The Pastimes of the Supreme Lord, Ramacandra
This Tenth Chapter describes how Lord Ramacandra appeared in the dynasty of Maharaja Khatvanga. It also describes the Lord's activities, telling how He killed Ravana and returned to Ayodhya, the capital of His kingdom.
The son of Maharaja Khatvanga was Dirghabahu, and his son was Raghu. The son of Raghu was Aja, the son of Aja was Dasaratha, and the son of Dasaratha was Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When the Lord descended into this world in His full quadruple expansion--as Lord Ramacandra, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna--great sages like Valmiki who were actually in knowledge of the Absolute Truth described His transcendental pastimes. Srila Sukadeva Gosvami describes these pastimes in brief.
Lord Ramacandra went with Visvamitra and killed Raksasas like Marica. After breaking the stout and strong bow known as Haradhanu, the Lord married mother Sita and cut down the prestige of Parasurama. To obey the order of His father, He entered the forest, accompanied by Laksmana and Sita. There He cut off the nose of Surpanakha and killed the associates of Ravana, headed by Khara and Dusana. Ravana's kidnapping of Sitadevi was the beginning of this demon's misfortune. When Marica assumed the form of a golden deer, Lord Ramacandra went to bring the deer to please Sitadevi, but in the meantime Ravana took advantage of the Lord's absence to kidnap her. When Sitadevi was kidnapped, Lord Ramacandra, accompanied by Laksmana, searched for her throughout the forest. In the course of this search, They met Jatayu. Then the Lord killed the demon Kabandha and the commander Vali and established a friendly relationship with Sugriva. After organizing the military strength of the monkeys and going with them to the shore of the sea, the Lord awaited the arrival of Samudra, the ocean personified, but when Samudra did not come, the Lord, the master of Samudra, became angry. Then Samudra came to the Lord with great haste and surrendered to Him, wanting to help Him in every way. The Lord then attempted to bridge the ocean, and, with the help of advice from Vibhisana, He attacked Ravana's capital, Lanka. Previously, Hanuman, the eternal servant of the Lord, had set fire to Lanka, and now, with the help of Laksmana, the forces of Lord Ramacandra killed all the Raksasa soldiers. Then Lord Ramacandra personally killed Ravana. Mandodari and other wives lamented for Ravana, and in accordance with Lord Ramacandra's order, Vibhisana performed the funeral ceremonies for all the dead in the family. Lord Ramacandra then gave Vibhisana the right to rule Lanka and also granted him a long duration of life. The Lord delivered Sitadevi from the Asoka forest and carried her in a flower airplane to His capital Ayodhya, where He was received by His brother Bharata. When Lord Ramacandra entered Ayodhya, Bharata brought His wooden shoes, Vibhisana and Sugriva held a whisk and fan, Hanuman carried an umbrella, Satrughna carried the Lord's bow and two quivers, and Sitadevi carried a waterpot containing water from holy places. Angada carried a sword, and Jambavan (Rksaraja) carried a shield. After Lord Ramacandra, accompanied by Lord Laksmana and mother Sitadevi, met all His relatives, the great sage Vasistha enthroned Him as King. The chapter ends with a short description of Lord Ramacandra's rule in Ayodhya.
khatvangad dirghabahus ca
raghus tasmat prthu-sravah
ajas tato maha-rajas
tasmad dasaratho 'bhavat
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; khatvangat--from Maharaja Khatvanga; dirghabahuh--the son named Dirghabahu; ca--and; raghuh tasmat--from him Raghu was born; prthu-sravah--saintly and celebrated; ajah--the son named Aja; tatah--from him; maha-rajah--the great king called Maharaja Dasaratha; tasmat--from Aja; dasarathah--by the name Dasaratha; abhavat--was born.
Sukadeva Gosvami said: The son of Maharaja Khatvanga was Dirghabahu, and his son was the celebrated Maharaja Raghu. From Maharaja Raghu came Aja, and from Aja was born the great personality Maharaja Dasaratha.
tasyapi bhagavan esa
saksad brahmamayo harih
putratvam prarthitah suraih
satrughna iti samjnaya
tasya--of him, Maharaja Dasaratha; api--also; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; esah--all of them; saksat--directly; brahma-mayah--the Supreme Parabrahman, the Absolute Truth; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amsa-amsena--by an expansion of a plenary portion; caturdha--by fourfold expansions; agat--accepted; putratvam--sonhood; prarthitah--being prayed for; suraih--by the demigods; rama--Lord Ramacandra; laksmana--Lord Laksmana; bharata--Lord Bharata; satrughnah--and Lord Satrughna; iti--thus; samjnaya--by different names.
Being prayed for by the demigods, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth Himself, directly appeared with His expansion and expansions of the expansion. Their holy names were Rama, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna. These celebrated incarnations thus appeared in four forms as the sons of Maharaja Dasaratha.
Lord Ramacandra and His brothers, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna, are all visnu-tattva, not jiva-tattva. The Supreme Personality of Godhead expands into many, many forms. Advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam. Although they are one and the same, visnu-tattva has many forms and incarnations. As confirmed in the Brahma-samhita (5.39), ramadi-murtisu kala-niyamena tisthan. The Lord is situated in many forms, such as Rama, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna, and these forms may exist in any part of His creation. All these forms exist permanently, eternally, as individual Personalities of Godhead, and they resemble many candles, all equally powerful. Lord Ramacandra, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna, who, being visnu-tattva, are all equally powerful, became the sons of Maharaja Dasaratha in response to prayers by the demigods.
srutam hi varnitam bhuri
tvaya sita-pater muhuh
tasya--of Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Ramacandra and His brothers; anucaritam--transcendental activities; rajan--O King (Maharaja Pariksit); rsibhih--by great sages or saintly persons; tattva-darsibhih--by persons who know the Absolute Truth; srutam--have all been heard; hi--indeed; varnitam--as they have been so nicely described; bhuri--many; tvaya--by you; sita-pateh--of Lord Ramacandra, the husband of mother Sita; muhuh--more than often.
O King Pariksit, the transcendental activities of Lord Ramacandra have been described by great saintly persons who have seen the truth. Because you have heard again and again about Lord Ramacandra, the husband of mother Sita, I shall describe these activities only in brief. Please listen.
