Chapter Eight

               The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva


   In this Eighth Chapter the descendants of Rohita are described. In the dynasty of Rohita there was a king named Sagara, whose history is described in relation to Kapiladeva and the destruction of the sons of Sagara.

   The son of Rohita was known as Harita, and the son of Harita was Campa, who constructed a township known as Campapuri. The son of Campa was Sudeva, the son of Sudeva was Vijaya, the son of Vijaya was Bharuka, and the son of Bharuka was Vrka. Bahuka, the son of Vrka, was greatly disturbed by his enemies, and therefore he left home with his wife and went to the forest. When he died there, his wife wanted to accept the principles of sati, dying with her husband, but when she was about to die a sage named Aurva found that she was pregnant and forbade her to do so. The co-wives of this wife of Bahuka gave her poison with her food, but still her son was born with the poison. The son was therefore named Sagara (sa means "with," and gara means "poison"). Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, King Sagara reformed many clans, including the Yavanas, Sakas, Haihayas and Barbaras. The king did not kill them, but reformed them. Then, again following the instructions of Aurva, King Sagara performed asvamedha sacrifices, but the horse needed for such a sacrifice was stolen by Indra, the King of heaven. King Sagara had two wives, named Sumati and Kesini. While searching for the horse, the sons of Sumati extensively dug up the surface of the earth and in this way dug a trench, which later became known as the Sagara Ocean. In the course of this search, they came upon the great personality Kapiladeva and thought Him to have stolen the horse. With this offensive understanding, they attacked Him and were all burned to ashes. Kesini, the second wife of King Sagara, had a son named Asamanjasa, whose son Amsuman later searched for the horse and delivered his uncles. Upon approaching Kapiladeva, Amsuman saw both the horse meant for sacrifice and a pile of ashes. Amsuman offered prayers to Kapiladeva, who was very pleased by his prayers and who returned the horse. After getting back the horse, however, Amsuman still stood before Kapiladeva, and Kapiladeva could understand that Amsuman was praying for the deliverance of his forefathers. Thus Kapiladeva offered the instruction that they could be delivered by water from the Ganges. Amsuman then offered respectful obeisances to Kapiladeva, circumambulated Him, and left that place with the horse for sacrifice. When King Sagara finished his yajna, he handed over the kingdom to Amsuman and, following the advice of Aurva, attained salvation.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                         harito rohita-sutas

                       campas tasmad vinirmita

                         campapuri sudevo 'to

                        vijayo yasya catmajah




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; haritah--the king named Harita; rohita-sutah--the son of King Rohita; campah--by the name Campa; tasmat--from Harita; vinirmita--was constructed; campa-puri--the township known as Campapuri; sudevah--by the name Sudeva; atah--thereafter (from Campa); vijayah--by the name Vijaya; yasya--of whom (Sudeva); ca--also; atma-jah--the son.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: The son of Rohita was Harita, and Harita's son was Campa, who constructed the town of Campapuri. The son of Campa was Sudeva, and his son was Vijaya.


                                TEXT 2




                      bharukas tat-sutas tasmad

                        vrkas tasyapi bahukah

                       so 'ribhir hrta-bhu raja

                        sabharyo vanam avisat




   bharukah--by the name Bharuka; tat-sutah--the son of Vijaya; tasmat--from him (Bharuka); vrkah--by the name Vrka; tasya--his; api--also; bahukah--by the name Bahuka; sah--he, the King; aribhih--by his enemies; hrta-bhuh--his land having been taken away; raja--the King (Bahuka); sa-bharyah--with his wife; vanam--the forest; avisat--entered.




   The son of Vijaya was Bharuka, Bharuka's son was Vrka, and Vrka's son was Bahuka. The enemies of King Bahuka took away all his possessions, and therefore the King entered the order of vanaprastha and went to the forest with his wife.


                                TEXT 3




                     vrddham tam pancatam praptam

                         mahisy anumarisyati

                         aurvena janatatmanam

                         prajavantam nivarita




   vrddham--when he was old; tam--him; pancatam--death; praptam--who had obtained; mahisi--the queen; anumarisyati--who wanted to die with him and become sati; aurvena--by the great sage Aurva; janata--understanding that; atmanam--the body of the queen; praja-vantam--bore a son within the womb; nivarita--was forbidden.




   Bahuka died when he was old, and one of his wives wanted to die with him, following the sati rite. At that time, however, Aurva Muni, knowing her to be pregnant, forbade her to die.


