhrsam

                       bhartur ankat samutthaya

                       nivim asv atha paryadhat




   tan--all the saintly persons; vilokya--seeing them; ambika--mother Durga; devi--the goddess; vivasa--because she was naked; vridita--ashamed; bhrsam--highly; bhartuh--of her husband; ankat--from the lap; samutthaya--getting up; nivim--breast; asu atha--very quickly; paryadhat--covered with cloth.




   When the goddess Ambika saw the great saintly persons, she was very much ashamed because at that time she was naked. She immediately got up from the lap of her husband and tried to cover her breast.


                               TEXT 31




                        rsayo 'pi tayor viksya

                        prasangam ramamanayoh

                       nivrttah prayayus tasman





   rsayah--all the great saintly persons; api--also; tayoh--of both of them; viksya--seeing; prasangam--engagement in sexual matters; ramamanayoh--who were enjoying in that way; nivrttah--desisted from going further; prayayuh--immediately departed; tasmat--from that place; nara-narayana-asramam--to the asrama of Nara-Narayana.




   Seeing Lord Siva and Parvati engaged in sexual affairs, all the great saintly persons immediately desisted from going further and departed for the asrama of Nara-Narayana.


                               TEXT 32




                        tad idam bhagavan aha

                        priyayah priya-kamyaya

                      sthanam yah pravised etat

                       sa vai yosid bhaved iti




   tat--because; idam--this; bhagavan--Lord Siva; aha--said; priyayah--of his dear wife; priya-kamyaya--for the pleasure; sthanam--place; yah--anyone who; praviset--will enter; etat--here; sah--that person; vai--indeed; yosit--female; bhavet--shall become; iti--thus.




   Thereupon, just to please his wife, Lord Siva said, "Any male entering this place shall immediately become a female!"


                               TEXT 33




                      tata urdhvam vanam tad vai

                         purusa varjayanti hi

                         sa canucara-samyukta

                         vicacara vanad vanam




   tatah urdhvam--from that time onward; vanam--forest; tat--that; vai--in particular; purusah--males; varjayanti--do not enter; hi--indeed; sa--Sudyumna in the form of a woman; ca--also; anucara-samyukta--accompanied by his companions; vicacara--walked; vanat vanam--within the forest from one place to another.




   Since that time, no male had entered that forest. But now King Sudyumna, having been transformed into a female, began to walk with his associates from one forest to another.




   In Bhagavad-gita (2.22) it is said:


                     vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya

                     navani grhnati naro 'parani

                    tatha sarirani vihaya jirnany

                      anyani samyati navani dehi


   "As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones."

   The body is just like a dress, and here this is proved. Sudyumna and his associates were all male, which means that their souls were covered by male dress, but now they became female, which means that their dress was changed. The soul, however, remains the same. It is said that by modern medical treatment a male can be transformed into a female, and a female into a male. The body, however, has no connection with the soul. The body can be changed, either in this life or the next. Therefore, one who has knowledge of the soul and how the soul transmigrates from one body to another does not pay attention to the body, which is nothing but a covering dress. Panditah sama-darsinah. Such a person sees the soul, which is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Therefore he is a sama-darsi, a learned person.


                               TEXT 34




                        atha tam asramabhyase

                        carantim pramadottamam

                      stribhih parivrtam viksya

                        cakame bhagavan budhah




   atha--in this way; tam--her; asrama-abhyase--in the neighborhood of his asrama; carantim--loitering; pramada-uttamam--the best of beautiful women who excite sex; stribhih--by other women; parivrtam--surrounded; viksya--seeing her; cakame--desired sex; bhagavan--the most powerful; budhah--Budha, the son of the moon and predominating deity of the planet known as Budha, or Mercury.




   Sudyumna had been transformed into the best of beautiful women who excite sexual desire and was surrounded by other women. Upon seeing this beautiful woman loitering near his asrama, Budha, the son of the moon, immediately desired to enjoy her.


                               TEXT 35




                       sapi tam cakame subhruh

                         somaraja-sutam patim

                        sa tasyam janayam asa

                         pururavasam atmajam




   sa--Sudyumna, transformed into a woman; api--also; tam--unto him (Budha); cakame--desired sex; su-bhruh--very beautiful; somaraja-sutam--unto the son of the king of the moon; patim--as her husband; sah--he (Budha); tasyam--in her womb; janayam asa--begot; pururavasam--named Pururava; atma-jam--a son.




   The beautiful woman also desired to accept Budha, the son of the king of the moon, as her husband. Thus Budha begot in her womb a son named Pururava.


                               TEXT 36




                       evam stritvam anupraptah

                        sudyumno manavo nrpah

                        sasmara sa kulacaryam

                        vasistham iti susruma




   evam--in this way; stritvam--femininity; anupraptah--having achieved in that way; sudyumnah--the male named Sudyumna; manavah--the son of Manu; nrpah--the king; sasmara--remembered; sah--he; kula-acaryam--the familial spiritual master; vasistham--the most powerful Vasistha; iti susruma--I have heard it (from reliable sources).