Modern Raksasas, posing as educationally advanced merely because they have doctorates, have tried to prove that Lord Ramacandra is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead but an ordinary person. But those who are learned and spiritually advanced will never accept such notions; they will accept the descriptions of Lord Ramacandra and His activities only as presented by tattva-darsis, those who know the Absolute Truth. In Bhagavad-gita (4.34) the Supreme Personality of Godhead advises:
tad viddhi pranipatena
upadeksyanti te jnanam
"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." Unless one is tattva-darsi, in complete knowledge of the Absolute Truth, one cannot describe the activities of the Personality of Godhead. Therefore although there are many so-called Ramayanas, or histories of Lord Ramacandra's activities, some of them are not actually authoritative. Sometimes Lord Ramacandra's activities are described in terms of one's own imaginations, speculations or material sentiments. But the characteristics of Lord Ramacandra should not be handled as something imaginary. While describing the history of Lord Ramacandra, Sukadeva Gosvami told Maharaja Pariksit, "You have already heard about the activities of Lord Ramacandra." Apparently, therefore, five thousand years ago there were many Ramayanas, or histories of Lord Ramacandra's activities, and there are many still. But we must select only those books written by tattva-darsis (jnaninas tattva-darsinah), not the books of so-called scholars who claim knowledge only on the basis of a doctorate. This is a warning by Sukadeva Gosvami. Rsibhis tattva-darsibhih. Although the Ramayana composed by Valmiki is a huge literature, the same activities are summarized here by Sukadeva Gosvami in a few verses.
gurv-arthe tyakta-rajyo vyacarad anuvanam padma-padbhyam priyayah
pani-sparsaksamabhyam mrjita-patha-rujo yo harindranujabhyam
vairupyac churpanakhyah priya-viraha-rusaropita-bhru-vijrmbha-
trastabdhir baddha-setuh khala-dava-dahanah kosalendro 'vatan nah
guru-arthe--for the sake of keeping the promise of His father; tyakta-rajyah--giving up the position of king; vyacarat--wandered; anuvanam--from one forest to another; padma-padbhyam--by His two lotus feet; priyayah--with His very dear wife, mother Sita; pani-sparsa-aksamabhyam--which were so delicate that they were unable to bear even the touch of Sita's palm; mrjita-patha-rujah--whose fatigue due to walking on the street was diminished; yah--the Lord who; harindra-anujabhyam--accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanuman, and His younger brother Laksmana; vairupyat--because of being disfigured; surpanakhyah--of the Raksasi (demoness) named Surpanakha; priya-viraha--being aggrieved by separation from His very dear wife; rusa aropita-bhru-vijrmbha--by flickering of His raised eyebrows in anger; trasta--fearing; abdhih--the ocean; baddha-setuh--one who constructed a bridge over the ocean; khala-dava-dahanah--killer of envious persons like Ravana, like a fire devouring a forest; kosala-indrah--the King of Ayodhya; avatat--be pleased to protect; nah--us.
To keep the promise of His father intact, Lord Ramacandra immediately gave up the position of king and, accompanied by His wife, mother Sita, wandered from one forest to another on His lotus feet, which were so delicate that they were unable to bear even the touch of Sita's palms. The Lord was also accompanied by Hanuman [or by another monkey, Sugriva], king of the monkeys, and by His own younger brother Lord Laksmana, both of whom gave Him relief from the fatigue of wandering in the forest. Having cut off the nose and ears of Surpanakha, thus disfiguring her, the Lord was separated from mother Sita. He therefore became angry, moving His eyebrows and thus frightening the ocean, who then allowed the Lord to construct a bridge to cross the ocean. Subsequently, the Lord entered the kingdom of Ravana to kill him, like a fire devouring a forest. May that Supreme Lord, Ramacandra, give us all protection.
visvamitra-adhvare--in the sacrificial arena of the great sage Visvamitra; yena--by whom (Lord Ramacandra); marica-adyah--headed by Marica; nisa-carah--the uncivilized persons wandering at night in the darkness of ignorance; pasyatah laksmanasya--being seen by Laksmana; eva--indeed; hatah--were killed; nairrta-pungavah--the great chiefs of the Raksasas.
In the arena of the sacrifice performed by Visvamitra, Lord Ramacandra, the King of Ayodhya, killed many demons, Raksasas and uncivilized men who wandered at night in the mode of darkness. May Lord Ramacandra, who killed these demons in the presence of Laksmana, be kind enough to give us protection.
yo loka-vira-samitau dhanur aisam ugram
adaya bala-gaja-lila iveksu-yastim
sajjyi-krtam nrpa vikrsya babhanja madhye
sitabhidham sriyam urasy abhilabdhamanam
marge vrajan bhrgupater vyanayat prarudham
darpam mahim akrta yas trir araja-bijam
yah--Lord Ramacandra who; loka-vira-samitau--in the society or in the midst of many heroes of this world; dhanuh--the bow; aisam--of Lord Siva; ugram--very fierce; sita-svayamvara-grhe--in the hall where mother Sita stood to select her husband; trisata-upanitam--the bow carried by three hundred men; adaya--taking (that bow); bala-gaja-lilah--acting like a baby elephant in a forest of sugarcane; iva--like that; iksu-yastim--a stick of sugarcane; sajjyi-krtam--fastened the string of the bow; nrpa--O King; vikrsya--by bending; babhanja--broke it; madhye--in the middle; jitva--gaining by victory; anurupa--just befitting His position and beauty; guna--qualities; sila--behavior; vayah--age; anga--body; rupam--beauty; sita-abhidham--the girl named Sita; sriyam--the goddess of fortune; urasi--on the chest; abhilabdhamanam--had gotten her previously; marge--on the way; vrajan--while walking; bhrgupateh--of Bhrgupati; vyanayat--destroyed; prarudham--rooted very deep; darpam--pride; mahim--the earth; akrta--finished; yah--one who; trih--three times (seven); araja--without a royal dynasty; bijam--seed.
O King, the pastimes of Lord Ramacandra were wonderful, like those of a baby elephant. In the assembly where mother Sita was to choose her husband, in the midst of the heroes of this world, He broke the bow belonging to Lord Siva. This bow was so heavy that it was carried by three hundred men, but Lord Ramacandra bent and strung it and broke it in the middle, just as a baby elephant breaks a stick of sugarcane. Thus the Lord achieved the hand of mother Sita, who was equally as endowed with transcendental qualities of form, beauty, behavior, age and nature. Indeed, she was the goddess of fortune who constantly rests on the chest of the Lord. While returning from Sita's home after gaining her at the assembly of competitors, Lord Ramacandra met Parasurama. Although Parasurama was very proud, having rid the earth of the royal order twenty-one times, he was defeated by the Lord, who appeared to be a ksatriya of the royal order.
yah satya-pasa-parivita-pitur nidesam
strainasya capi sirasa jagrhe sabharyah
rajyam sriyam pranayinah suhrdo nivasam
tyaktva yayau vanam asun iva mukta-sangah
yah--Lord Ramacandra who; satya-pasa-parivita-pituh--of His father, who was bound by the promise to his wife; nidesam--the order; strainasya--of the father who was very much attached to his wife; ca--also; api--indeed; sirasa--on His head; jagrhe--accepted; sa-bharyah--with His wife; rajyam--the kingdom; sriyam--opulence; pranayinah--relatives; suhrdah--friends; nivasam--residence; tyaktva--giving up; yayau--went; vanam--to the forest; asun--life; iva--like; mukta-sangah--a liberated soul.
Carrying out the order of His father, who was bound by a promise to his wife, Lord Ramacandra left behind His kingdom, opulence, friends, well-wishers, residence and everything else, just as a liberated soul gives up his life, and went to the forest with Sita.