                                TEXT 4




                        ajnayasyai sapatnibhir

                       garo datto 'ndhasa saha

                        saha tenaiva sanjatah

                        sagarakhyo maha-yasah

                       sagaras cakravarty asit

                       sagaro yat-sutaih krtah




   ajnaya--knowing (this); asyai--unto that pregnant queen; sapatnibhih--by the co-wives of the wife of Bahuka; garah--poison; dattah--was given; andhasa saha--with her food; saha tena--with that poison; eva--also; sanjatah--was born; sagara-akhyah--by the name Sagara; maha-yasah--having a great reputation; sagarah--King Sagara; cakravarti--the emperor; asit--became; sagarah--the place known as Gangasagara; yat-sutaih--by the sons of whom; krtah--was excavated.




   Knowing that she was pregnant, the co-wives of the wife of Bahuka conspired to give her poison with her food, but it did not act. Instead, the son was born along with the poison. Therefore he became famous as Sagara ["one who is born with poison"]. Sagara later became the emperor. The place known as Gangasagara was excavated by his sons.


                              TEXTS 5-6




                       yas talajanghan yavanan

                       chakan haihaya-barbaran

                        navadhid guru-vakyena

                         cakre vikrta-vesinah


                    mundan chmasru-dharan kamscin


                       anantar-vasasah kamscid

                         abahir-vasaso 'paran




   yah--Maharaja Sagara who; talajanghan--the uncivilized clan named Talajangha; yavanan--persons averse to the Vedic literature; sakan--another class of atheist; haihaya--the uncivilized; barbaran--and the Barbaras; na--not; avadhit--did kill; guru-vakyena--by the order of his spiritual master; cakre--made them; vikrta-vesinah--dressed awkwardly; mundan--shaved clean; smasru-dharan--wearing mustaches; kamscit--some of them; mukta-kesa--loose hair; ardha-munditan--half-shaven; anantah-vasasah--without underwear; kamscit--some of them; abahih-vasasah--without covering garments; aparan--others.




   Sagara Maharaja, following the order of his spiritual master, Aurva, did not kill the uncivilized men like the Talajanghas, Yavanas, Sakas, Haihayas and Barbaras. Instead, some of them he made dress awkwardly, some of them he shaved clean but allowed to wear mustaches, some of them he left wearing loose hair, some he half shaved, some he left without underwear, and some without external garments. Thus these different clans were made to dress differently, but King Sagara did not kill them.


                                TEXT 7




                        so 'svamedhair ayajata



                        harim atmanam isvaram

                       tasyotsrstam pasum yajne

                        jaharasvam purandarah




   sah--he, Maharaja Sagara; asvamedhaih--by performing asvamedha-yajnas; ayajata--worshiped; sarva-veda--of all Vedic knowledge; sura--and of all learned sages; atmakam--the Supersoul; aurva-upadista-yogena--by the mystic yoga practice advised by Aurva; harim--unto the Supreme personality of Godhead; atmanam--unto the Supersoul; isvaram--unto the supreme controller; tasya--of him (Sagara Maharaja); utsrstam--which was meant for offering; pasum--the sacrificial animal; yajne--in the sacrifice; jahara--stole; asvam--the horse; purandarah--the King of heaven, Indra.




   Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, Sagara Maharaja performed asvamedha sacrifices and thus satisfied the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme controller, the Supersoul of all learned scholars, and the knower of all Vedic knowledge, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But Indra, the King of heaven, stole the horse meant to be offered at the sacrifice.


                                TEXT 8




                        sumatyas tanaya drptah

                         pitur adesa-karinah

                         hayam anvesamanas te

                       samantan nyakhanan mahim




   sumatyah tanayah--the sons born of Queen Sumati; drptah--very proud of their prowess and influence; pituh--of their father (Maharaja Sagara); adesa-karinah--following the order; hayam--the horse (stolen by Indra); anvesamanah--while seeking; te--all of them; samantat--everywhere; nyakhanan--dug; mahim--the earth.




   [King Sagara had two wives, Sumati and Kesini.] The sons of Sumati, who were very proud of their prowess and influence, following the order of their father, searched for the lost horse. While doing so, they dug into the earth very extensively.