   I heard from reliable sources that King Sudyumna, the son of Manu, having thus achieved femininity, remembered his familial spiritual master, Vasistha.


                               TEXT 37




                      sa tasya tam dasam drstva

                         krpaya bhrsa-piditah

                      sudyumnasyasayan pumstvam

                         upadhavata sankaram




   sah--he, Vasistha; tasya--of Sudyumna; tam--that; dasam--condition; drstva--seeing; krpaya--out of mercy; bhrsa-piditah--being very much aggrieved; sudyumnasya--of Sudyumna; asayan--desiring; pumstvam--the maleness; upadhavata--began to worship; sankaram--Lord Siva.




   Upon seeing Sudyumna's deplorable condition, Vasistha was very much aggrieved. Desiring for Sudyumna to regain his maleness, Vasistha again began to worship Lord Sankara [Siva].


                             TEXTS 38-39




                      tustas tasmai sa bhagavan

                         rsaye priyam avahan

                      svam ca vacam rtam kurvann

                          idam aha visampate


                        masam puman sa bhavita

                       masam stri tava gotrajah

                       ittham vyavasthaya kamam

                        sudyumno 'vatu medinim




   tustah--being pleased; tasmai--unto Vasistha; sah--he (Lord Siva); bhagavan--the most powerful; rsaye--unto the great sage; priyam avahan--just to please him; svam ca--his own; vacam--word; rtam--true; kurvan--and keeping; idam--this; aha--said; visampate--O King Pariksit; masam--one month; puman--male; sah--Sudyumna; bhavita--will become; masam--an other month; stri--female; tava--your; gotra-jah--disciple born in your disciplic succession; ittham--in this way; vyavasthaya--by settlement; kamam--according to desire; sudyumnah--King Sudyumna; avatu--may rule; medinim--the world.




   O King Pariksit, Lord Siva was pleased with Vasistha. Therefore, to satisfy him and to keep his own word to Parvati, Lord Siva said to that saintly person, "Your disciple Sudyumna may remain a male for one month and a female for the next. In this way he may rule the world as he likes."




   The word gotrajah is significant in this connection. Brahmanas generally act as spiritual masters of two dynasties. One is their disciplic succession, and the other is the dynasty born of their semen. Both descendants belong to the same gotra, or dynasty. In the Vedic system we sometimes find that both brahmanas and ksatriyas and even vaisyas come in the disciplic succession of the same rsis. Because the gotra and dynasty are one, there is no difference between the disciples and the family born of the semen. The same system still prevails in Indian society, especially in regard to marriage, for which the gotra is calculated. Here the word gotrajah refers to those born in the same dynasty, whether they be disciples or members of the family.


                               TEXT 40




                         acaryanugrahat kamam

                     labdhva pumstvam vyavasthaya

                         palayam asa jagatim

                     nabhyanandan sma tam prajah




   acarya-anugrahat--by the mercy of the spiritual master; kamam--desired; labdhva--having achieved; pumstvam--maleness; vyavasthaya--by this settlement of Lord Siva; palayam asa--he ruled; jagatim--the whole world; na abhyanandan sma--were not satisfied with; tam--to the king; prajah--the citizens.




   Thus being favored by the spiritual master, according to the words of Lord Siva, Sudyumna regained his desired maleness every alternate month and in this way ruled the kingdom, although the citizens were not satisfied with this.




   The citizens could understand that the king was transformed into a female every alternate month and therefore could not discharge his royal duty. Consequently they were not very satisfied.


                               TEXT 41




                        tasyotkalo gayo rajan

                       vimalas ca trayah sutah


                       babhuvur dharma-vatsalah




   tasya--of Sudyumna; utkalah--by the name Utkala; gayah--by the name Gaya; rajan--O King Pariksit; vimalah ca--and Vimala; trayah--three; sutah--sons; daksina-patha--of the southern part of the world; rajanah--kings; babhuvuh--they became; dharma-vatsalah--very religious.




   O King, Sudyumna had three very pious sons, named Utkala, Gaya and Vimala, who became the kings of the Daksina-patha.


                               TEXT 42




                         tatah parinate kale

                      pratisthana-patih prabhuh

                          pururavasa utsrjya

                        gam putraya gato vanam




   tatah--thereafter; parinate kale--when the time was ripe; pratisthana-patih--the master of the kingdom; prabhuh--very powerful; pururavase--unto Pururava; utsrjya--delivering; gam--the world; putraya--unto his son; gatah--departed; vanam--to the forest.




   Thereafter, when the time was ripe, when Sudyumna, the king of the world, was sufficiently old, he delivered the entire kingdom to his son Pururava and entered the forest.




   According to the Vedic system, one within the institution of varna and asrama must leave his family life after he reaches fifty years of age (pancasad urdhvam vanam vrajet). Thus Sudyumna followed the prescribed regulations of varnasrama by leaving the kingdom and going to the forest to complete his spiritual life.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, First Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman."

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