Maharaja Dasaratha had three wives. One of them, Kaikeyi, served him very pleasingly, and he therefore wanted to give her a benediction. Kaikeyi, however, said that she would ask for the benediction when it was necessary. At the time of the coronation of Prince Ramacandra, Kaikeyi requested her husband to enthrone her son Bharata and send Ramacandra to the forest. Maharaja Dasaratha, being bound by his promise, ordered Ramacandra to go to the forest, according to the dictation of his beloved. And the Lord, as an obedient son, accepted the order immediately. He left everything without hesitation, just as a liberated soul or great yogi gives up his life without material attraction.
raksah-svasur vyakrta rupam asuddha-buddhes
jaghne caturdasa-sahasram aparaniya-
kodanda-panir atamana uvasa krcchram
raksah-svasuh--of Surpanakha, the sister of the Raksasa (Ravana); vyakrta--(Lord Rama) deformed; rupam--the form; asuddha-buddheh--because her intelligence was polluted by lusty desires; tasyah--of her; khara-trisira-dusana-mukhya-bandhun--many friends, headed by Khara, Trisira and Dusana; jaghne--He (Lord Ramacandra) killed; caturdasa-sahasram--fourteen thousand; aparaniya--invincible; kodanda--bows and arrows; panih--in His hand; atamanah--wandering in the forest; uvasa--lived there; krcchram--with great difficulties.
While wandering in the forest, where He accepted a life of hardship, carrying His invincible bow and arrows in His hand, Lord Ramacandra deformed Ravana's sister, who was polluted with lusty desires, by cutting off her nose and ears. He also killed her fourteen thousand Raksasa friends, headed by Khara, Trisira and Dusana.
srstam vilokya nrpate dasa-kandharena
jaghne 'dbhutaina-vapusasramato 'pakrsto
maricam asu visikhena yatha kam ugrah
sita-katha--topics about Sitadevi; sravana--by hearing; dipita--agitated; hrt-sayena--lusty desires within the mind of Ravana; srstam--created; vilokya--seeing that; nrpate--O King Pariksit; dasa-kandharena--by Ravana, who had ten heads; jaghne--the Lord killed; adbhuta-ena-vapusa--by a deer made of gold; asramatah--from His residence; apakrstah--distracted to a distance; maricam--the demon Marica, who assumed the form of a golden deer; asu--immediately; visikhena--by a sharp arrow; yatha--as; kam--Daksa; ugrah--Lord Siva.
O King Pariksit, when Ravana, who had ten heads on his shoulders, heard about the beautiful and attractive features of Sita, his mind was agitated by lusty desires, and he went to kidnap her. To distract Lord Ramacandra from His asrama, Ravana sent Marica in the form of a golden deer, and when Lord Ramacandra saw that wonderful deer, He left His residence and followed it and finally killed it with a sharp arrow, just as Lord Siva killed Daksa.
rakso-'dhamena vrkavad vipine 'samaksam
bhratra vane krpanavat priyaya viyuktah
stri-sanginam gatim iti prathayams cacara
raksah-adhamena--by the most wicked among Raksasas, Ravana; vrka-vat--like a tiger; vipine--in the forest; asamaksam--unprotected; vaideha-raja-duhitari--by this condition of mother Sita, the daughter of the King of Videha; apayapitayam--having been kidnapped; bhratra--with His brother; vane--in the forest; krpana-vat--as if a very distressed person; priyaya--by his dear wife; viyuktah--separated; stri-sanginam--of persons attracted to or connected with women; gatim--destination; iti--thus; prathayan--giving an example; cacara--wandered.
When Ramacandra entered the forest and Laksmana was also absent, the worst of the Raksasas, Ravana, kidnapped Sitadevi, the daughter of the King of Videha, just as a tiger seizes unprotected sheep when the shepherd is absent. Then Lord Ramacandra wandered in the forest with His brother Laksmana as if very much distressed due to separation from His wife. Thus He showed by His personal example the condition of a person attached to women.
In this verse the words stri-sanginam gatim iti indicate that the condition of a person attached to women was shown by the Lord Himself. According to moral instructions, grhe narim vivarjayet: when one goes on a tour, one should not bring his wife. Formerly men used to travel without conveyances, but still, as far as possible, when one leaves home one should not take his wife with him, especially if one is in such a condition as Lord Ramacandra when banished by the order of His father. Whether in the forest or at home, if one is attached to women this attachment is always troublesome, as shown by the Supreme Personality of Godhead by His personal example.
Of course, this is the material side of stri-sangi, but the situation of Lord Ramacandra is spiritual, for He does not belong to the material world. Narayanah paro 'vyaktat: Narayana is beyond the material creation. Because He is the creator of the material world, He is not subject to the conditions of the material world. The separation of Lord Ramacandra from Sita is spiritually understood as vipralambha, which is an activity of the hladini potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead belonging to the srngara-rasa, the mellow of conjugal love in the spiritual world. In the spiritual world the Supreme Personality of Godhead has all the dealings of love, displaying the symptoms called sattvika, sancari, vilapa, murccha and unmada. Thus when Lord Ramacandra was separated from Sita, all these spiritual symptoms were manifested. The Lord is neither impersonal nor impotent. Rather, He is sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the eternal form of knowledge and bliss. Thus He has all the symptoms of spiritual bliss. Feeling separation from one's beloved is also an item of spiritual bliss. As explained by Srila Svarupa Damodara Gosvami, radha-krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hladini-saktih: the dealings of love between Radha and Krsna are displayed as the pleasure potency of the Lord. The Lord is the original source of all pleasure, the reservoir of all pleasure. Lord Ramacandra, therefore, manifested the truth both spiritually and materially. Materially those who are attached to women suffer, but spiritually when there are feelings of separation between the Lord and His pleasure potency the spiritual bliss of the Lord increases. This is further explained in Bhagavad-gita (9.11):
avajananti mam mudha
manusim tanum asritam
param bhavam ajananto
One who does not know the spiritual potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead thinks of the Lord as an ordinary human being. But the Lord's mind, intelligence and senses can never be affected by material conditions. This fact is further explained in the Skanda purana, as quoted by Madhvacarya:
svarupo 'sau yato vibhuh
ato 'sya rama ity akhya
tasya duhkham kuto 'nv api
sitam asit smarann iva
jnapanartham punar nitya-
sambandhah svatmanah sriyah
pratyaksam tu sriya sardham
ramo ramo rama iti
sarvesam abhavat tada
yada ramas tv apalayat
It was actually impossible for Ravana to take away Sita. The form of Sita taken by Ravana was an illusory representation of mother Sita--maya-sita. When Sita was tested in the fire, this maya-sita was burnt, and the real Sita came out of the fire.
A further understanding to be derived from this example is that a woman, however powerful she may be in the material world, must be given protection, for as soon as she is unprotected she will be exploited by Raksasas like Ravana. Here the words vaideha-raja-duhitari indicate that before mother Sita was married to Lord Ramacandra she was protected by her father, Vaideha-raja. And when she was married she was protected by her husband. Therefore the conclusion is that a woman should always be protected. According to the Vedic rule, there is no scope for a woman's being independent (asamaksam), for a woman cannot protect herself independently.
dagdhvatma-krtya-hata-krtyam ahan kabandham
sakhyam vidhaya kapibhir dayita-gatim taih
buddhvatha valini hate plavagendra-sainyair
velam agat sa manujo 'ja-bhavarcitanghrih
dagdhva--by burning; atma-krtya-hata-krtyam--after performing religious rituals required after the death of Jatayu, who died for the Lord's cause; ahan--killed; kabandham--the demon Kabandha; sakhyam--friendship; vidhaya--after creating; kapibhih--with the monkey chiefs; dayita-gatim--the arrangement for delivering Sita; taih--by them; buddhva--knowing; atha--thereafter; valini hate--when Vali had been killed; plavaga-indra-sainyaih--with the help of the soldiers of the monkeys; velam--to the beach of the ocean; agat--went; sah--He, Lord Ramacandra; manu-jah--appearing as a human being; aja--by Lord Brahma; bhava--and by Lord Siva; arcita-anghrih--whose lotus feet are worshiped.