                              TEXTS 9-10




                       prag-udicyam disi hayam

                         dadrsuh kapilantike

                         esa vaji-haras caura

                         aste milita-locanah


                        hanyatam hanyatam papa

                         iti sasti-sahasrinah

                          udayudha abhiyayur

                         unmimesa tada munih




   prak-udicyam--in the northeastern; disi--direction; hayam--the horse; dadrsuh--they saw; kapila-antike--near the asrama of Kapila; esah--here is; vaji-harah--the horse thief; caurah--the thief; aste--existing; milita-locanah--with closed eyes; hanyatam hanyatam--kill him, kill him; papah--a most sinful person; iti--in this way; sasti-sahasrinah--the sixty thousand sons of Sagara; udayudhah--raising their respective weapons; abhiyayuh--they approached; unmimesa--opened His eyes; tada--at that time; munih--Kapila Muni.




   Thereafter, in the northeastern direction, they saw the horse near the asrama of Kapila Muni. "Here is the man who has stolen the horse," they said. "He is staying there with closed eyes. Certainly he is very sinful. Kill him! Kill him!" Shouting like this, the sons of Sagara, sixty thousand all together, raised their weapons. When they approached the sage, the sage opened His eyes.


                               TEXT 11




                        sva-sariragnina tavan



                       bhasmasad abhavan ksanat




   sva-sarira-agnina--by the fire emanating from their own bodies; tavat--immediately; mahendra--by the tricks of Indra, the King of heaven; hrta-cetasah--their consciousness having been taken away; mahat--a great personality; vyatikrama-hatah--defeated by the fault of insulting; bhasmasat--turned to ashes; abhavan--became; ksanat--immediately.




   By the influence of Indra, the King of heaven, the sons of Sagara had lost their intelligence and disrespected a great personality. Consequently, fire emanated from their own bodies, and they were immediately burned to ashes.




   The material body is a combination of earth, water, fire, air and ether. There is already fire within the body, and our practical experience is that the heat of this fire sometimes increases and sometimes decreases. The fire within the bodies of the sons of Sagara Maharaja became so much hotter that all of them burned to ashes. The fire's increased heat was due to their misbehavior toward a great personality. Such misbehavior is called mahad-vyatikrama. They were killed by the fire of their own bodies because of insulting a great personality.


                               TEXT 12




                   na sadhu-vado muni-kopa-bharjita

                  nrpendra-putra iti sattva-dhamani

                   katham tamo rosamayam vibhavyate

                  jagat-pavitratmani khe rajo bhuvah




   na--not; sadhu-vadah--the opinion of learned persons; muni-kopa--by the anger of Kapila Muni; bharjitah--were burned to ashes; nrpendra-putrah--all the sons of Sagara Maharaja; iti--thus; sattva-dhamani--in Kapila Muni, in whom the mode of goodness was predominant; katham--how; tamah--the mode of ignorance; rosa-mayam--manifested in the form of anger; vibhavyate--can be manifested; jagat-pavitra-atmani--in He whose body can purify the whole world; khe--in the sky; rajah--dust; bhuvah--earthly.




   It is sometimes argued that the sons of King Sagara were burned to ashes by the fire emanating from the eyes of Kapila Muni. This statement, however, is not approved by great learned persons, for Kapila Muni's body is completely in the mode of goodness and therefore cannot manifest the mode of ignorance in the form of anger, just as the pure sky cannot be polluted by the dust of the earth.


                               TEXT 13




                  yasyerita sankhyamayi drdheha naur

                   yaya mumuksus tarate duratyayam

                 bhavarnavam mrtyu-patham vipascitah

                 paratma-bhutasya katham prthan-matih




   yasya--by whom; irita--had been explained; sankhya-mayi--having the form of the philosophy analyzing the material world (Sankhya philosophy); drdha--very strong (to deliver people from this material world); iha--in this material world; nauh--a boat; yaya--by which; mumuksuh--a person desiring to be liberated; tarate--can cross over; duratyayam--very difficult to cross; bhava-arnavam--the ocean of nescience; mrtyu-patham--a material life of repeated birth and death; vipascitah--of a learned person; paratma-bhutasya--who has been elevated to the transcendental platform; katham--how; prthak-matih--a sense of distinction (between enemy and friend).




   Kapila Muni enunciated in this material world the Sankhya philosophy, which is a strong boat with which to cross over the ocean of nescience. Indeed, a person eager to cross the ocean of the material world may take shelter of this philosophy. In such a greatly learned person, situated on the elevated platform of transcendence, how can there be any distinction between enemy and friend?




   One who is promoted to the transcendental position (brahma-bhuta) is always jubilant (prasannatma). He is unaffected by the false distinctions between good and bad in the material world. Therefore, such an exalted person is samah sarvesu bhutesu; that is to say, he is equal toward everyone, not distinguishing between friend and enemy. Because he is on the absolute platform, free from material contamination, he is called paratma-bhuta or brahma-bhuta. Kapila Muni, therefore, was not at all angry at the sons of Sagara Maharaja; rather, they were burnt to ashes by the heat of their own bodies.


                               TEXT 14




                       yo 'samanjasa ity uktah

                        sa kesinya nrpatmajah

                       tasya putro 'msuman nama

                         pitamaha-hite ratah




   yah--one of the sons of Sagara Maharaja; asamanjasah--whose name was Asamanjasa; iti--as such; uktah--known; sah--he; kesinyah--in the womb of Kesini, the other queen of Sagara Maharaja; nrpa-atmajah--the son of the King; tasya--of him (Asamanjasa); putrah--the son; amsuman nama--was known as Amsuman; pitamaha-hite--in doing good for his grandfather, Sagara Maharaja; ratah--always engaged.




   Among the sons of Sagara Maharaja was one named Asamanjasa, who was born from the King's second wife, Kesini. The son of Asamanjasa was known as Amsuman, and he was always engaged in working for the good of Sagara Maharaja, his grandfather.


                             TEXTS 15-16




                          asamanjasa atmanam

                        darsayann asamanjasam

                       jati-smarah pura sangad

                         yogi yogad vicalitah


                         acaran garhitam loke

                       jnatinam karma vipriyam

                        sarayvam kridato balan

                       prasyad udvejayan janam




   asamanjasah--the son of Sagara Maharaja; atmanam--personally; darsayan--exhibiting; asamanjasam--very disturbing; jati-smarah--able to remember his past life; pura--formerly; sangat--from bad association; yogi--although he was a great mystic yogi; yogat--from the path of executing mystic yoga; vicalitah--fell down; acaran--behaving; garhitam--very badly; loke--in the society; jnatinam--of his relatives; karma--activities; vipriyam--not very favorable; sarayvam--in the River Sarayu; kridatah--while engaged in sports; balan--all the boys; prasyat--would throw; udvejayan--giving trouble; janam--to people in general.




   Formerly, in his previous birth, Asamanjasa had been a great mystic yogi, but by bad association he had fallen from his exalted position. Now, in this life, he was born in a royal family and was a jati-smara; that is, he had the special advantage of being able to remember his past birth. Nonetheless, he wanted to display himself as a miscreant, and therefore he would do things that were abominable in the eyes of the public and unfavorable to his relatives. He would disturb the boys sporting in the River Sarayu by throwing them into the depths of the water.


                               TEXT 17




                       evam vrttah parityaktah

                       pitra sneham apohya vai

                       yogaisvaryena balams tan

                        darsayitva tato yayau




   evam vrttah--thus engaged (in abominable activities); parityaktah--condemned; pitra--by his father; sneham--affection; apohya--giving up; vai--indeed; yoga-aisvaryena--by mystic power; balan tan--all those boys (thrown in the water and killed); darsayitva--after again showing them all to their parents; tatah yayau--he left that place.




   Because Asamanjasa engaged in such abominable activities, his father gave up affection for him and had him exiled. Then Asamanjasa exhibited his mystic power by reviving the boys and showing them to the King and their parents. After this, Asamanjasa left Ayodhya.




   Asamanjasa was a jati-smara; because of his mystic power, he did not forget his previous consciousness. Thus he could give life to the dead. By exhibiting wonderful activities in relation to the dead children, he certainly attracted the attention of the King and the people in general. Then he left that place immediately.


                               TEXT 18




                        ayodhya-vasinah sarve

                         balakan punar agatan

                        drstva visismire rajan

                        raja capy anvatapyata




   ayodhya-vasinah--the inhabitants of Ayodhya; sarve--all of them; balakan--their sons; punah--again; agatan--having come back to life; drstva--after seeing this; visismire--became astounded; rajan--O King Pariksit; raja--King Sagara; ca--also; api--indeed; anvatapyata--very much lamented (the absence of his son).