Lord Ramacandra, whose lotus feet are worshiped by Lord Brahma and Lord Siva, had assumed the form of a human being. Thus He performed the funeral ceremony of Jatayu, who was killed by Ravana. The Lord then killed the demon named Kabandha, and after making friends with the monkey chiefs, killing Vali and arranging for the deliverance of mother Sita, He went to the beach of the ocean.
When Ravana kidnapped Sita, he was obstructed on the way by Jatayu, a large bird. But the powerful Ravana defeated Jatayu in the fight and cut his wing. When Ramacandra was searching for Sita, He found Jatayu almost dead and was informed that Sita has been carried off by Ravana. When Jatayu died, Lord Ramacandra did the duty of a son by performing the funeral ceremony, and then He made friends with the monkeys to deliver Sitadevi.
sindhuh sirasy arhanam parigrhya rupi
padaravindam upagamya babhasa etat
yat-rosa--whose anger; vibhrama--induced by; vivrtta--turned; kataksa-pata--by the glance; sambhranta--agitated; nakra--crocodiles; makarah--and sharks; bhaya-girna-ghosah--whose loud sound was silenced through fear; sindhuh--the ocean; sirasi--on his head; arhanam--all paraphernalia for worshiping the Lord; parigrhya--carrying; rupi--taking form; pada-aravindam--the lotus feet of the Lord; upagamya--reaching; babhasa--said; etat--the following.
After reaching the beach, Lord Ramacandra fasted for three days, awaiting the arrival of the ocean personified. When the ocean did not come, the Lord exhibited His pastimes of anger, and simply by His glancing over the ocean, all the living entities within it, including the crocodiles and sharks, were agitated by fear. Then the personified ocean fearfully approached Lord Ramacandra, taking all paraphernalia to worship Him. Falling at the Lord's lotus feet, the personified ocean spoke as follows.
na tvam vayam jada-dhiyo nu vidama bhuman
kuta-stham adi-purusam jagatam adhisam
yat-sattvatah sura-gana rajasah prajesa
manyos ca bhuta-patayah sa bhavan gunesah
na--not; tvam--Your Lordship; vayam--we; jada-dhiyah--dull-minded, possessing blunt intelligence; nu--indeed; vidamah--can know; bhuman--O Supreme; kuta-stham--within the core of the heart; adi-purusam--the original Personality of Godhead; jagatam--of the universes, which progressively go on; adhisam--the supreme master; yat--fixed under Your direction; sattvatah--infatuated with sattva-guna; sura-ganah--such demigods; rajasah--infatuated with rajo-guna; praja-isah--the Prajapatis; manyoh--influenced by tamo-guna; ca--and; bhuta-patayah--rulers of ghosts; sah--such a personality; bhavan--Your Lordship; guna-isah--the master of all three modes of material nature.
O all-pervading Supreme Person, we are dull-minded and did not understand who You are, but now we understand that You are the Supreme Person, the master of the entire universe, the unchanging and original Personality of Godhead. The demigods are infatuated with the mode of goodness, the Prajapatis with the mode of passion, and the lord of ghosts with the mode of ignorance, but You are the master of all these qualities.
The word jada-dhiyah refers to intelligence like that of an animal. A person with such intelligence cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Without being beaten, an animal cannot understand the purpose of a man. Similarly, those who are dull-minded cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but when punished severely by the modes of material nature, they begin to understand Him. A Hindi poet has said:
duhkha se saba hari bhaje
sukha se bhaje koi
sukha se agar hari bhaje
duhkha kathan se haya
When one is distressed he goes to the church or temple to worship the Lord, but when opulent he forgets the Lord. Therefore, punishment by the Lord through material nature is necessary in human society, for without it men forget the supremacy of the Lord due to their dull, blunt intelligence.
kamam prayahi jahi visravaso 'vameham
trailokya-ravanam avapnuhi vira patnim
badhnihi setum iha te yasaso vitatyai
gayanti dig-vijayino yam upetya bhupah
kamam--as You like; prayahi--You may go over my water; jahi--just conquer; visravasah--of Visrava Muni; avameham--pollution, like urine; trailokya--for the three worlds; ravanam--the person known as Ravana, the cause of weeping; avapnuhi--regain; vira--O great hero; patnim--Your wife; badhnihi--just construct; setum--a bridge; iha--here (on this water); te--of Your good self; yasasah--fame; vitatyai--to expand; gayanti--will glorify; dik-vijayinah--great heroes who have conquered all directions; yam--which (bridge); upetya--coming near; bhupah--great kings.
My Lord, You may use my water as You like. Indeed, You may cross it and go to the abode of Ravana, who is the great source of disturbance and crying for the three worlds. He is the son of Visrava, but is condemned like urine. Please go kill him and thus regain Your wife, Sitadevi. O great hero, although my water presents no impediment to Your going to Lanka, please construct a bridge over it to spread Your transcendental fame. Upon seeing this wonderfully uncommon deed of Your Lordship, all the great heroes and kings in the future will glorify You.
It is said that a son and urine emanate from the same source--the genitals. When a son is a devotee or a great learned person, the seminal discharge for begetting a son is successful, but if the son is unqualified and brings no glory to his family, he is no better than urine. Here Ravana is compared to urine because he was a cause of disturbances to the three worlds. Thus the ocean personified wanted him killed by Lord Ramacandra.
One feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Ramacandra is omnipotence. The Lord can act without regard to material impediments or inconveniences, but to prove that He is the Supreme personality of Godhead and was not merely advertised as Godhead or elected by popular vote, He constructed a wonderful bridge over the ocean. Nowadays it has become fashionable to create some artificial God who performs no uncommon activities; a little magic will bewilder a foolish person into selecting an artificial God because he does not understand how powerful God is. Lord Ramacandra, however, constructed a bridge over the water with stone by making the stone float. This is proof of God's uncommonly wonderful power. Why should someone be accepted as God without displaying extraordinary potency by doing something never to be done by any common man? We accept Lord Ramacandra as the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He constructed this bridge, and we accept Lord Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He lifted Govardhana Hill when He was only seven years old. We should not accept any rascal as God or an incarnation of God, for God displays special features in His various activities. Therefore, the Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):
janma karma ca me divyam
evam yo vetti tattvatah
tyaktva deham punar janma
naiti mam eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." The activities of the Lord are not common; they are all transcendentally wonderful and not able to be performed by any other living being. The symptoms of the Lord's activities are all mentioned in the sastras, and after one understands them one can accept the Lord as He is.
baddhvodadhau raghu-patir vividhadri-kutaih
lankam vibhisana-drsavisad agra-dagdham
baddhva--after constructing; udadhau--in the water of the ocean; raghu-patih--Lord Ramacandra; vividha--varieties of; adri-kutaih--with peaks of great mountains; setum--a bridge; kapi-indra--of powerful monkeys; kara-kampita--moved by the great hands; bhuruha-angaih--with the trees and plants; sugriva--Sugriva; nila--Nila; hanumat--Hanuman; pramukhaih--led by; anikaih--with such soldiers; lankam--Lanka, the kingdom of Ravana; vibhisana-drsa--by the direction of Vibhisana, the brother of Ravana; avisat--entered; agra-dagdham--which was previously burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanuman).
Sukadeva Gosvami said: After constructing a bridge over the ocean by throwing into the water the peaks of mountains whose trees and other vegetation had been shaken by the hands of great monkeys, Lord Ramacandra went to Lanka to release Sitadevi from the clutches of Ravana. With the direction and help of Vibhisana, Ravana's brother, the Lord, along with the monkey soldiers, headed by Sugriva, Nila and Hanuman, entered Ravana's kingdom, Lanka, which had previously been burnt by Hanuman.
Great mountain peaks covered with trees and plants were thrown into the sea by the monkey soldiers and began to float by the supreme will of the Lord. By the supreme will of the Lord, many great planets float weightlessly in space like swabs of cotton. If this is possible, why should great mountain peaks not be able to float on water? This is the omnipotence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He can do anything and everything He likes, because He is not under the control of the material nature; indeed, material nature is controlled by Him. Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sacaracaram: only under His direction does prakrti, or material nature, work. Similar information is given in the Brahma-samhita (5.52):
yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
Describing how material nature works, the Brahma-samhita says that the sun moves as desired by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently, for Lord Ramacandra to construct a bridge over the Indian Ocean with the help of monkey soldiers who threw great mountain peaks into the water is not at all wonderful; it is wonderful only in the sense that it has kept the name and fame of Lord Ramacandra eternally celebrated.
srngataka gaja-kulair hradiniva ghurna
sa--the place known as Lanka; vanara-indra--of the great chiefs of the monkeys; bala--by the strength; ruddha--stopped, encircled; vihara--pleasure houses; kostha--the places where food grains were stocked; sri--the treasury houses; dvara--the doors of palaces; gopura--the gates of the city; sadah--the assembly houses; valabhi--the frontage of great palaces; vitanka--the rest houses for the pigeons; nirbhajyamana--in the process of being dismantled; dhisana--platforms; dhvaja--the flags; hema-kumbha--golden waterpots on the domes; srngataka--and the crossroads; gaja-kulaih--by herds of elephants; hradini--a river; iva--like; ghurna--agitated.
After entering Lanka, the monkey soldiers, led by chiefs like Sugriva, Nila and Hanuman, occupied all the sporting houses, granaries, treasuries, palace doorways, city gates, assembly houses, palace frontages and even the resting houses of the pigeons. When the city's crossroads, platforms, flags and golden waterpots on its domes were all destroyed, the entire city of Lanka appeared like a river disturbed by a herd of elephants.
raksah-patis tad avalokya nikumbha-kumbha-
putram prahastam atikaya-vikampanadin
sarvanugan samahinod atha kumbhakarnam
raksah-patih--the master of the Raksasas (Ravana); tat--such disturbances; avalokya--after seeing; nikumbha--Nikumbha; kumbha--Kumbha; dhumraksa--Dhumraksa; durmukha--Durmukha; surantaka--Surantaka; narantaka--Narantaka; adin--all of them together; putram--his son, Indrajit; prahastam--Prahasta; atikaya--Atikaya; vikampana--Vikampana; adin--all of them together; sarva-anugan--all followers of Ravana; samahinot--ordered (to fight with the enemies); atha--at last; kumbhakarnam--Kumbhakarna, the most important brother.
When Ravana, the master of the Raksasas, saw the disturbances created by the monkey soldiers, he called for Nikumbha, Kumbha, Dhumraksa, Durmukha, Surantaka, Narantaka and other Raksasas and also his son Indrajit. Thereafter he called for Prahasta, Atikaya, Vikampana and finally Kumbhakarna. Then he induced all his followers to fight against the enemies.
tam yatudhana-prtanam asi-sula-capa-
nilangadarksa-panasadibhir anvito 'gat
tam--all of them; yatudhana-prtanam--the soldiers of the Raksasas; asi--by swords; sula--by lances; capa--by bows; prasa-rsti--prasa weapons and rsti weapons; sakti-sara--sakti arrows; tomara--tomara weapons; khadga--by a type of sword; durgam--all invincible; sugriva--by the monkey named Sugriva; laksmana--by Lord Ramacandra's younger brother; marut-suta--by Hanuman; gandhamada--by Gandhamada, another monkey; nila--by the monkey named Nila; angada--Angada; rksa--Rksa; panasa--Panasa; adibhih--and by other soldiers; anvitah--being surrounded, Lord Ramacandra; agat--came in front of (for the sake of fighting).
Lord Ramacandra, surrounded by Laksmana and monkey soldiers like Sugriva, Hanuman, Gandhamada, Nila, Angada, Jambavan and Panasa, attacked the soldiers of the Raksasas, who were fully equipped with various invincible weapons like swords, lances, bows, prasas, rstis, sakti arrows, khadgas and tomaras.
te 'nikapa raghupater abhipatya sarve
dvandvam varutham ibha-patti-rathasva-yodhaih
jaghnur drumair giri-gadesubhir angadadyah
te--all of them; anika-pah--the commanders of the soldiers; raghupateh--of Lord Sri Ramacandra; abhipatya--chasing the enemy; sarve--all of them; dvandvam--fighting; varutham--the soldiers of Ravana; ibha--by elephants; patti--by infantry; ratha--by chariots; asva--by horses; yodhaih--by such warriors; jaghnuh--killed them; drumaih--by throwing big trees; giri--by peaks of mountains; gada--by clubs; isubhih--by arrows; angada-adyah--all the soldiers of Lord Ramacandra, headed by Angada and others; sita--of mother Sita; abhimarsa--by the anger; hata--had been condemned; mangala--whose auspiciousness; ravana-isan--the followers or dependents of Ravana.
Angada and the other commanders of the soldiers of Ramacandra faced the elephants, infantry, horses and chariots of the enemy and hurled against them big trees, mountain peaks, clubs and arrows. Thus the soldiers of Lord Ramacandra killed Ravana's soldiers, who had lost all good fortune because Ravana had been condemned by the anger of mother Sita.
The soldiers Lord Ramacandra recruited in the jungle were all monkeys and did not have proper equipment with which to fight the soldiers of Ravana, for Ravana's soldiers were equipped with weapons of modern warfare whereas the monkeys could only throw stones, mountain peaks and trees. It was only Lord Ramacandra and Laksmana who shot some arrows. But because the soldiers of Ravana were condemned by the curse of mother Sita, the monkeys were able to kill them simply by throwing stones and trees. There are two kinds of strength--daiva and purusakara. Daiva refers to the strength achieved from the Transcendence, and purusakara refers to the strength organized by one's own intelligence and power. Transcendental power is always superior to the power of the materialist. Depending on the mercy of the Supreme Lord, one must fight one's enemies even though one may not be equipped with modern weapons. Therefore Krsna instructed Arjuna, mam anusmara yudhya ca: "Think of Me and fight." We should fight our enemy to the best of our ability, but for victory we must depend on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
raksah-patih sva-bala-nastim aveksya rusta
aruhya yanakam athabhisasara ramam
svah-syandane dyumati matalinopanite
vibhrajamanam ahanan nisitaih ksurapraih
raksah-patih--the leader of the Raksasas, Ravana; sva-bala-nastim--the destruction of his own soldiers; aveksya--after observing; rustah--became very angry; aruhya--riding on; yanakam--his beautiful airplane decorated with flowers; atha--thereafter; abhisasara--proceeded toward; ramam--Lord Ramacandra; svah-syandane--in the celestial chariot of Indra; dyumati--glittering; matalina--by Matali, the chariot driver of Indra; upanite--having been brought; vibhrajamanam--Lord Ramacandra, as if brilliantly illuminating; ahanat--Ravana struck him; nisitaih--very sharp; ksurapraih--with arrows.