   O King Pariksit, when all the inhabitants of Ayodhya saw that their boys had come back to life, they were astounded, and King Sagara greatly lamented the absence of his son.


                               TEXT 19




                        amsumams codito rajna

                         turaganvesane yayau


                        bhasmanti dadrse hayam




   amsuman--the son of Asamanjasa; coditah--being ordered; rajna--by the King; turaga--the horse; anvesane--to search for; yayau--went out; pitrvya-khata--as described by his father's brothers; anupatham--following that path; bhasma-anti--near the stack of ashes; dadrse--he saw; hayam--the horse.




   Thereafter, Amsuman, the grandson of Maharaja Sagara, was ordered by the King to search for the horse. Following the same path traversed by his uncles, Amsuman gradually reached the stack of ashes and found the horse nearby.


                               TEXT 20




                       tatrasinam munim viksya

                        kapilakhyam adhoksajam

                        astaut samahita-manah

                       pranjalih pranato mahan




   tatra--there; asinam--seated; munim--the great sage; viksya--seeing; kapila-akhyam--known as Kapila Muni; adhoksajam--the incarnation of Visnu; astaut--offered prayers; samahita-manah--with great attention; pranjalih--with folded hands; pranatah--falling down, offered obeisances; mahan--Amsuman, the great personality.




   The great Amsuman saw the sage named Kapila, the saint who is an incarnation of Visnu, sitting there by the horse. Amsuman offered Him respectful obeisances, folded his hands and offered Him prayers with great attention.


                               TEXT 21




                            amsuman uvaca

                  na pasyati tvam param atmano 'jano

                 na budhyate 'dyapi samadhi-yuktibhih

                  kuto 'pare tasya manah-sarira-dhi-

                    visarga-srsta vayam aprakasah




   amsuman uvaca--Amsuman said; na--not; pasyati--can see; tvam--Your Lordship; param--transcendental; atmanah--of us living beings; ajanah--Lord Brahma; na--not; budhyate--can understand; adya api--even today; samadhi--by meditation; yuktibhih--or by mental speculation; kutah--how; apare--others; tasya--his; manah-sarira-dhi--who consider the body or mind to be the self; visarga-srstah--created beings within the material world; vayam--we; aprakasah--without transcendental knowledge.




   Amsuman said: My Lord, even Lord Brahma is to this very day unable to understand Your position, which is far beyond himself, either by meditation or by mental speculation. So what to speak of others like us, who have been created by Brahma in various forms as demigods, animals, human beings, birds and beasts? We are completely in ignorance. Therefore, how can we know You, who are the Transcendence?





                        dvandva-mohena bharata

                        sarva-bhutani sammoham

                        sarge yanti parantapa


   "O scion of Bharata [Arjuna], O conqueror of the foe, all living entities are born into delusion, overcome by the dualities of desire and hate." (Bg. 7.27) All living beings in the material world are influenced by the three modes of material nature. Even Lord Brahma is in the mode of goodness. Similarly, the demigods are generally in the mode of passion, and living entities lower than the demigods, such as human beings and animals, are in the mode of ignorance, or in mixed goodness, passion and ignorance. Therefore Amsuman wanted to explain that because his uncles, who had burnt to ashes, were under the modes of material nature, they could not understand Lord Kapiladeva. "Because You are beyond even the direct and indirect intelligence of Lord Brahma," he prayed, "unless we are enlightened by Your Lordship it will not be possible for us to understand You."


                   athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-

                     prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi

                   janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno

                   na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan


   "My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years." (Bhag. 10.14.29) The Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can be understood by one who is favored by the Lord; the Lord cannot be understood by others.


                               TEXT 22




                   ye deha-bhajas tri-guna-pradhana

                   gunan vipasyanty uta va tamas ca

                    yan-mayaya mohita-cetasas tvam

                 viduh sva-samstham na bahih-prakasah




   ye--those persons who; deha-bhajah--have accepted the material body; tri-guna-pradhanah--influenced by the three modes of material nature; gunan--the manifestation of the three modes of material nature; vipasyanti--can see only; uta--it is so said; va--either; tamah--the mode of ignorance; ca--and; yat-mayaya--by the illusory energy of whom; mohita--has been bewildered; cetasah--the core of whose heart; tvam--Your Lordship; viduh--know; sva-samstham--situated in one's own body; na--not; bahih-prakasah--those who can see only the products of external energy.