Thereafter, when Ravana, the king of the Raksasas, observed that his soldiers had been lost, he was extremely angry. Thus he mounted his airplane, which was decorated with flowers, and proceeded toward Lord Ramacandra, who sat on the effulgent chariot brought by Matali, the chariot driver of Indra. Then Ravana struck Lord Ramacandra with sharp arrows.
ramas tam aha purusada-purisa yan nah
kantasamaksam asatapahrta svavat te
tyakta-trapasya phalam adya jugupsitasya
yacchami kala iva kartur alanghya-viryah
ramah--Lord Ramacandra; tam--unto him, Ravana; aha--said; purusa-ada-purisa--you are the stool of the man-eaters (Raksasas); yat--because; nah--My; kanta--wife; asamaksam--helpless because of My absence; asata--by you, the most sinful; apahrta--was kidnapped; sva-vat--like a dog who takes food from the kitchen in the absence of the proprietor; te--of you; tyakta-trapasya--because you are shameless; phalam adya--I shall give you the result today; jugupsitasya--of you, the most abominable; yacchami--I shall punish you; kalah iva--like death; kartuh--of you, who are the performer of all sinful activities; alanghya-viryah--but I, being omnipotent, never fail in My attempt.
Lord Ramacandra said to Ravana: You are the most abominable of the man-eaters. Indeed, you are like their stool. You resemble a dog, for as a dog steals eatables from the kitchen in the absence of the householder, in My absence you kidnapped My wife, Sitadevi. Therefore as Yamaraja punishes sinful men, I shall also punish you. You are most abominable, sinful and shameless. Today, therefore, I, whose attempt never fails, shall punish you.
Na ca daivat param balam: no one can surpass the strength of the Transcendence. Ravana was so sinful and shameless that he did not know what the result would be of kidnapping mother Sita, the pleasure potency of Ramacandra. This is the disqualification of the Raksasas. Asatyam apratistham te jagad ahur anisvaram. The Raksasas are unaware that the Supreme Lord is the ruler of the creation. They think that everything has come about by chance or accident and that there is no ruler, king or controller. Therefore the Raksasas act independently, as they like, going even so far as to kidnap the goddess of fortune. This policy of Ravana's is extremely dangerous for the materialist; indeed, it brings ruin to the materialistic civilization. Nonetheless, because atheists are Raksasas, they dare to do things that are most abominable, and thus they are punished without fail. Religion consists of the orders of the Supreme Lord, and one who carries out these orders is religious. One who fails to carry out the Lord's orders is irreligious, and he is to be punished.
evam ksipan dhanusi sandhitam utsasarja
banam sa vajram iva tad-dhrdayam bibheda
so 'srg vaman dasa-mukhair nyapatad vimanad
dhaheti jalpati jane sukrtiva riktah
evam--in this way; ksipan--chastising (Ravana); dhanusi--on the bow; sandhitam--fixed an arrow; utsasarja--released (toward him); banam--the arrow; sah--that arrow; vajram iva--like a thunderbolt; tat-hrdayam--the heart of Ravana; bibheda--pierced; sah--he, Ravana; asrk--blood; vaman--vomiting; dasa-mukhaih--through the ten mouths; nyapatat--fell down; vimanat--from his airplane; haha--alas, what happened; iti--thus; jalpati--roaring; jane--when all the people present there; sukrti iva--like a pious man; riktah--when the results of his pious activities are finished.
After thus rebuking Ravana, Lord Ramacandra fixed an arrow to His bow, aimed at Ravana, and released the arrow, which pierced Ravana's heart like a thunderbolt. Upon seeing this, Ravana's followers raised a tumultuous sound, crying, "Alas! Alas! What has happened? What has happened?" as Ravana, vomiting blood from his ten mouths, fell from his airplane, just as a pious man falls to earth from the heavenly planets when the results of his pious activities are exhausted.
In Bhagavad-gita (9.21) it is said, ksine punye martya-lokam visanti: "When the results of their pious activities are exhausted, those who have enjoyed in the heavenly planets fall again to earth." The fruitive activities of this material world are such that whether one acts piously or impiously one must remain within the material world according to different conditions, for neither pious nor impious actions can relieve one from maya's clutches of repeated birth and death. Somehow or other, Ravana was raised to an exalted position as the king of a great kingdom with all material opulences, but because of his sinful act of kidnapping mother Sita, all the results of his pious activities were destroyed. If one offends an exalted personality, especially the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one certainly becomes most abominable; bereft of the results of pious activities, one must fall down like Ravana and other demons. It is therefore advised that one transcend both pious and impious activities and remain in the pure state of freedom from all designations (sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam). When one is fixed in devotional service, he is above the material platform. On the material platform there are higher and lower positions, but when one is above the material platform he is always fixed in a spiritual position (sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate). Ravana or those like him may be very powerful and opulent in this material world, but theirs is not a secure position, because, after all, they are bound by the results of their karma (karmana daiva-netrena). We should not forget that we are completely dependent on the laws of nature.
gunaih karmani sarvasah
kartaham iti manyate
"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of material nature, thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality carried out by nature." (Bg. 3.27) One should not be proud of one's exalted position and act like Ravana, thinking oneself independent of material nature's laws.
tato niskramya lankaya
mandodarya samam tatra
tatah--thereafter; niskramya--coming out; lankayah--from Lanka; yatudhanyah--the wives of the Raksasas; sahasrasah--by thousands and thousands; mandodarya--headed by Mandodari, the wife of Ravana; samam--with; tatra--there; prarudantyah--crying in lamentation; upadravan--came near (their dead husbands).
Thereafter, all the women whose husbands had fallen in the battle, headed by Mandodari, the wife of Ravana, came out of Lanka. Continuously crying, they approached the dead bodies of Ravana and the other Raksasas.
svan svan bandhun parisvajya
ruruduh susvaram dina
ghnantya atmanam atmana
svan svan--their own respective husbands; bandhun--friends; parisvajya--embracing; laksmana-isubhih--by the arrows of Laksmana; arditan--who were killed; ruruduh--all the wives cried piteously; su-svaram--it was very sweet to hear; dinah--very poor; ghnantyah--striking; atmanam--their breasts; atmana--by themselves.
Striking their breasts in affliction because their husbands had been killed by the arrows of Laksmana, the women embraced their respective husbands and cried piteously in voices appealing to everyone.
ha hatah sma vayam natha
kam yayac charanam lanka
ha--alas; hatah--killed; sma--in the past; vayam--all of us; natha--O protector; loka-ravana--O husband, who created the crying of so many other people; ravana--O Ravana, one who can cause crying of others; kam--unto whom; yayat--will go; saranam--shelter; lanka--the state of Lanka; tvat-vihina--being bereft of your good self; para-ardita--being defeated by the enemies.
O my lord, O master! You epitomized trouble for others, and therefore you were called Ravana. But now that you have been defeated, we also are defeated, for without you the state of Lanka has been conquered by the enemy. To whom will it go for shelter?
Ravana's wife Mandodari and the other wives knew very well how cruel a person Ravana was. The very word "Ravana" means "one who causes crying for others." Ravana continuously caused trouble for others, but when his sinful activities culminated in giving trouble to Sitadevi, he was killed by Lord Ramacandra.
na vai veda maha-bhaga
bhavan kama-vasam gatah
tejo 'nubhavam sitaya
yena nito dasam imam
na--not; vai--indeed; veda--did know; maha-bhaga--O greatly fortunate one; bhavan--yourself; kama-vasam--influenced by lusty desires; gatah--having become; tejah--by influence; anubhavam--as a result of such influence; sitayah--of mother Sita; yena--by which; nitah--brought into; dasam--condition; imam--like this (destruction).
O greatly fortunate one, you came under the influence of lusty desires, and therefore you could not understand the influence of mother Sita. Now, because of her curse, you have been reduced to this state, having been killed by Lord Ramacandra.
Not only was mother Sita powerful, but any woman who follows in the footsteps of mother Sita can also become similarly powerful. There are many instances of this in the history of Vedic literature. Whenever we find a description of ideal chaste women, mother Sita is among them. Mandodari, the wife of Ravana, was also very chaste. Similarly, Draupadi was one of five exalted chaste women. As a man must follow great personalities like Brahma and Narada, a woman must follow the path of such ideal women as Sita, Mandodari and Draupadi. By staying chaste and faithful to her husband, a woman enriches herself with supernatural power. It is a moral principle that one should not be influenced by lusty desires for another's wife. Matrvat para-daresu: an intelligent person must look upon another's wife as being like his mother. This is a moral injunction from Canakya-sloka (10).
yah pasyati sa panditah
"One who considers another's wife as his mother, another's possessions as a lump of dirt and treats all other living beings as he would himself, is considered to be learned." Thus Ravana was condemned not only by Lord Ramacandra but even by his own wife, Mandodari. Because she was a chaste woman, she knew the power of another chaste woman, especially such a wife as mother Sitadevi.
krtaisa vidhava lanka
vayam ca kula-nandana
dehah krto 'nnam grdhranam
krta--made by you; esa--all of this; vidhava--without a protector; lanka--the state of Lanka; vayam ca--and us; kula-nandana--O pleasure of the Raksasas; dehah--the body; krtah--made by you; annam--eatable; grdhranam--of the vultures; atma--and your soul; naraka-hetave--for going to hell.
O pleasure of the Raksasa dynasty, because of you the state of Lanka and also we ourselves now have no protector. By your deeds you have made your body fit to be eaten by vultures and your soul fit to go to hell.
One who follows the path of Ravana is condemned in two ways: his body is fit to be eaten by dogs and vultures, and the soul goes to hell. As stated by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (16.19):
tan aham dvisatah kruran
ksipamy ajasram asubhan
asurisv eva yonisu
"Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life." Thus the destination of godless atheists such as Ravana, Hiranyakasipu, Kamsa and Dantavakra is a hellish condition of life. Mandodari, the wife of Ravana, could understand all this because she was a chaste woman. Although lamenting for the death of her husband, she knew what would happen to his body and soul, for although one cannot see directly with one's material eyes, one can see with eyes of knowledge (pasyanti jnana-caksusah). In Vedic history there are many instances of how one becomes godless and is condemned by the laws of nature.
svanam vibhisanas cakre
yad uktam samparayikam
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; svanam--of his own family members; vibhisanah--Vibhisana, the brother of Ravana and devotee of Lord Ramacandra; cakre--executed; kosala-indra-anumoditah--approved by the King of Kosala, Lord Ramacandra; pitr-medha-vidhanena--by the funeral ceremony performed by the son after the death of his father or some family member; yat uktam--which have been prescribed; samparayikam--duties to be performed after a person's death to save him from the path to hell.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Vibhisana, the pious brother of Ravana and devotee of Lord Ramacandra, received approval from Lord Ramacandra, the King of Kosala. Then he performed the prescribed funeral ceremonies for his family members to save them from the path to hell.
After giving up the body, one is transferred to another body, but sometimes, if one is too sinful, he is checked from transmigrating to another body, and thus he becomes a ghost. To save a diseased person from ghostly life, the funeral ceremony, or sraddha ceremony, as prescribed in authorized sastra, must be performed. Ravana was killed by Lord Ramacandra and was destined for hellish life, but by Lord Ramacandra's advice, Vibhisana, Ravana's brother, performed all the duties prescribed in relation to the dead. Thus Lord Ramacandra was kind to Ravana even after Ravana's death.
tato dadarsa bhagavan
tatah--thereafter; dadarsa--saw; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; asoka-vanika-asrame--in a small cottage in the forest of Asoka trees; ksamam--very lean and thin; sva-viraha-vyadhim--suffering from the disease of separation from Lord Ramacandra; simsapa--of the tree known as Simsapa; mulam--the root; asritam--taking shelter of.
Thereafter, Lord Ramacandra found Sitadevi sitting in a small cottage beneath the tree named Simsapa in a forest of Asoka trees. She was lean and thin, being aggrieved because of separation from Him.
ramah priyatamam bharyam
ramah--Lord Ramacandra; priya-tamam--upon His dearmost; bharyam--wife; dinam--so poorly situated; viksya--looking; anvakampata--became very compassionate; atma-sandarsana--when one sees his beloved; ahlada--an ecstasy of joyful life; vikasat--manifesting; mukha--mouth; pankajam--like a lotus.
Seeing His wife in that condition, Lord Ramacandra was very compassionate. When Ramacandra came before her, she was exceedingly happy to see her beloved, and her lotuslike mouth showed her joy.
lankam ayus ca kalpantam
yayau cirna-vratah purim
aropya--keeping or placing; aruruhe--got up; yanam--on the airplane; bhratrbhyam--with His brother Laksmana and the commander Sugriva; hanumat-yutah--accompanied by Hanuman; vibhisanaya--unto Vibhisana, the brother of Ravana; bhagavan--the Lord; dattva--gave charge; raksah-gana-isatam--the power to rule over the Raksasa population of Lanka; lankam--the state of Lanka; ayuh ca--and the duration of life; kalpa-antam--for many, many years, until the end of one kalpa; yayau--returned home; cirna-vratah--finishing the duration of time living in the forest; purim--to Ayodhya-puri.
After giving Vibhisana the power to rule the Raksasa population of Lanka for the duration of one kalpa, Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead [Bhagavan], placed Sitadevi on an airplane decorated with flowers and then got on the plane Himself. The period for His living in the forest having ended, the Lord returned to Ayodhya, accompanied by Hanuman, Sugriva and His brother Laksmana.
avakiryamanah--being overflooded; su-kusumaih--by fragrant and beautiful flowers; loka-pala-arpitaih--offered by the princely order; pathi--on the road; upagiyamana-caritah--being glorified for His uncommon activities; satadhrti-adibhih--by personalities like Lord Brahma and other demigods; muda--with great jubilation.