   My Lord, You are fully situated in everyone's heart, but the living entities, covered by the material body, cannot see You, for they are influenced by the external energy, conducted by the three modes of material nature. Their intelligence being covered by sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna, they can see only the actions and reactions of these three modes of material nature. Because of the actions and reactions of the mode of ignorance, whether the living entities are awake or sleeping, they can see only the workings of material nature; they cannot see Your Lordship.




   Unless one is situated in the transcendental loving service of the Lord, one is unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord is situated in everyone's heart. However, because the conditioned souls are influenced by material nature, they can see only the actions and reactions of material nature, but not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One therefore must purify himself internally and externally:


                         apavitrah pavitro va

                       sarvavastham gato 'pi va

                       yah smaret pundarikaksam

                       sa bahyabhyantarah sucih


   To keep ourselves externally clean we should bathe three times daily, and for internal cleanliness we must cleanse the heart by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra. The members of the Krsna consciousness movement must always follow this principle (bahyabhyantarah sucih). Then it will one day be possible to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face.


                               TEXT 23




                 tam tvam aham jnana-ghanam svabhava-


                  sanandanadyair munibhir vibhavyam

                    katham vimudhah paribhavayami




   tam--that personality; tvam--unto You; aham--I; jnana-ghanam--Your Lordship, who are concentrated knowledge; svabhava--by spiritual nature; pradhvasta--free from contamination; maya-guna--caused by the three modes of material nature; bheda-mohaih--by exhibition of the bewilderment of differentiation; sanandana-adyaih--by such personalities as the four Kumaras (Sanat-kumara, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanatana); munibhih--by such great sages; vibhavyam--worshipable; katham--how; vimudhah--being fooled by the material nature; paribhavayami--can I think of You.




   O my Lord, sages freed from the influence of the three modes of material nature--sages such as the four Kumaras [Sanat, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanatana]--are able to think of You, who are concentrated knowledge. But how can an ignorant person like me think of You?




   The word svabhava refers to one's own spiritual nature or original constitutional position. When situated in this original position, the living entity is unaffected by the modes of material nature. Sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate (Bg. 14.26). As soon as one is freed from the influence of the three modes of material nature, he is situated on the Brahman platform. Vivid examples of personalities thus situated are the four Kumaras and Narada. Such authorities can by nature understand the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but a conditioned soul not freed from the influence of material nature is unable to realize the Supreme. In Bhagavad-gita (2.45), therefore, Krsna advises Arjuna, traigunya-visaya veda nistraigunyo bhavarjuna: one must rise above the influence of the three modes of material nature. One who stays within the influence of the three material modes is unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 24




                   prasanta maya-guna-karma-lingam

                    anama-rupam sad-asad-vimuktam

                      jnanopadesaya grhita-deham

                    namamahe tvam purusam puranam




   prasanta--O completely peaceful one; maya-guna--the modes of material nature; karma-lingam--symptomized by fruitive activities; anama-rupam--one who has no material name or form; sat-asat-vimuktam--transcendental to the manifested and nonmanifested modes of material nature; jnana-upadesaya--for distributing transcendental knowledge (as in Bhagavad-gita); grhita-deham--has assumed a form like a material body; namamahe--I offer my respectful obeisances; tvam--unto You; purusam--the Supreme Person; puranam--the original.




   O completely peaceful Lord, although material nature, fruitive activities and their consequent material names and forms are Your creation, You are unaffected by them. Therefore, Your transcendental name is different from material names, and Your form is different from material forms. You assume a form resembling a material body just to give us instructions like those of Bhagavad-gita, but actually You are the supreme original person. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.




   Srila Yamunacarya has recited this verse in his Stotra-ratna (43):


                   bhavantam evanucaran nirantarah


                   kadaham aikantika-nitya-kinkarah

                   praharsayisyami sanatha-jivitam


   "By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and is completely pacified. When shall I engage as Your permanent eternal servant and always feel joyful to have such a fitting master?"

   Manorathenasati dhavato bahih: one who acts on the mental platform must descend to material activities. Material contamination, however, is completely absent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His pure devotee. Therefore the Lord is addressed as prasanta, completely peaceful, free from the disturbances of material existence. The Supreme Lord has no material name or form; only the foolish think that the Lord's name and form are material (avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam). The identity of the Supreme Lord is that He is the original person. Nonetheless, those who have but a poor fund of knowledge think that the Lord is formless. The Lord is formless in the material sense, but He has His transcendental form (sac-cid-ananda-vigraha).


                               TEXT 25




                        tvan-maya-racite loke

                        vastu-buddhya grhadisu

                      bhramanti kama-lobhersya-





   tvat-maya--through Your material energy; racite--which is manufactured; loke--in this world; vastu-buddhya--accepting as factual; grha-adisu--in hearth and home, etc.; bhramanti--wander; kama--by lusty desires; lobha--by greed; irsya--by envy; moha--and by illusion; vibhranta--is bewildered; cetasah--the cores of whose hearts.




   O my Lord, those whose hearts are bewildered by the influence of lust, greed, envy and illusion are interested only in false hearth and home in this world created by Your maya. Attached to home, wife and children, they wander in this material world perpetually.


                               TEXT 26




                       adya nah sarva-bhutatman


                       moha-paso drdhas chinno

                       bhagavams tava darsanat




   adya--today; nah--our; sarva-bhuta-atman--O You, who are the Supersoul; kama-karma-indriya-asayah--being under the influence of lusty desires and fruitive activities; moha-pasah--this hard knot of illusion; drdhah--very strong; chinnah--broken; bhagavan--O my Lord; tava darsanat--simply by seeing You.




   O Supersoul of all living entities, O Personality of Godhead, simply by seeing You I have now been freed from all lusty desires, which are the root cause of insurmountable illusion and bondage in the material world.


                               TEXT 27




                            sri-suka uvaca

                       ittham gitanubhavas tam

                        bhagavan kapilo munih

                         amsumantam uvacedam

                         anugrahya dhiya nrpa




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; ittham--in this way; gita-anubhavah--whose glories are described; tam--unto Him; bhagavan--the Personality of Godhead; kapilah--named Kapila Muni; munih--the great sage; amsumantam--unto Amsuman; uvaca--said; idam--this; anugrahya--being very merciful; dhiya--with the path of knowledge; nrpa--O King Pariksit.




   O King Pariksit, when Amsuman had glorified the Lord in this way, the great sage Kapila, the powerful incarnation of Visnu, being very merciful to him, explained to him the path of knowledge.


                               TEXT 28




                          sri-bhagavan uvaca

                       asvo 'yam niyatam vatsa

                         pitamaha-pasus tava

                         ime ca pitaro dagdha

                      gangambho 'rhanti netarat




   sri-bhagavan uvaca--the great personality Kapila Muni said; asvah--horse; ayam--this; niyatam--take; vatsa--O My son; pitamaha--of your grandfather; pasuh--this animal; tava--your; ime--all these; ca--also; pitarah--bodies of forefathers; dagdhah--burnt to ashes; ganga-ambhah--the water of the Ganges; arhanti--can be saved; na--not; itarat--any other means.




   The Personality of Godhead said: My dear Amsuman, here is the animal sought by your grandfather for sacrifice. Please take it. As for your forefathers, who have been burnt to ashes, they can be delivered only by Ganges water, and not by any other means.


                               TEXT 29




                        tam parikramya sirasa

                        prasadya hayam anayat

                         sagaras tena pasuna

                        yajna-sesam samapayat




   tam--that great sage; parikramya--after circumambulating; sirasa--(by bowing down) with his head; prasadya--making Him fully satisfied; hayam--the horse; anayat--brought back; sagarah--King Sagara; tena--by that; pasuna--animal; yajna-sesam--the last ritualistic ceremony of the sacrifice; samapayat--executed.




   Thereafter, Amsuman circumambulated Kapila Muni and offered Him respectful obeisances, bowing his head. After fully satisfying Him in this way, Amsuman brought back the horse meant for sacrifice, and with this horse Maharaja Sagara performed the remaining ritualistic ceremonies.


                               TEXT 30




                        rajyam amsumate nyasya

                       nihsprho mukta-bandhanah


                        lebhe gatim anuttamam




   rajyam--his kingdom; amsumate--unto Amsuman; nyasya--after delivering; nihsprhah--without further material desires; mukta-bandhanah--completely freed from material bondage; aurva-upadista--instructed by the great sage Aurva; margena--by following that path; lebhe--achieved; gatim--destination; anuttamam--supreme.




   After delivering charge of his kingdom to Amsuman and thus being freed from all material anxiety and bondage, Sagara Maharaja, following the means instructed by Aurva Muni, achieved the supreme destination.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva."

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