When Lord Ramacandra returned to His capital, Ayodhya, He was greeted on the road by the princely order, who showered His body with beautiful, fragrant flowers, while great personalities like Lord Brahma and other demigods glorified the activities of the Lord in great jubilation.
go-mutra-yavakam--eating barley boiled in the urine of a cow; srutva--hearing; bhrataram--His brother Bharata; valkala-ambaram--covered with the bark of trees; maha-karunikah--the supremely merciful Lord Ramacandra; atapyat--lamented very much; jatilam--wearing matted locks of hair; sthandile-sayam--lying down on a grass mattress, or kusasana.
Upon reaching Ayodhya, Lord Ramacandra heard that in His absence His brother Bharata was eating barley cooked in the urine of a cow, covering His body with the bark of trees, wearing matted locks of hair, and lying on a mattress of kusa. The most merciful Lord very much lamented this.
bharatah praptam akarnya
paduke sirasi nyasya
ramam pratyudyato 'grajam
brahma-ghosena ca muhuh
haimais citra-dhvajai rathaih
bhrtyais caiva padanugaih
panyany uccavacani ca
padayor nyapatat premna
bharatah--Lord Bharata; praptam--coming back home; akarnya--hearing; paura--all kinds of citizens; amatya--all the ministers; purohitaih--accompanied by all the priests; paduke--the two wooden shoes; sirasi--on the head; nyasya--keeping; ramam--unto Lord Ramacandra; pratyudyatah--going forward to receive; agrajam--His eldest brother; nandigramat--from His residence, known as Nandigrama; sva-sibirat--from His own camp; gita-vaditra--songs and vibrations of drums and other musical instruments; nihsvanaih--accompanied by such sounds; brahma-ghosena--by the sound of chanting of Vedic mantras; ca--and; muhuh--always; pathadbhih--reciting from the Vedas; brahma-vadibhih--by first-class brahmanas; svarna-kaksa-patakabhih--decorated with flags with golden embroidery; haimaih--golden; citra-dhvajaih--with decorated flags; rathaih--with chariots; sat-asvaih--having very beautiful horses; rukma--golden; sannahaih--with harnesses; bhataih--by soldiers; purata-varmabhih--covered with armor made of gold; srenibhih--by such a line or procession; vara-mukhyabhih--accompanied by beautiful, well-dressed prostitutes; bhrtyaih--by servants; ca--also; eva--indeed; pada-anugaih--by infantry; paramesthyani--other paraphernalia befitting a royal reception; upadaya--taking all together; panyani--valuable jewels, etc.; ucca-avacani--of different values; ca--also; padayoh--at the lotus feet of the Lord; nyapatat--fell down; premna--in ecstatic love; praklinna--softened, moistened; hrdaya--the core of the heart; iksanah--whose eyes.
When Lord Bharata understood that Lord Ramacandra was returning to the capital, Ayodhya, He immediately took upon His own head Lord Ramacandra's wooden shoes and came out from His camp at Nandigrama. Lord Bharata was accompanied by ministers, priests and other respectable citizens, by professional musicians vibrating pleasing musical sounds, and by learned brahmanas loudly chanting Vedic hymns. Following in the procession were chariots drawn by beautiful horses with harnesses of golden rope. These chariots were decorated by flags with golden embroidery and by other flags of various sizes and patterns. There were soldiers bedecked with golden armor, servants bearing betel nut, and many well-known and beautiful prostitutes. Many servants followed on foot, bearing an umbrella, whisks, different grades of precious jewels, and other paraphernalia befitting a royal reception. Accompanied in this way, Lord Bharata, His heart softened in ecstasy and His eyes full of tears, approached Lord Ramacandra and fell at His lotus feet with great ecstatic love.
paduke nyasya puratah
tam aslisya ciram dorbhyam
snapayan netrajair jalaih
viprebhyo ye 'rha-sattamah
tebhyah svayam namascakre
prajabhis ca namaskrtah
paduke--the two wooden shoes; nyasya--after placing; puratah--before Lord Ramacandra; pranjalih--with folded hands; baspa-locanah--with tears in the eyes; tam--unto Him, Bharata; aslisya--embracing; ciram--for a long time; dorbhyam--with His two arms; snapayan--bathing; netra-jaih--coming from His eyes; jalaih--with the water; ramah--Lord Ramacandra; laksmana-sitabhyam--with Laksmana and mother Sita; viprebhyah--unto the learned brahmanas; ye--also others who; arha-sattamah--worthy of being worshiped; tebhyah--unto them; svayam--personally; namah-cakre--offered respectful obeisances; prajabhih--by the citizens; ca--and; namah-krtah--was offered obeisances.
After offering the wooden shoes before Lord Ramacandra, Lord Bharata stood with folded hands, His eyes full of tears, and Lord Ramacandra bathed Bharata with tears while embracing Him with both arms for a long time. Accompanied by mother Sita and Laksmana, Lord Ramacandra then offered His respectful obeisances unto the learned brahmanas and the elderly persons in the family, and all the citizens of Ayodhya offered their respectful obeisances unto the Lord.
patim viksya ciragatam
uttarah kosala malyaih
kiranto nanrtur muda
dhunvantah--waving; uttara-asangan--the upper cloths covering the body; patim--the Lord; viksya--seeing; cira-agatam--returned after many years of banishment; uttarah kosalah--the citizens of Ayodhya; malyaih kirantah--offering Him garlands; nanrtuh--began to dance; muda--in great jubilation.
The citizens of Ayodhya, upon seeing their King return after a long absence, offered Him flower garlands, waved their upper cloths, and danced in great jubilation.
paduke bharato 'grhnac
abibhrad angadah khadgam
haimam carmarksa-ran nrpa
paduke--the two wooden shoes; bharatah--Lord Bharata; agrhnat--carried; camara--whisk; vyajana--fan; uttame--very opulent; vibhisanah--the brother of Ravana; sa-sugrivah--with Sugriva; sveta-chatram--a white umbrella; marut-sutah--Hanuman, the son of the wind-god; dhanuh--the bow; nisangan--with two quivers; satrughnah--one of the brothers of Lord Ramacandra; sita--mother Sita; tirtha-kamandalum--the waterpot filled with water from holy places; abibhrat--carried; angadah--the monkey commander named Angada; khadgam--the sword; haimam--made of gold; carma--shield; rksa-rat--the King of the Rksas, Jambavan; nrpa--O King.
O King, Lord Bharata carried Lord Ramacandra's wooden shoes, Sugriva and Vibhisana carried a whisk and an excellent fan, Hanuman carried a white umbrella, Satrughna carried a bow and two quivers, and Sitadevi carried a waterpot filled with water from holy places. Angada carried a sword, and Jambavan, King of the Rksas, carried a golden shield.
puspaka-stho nutah stribhih
stuyamanas ca vandibhih
vireje bhagavan rajan
grahais candra ivoditah
puspaka-sthah--seated on the airplane made of flowers; nutah--worshiped; stribhih--by the women; stuyamanah--being offered prayers; ca--and; vandibhih--by the reciters; vireje--beautified; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Ramacandra; rajan--O King Pariksit; grahaih--among the planets; candrah--the moon; iva--like; uditah--risen.
O King Pariksit, as the Lord sat on His airplane of flowers, with women offering Him prayers and reciters chanting about His characteristics, He appeared like the moon with the stars and planets.
bhratrabhinanditah so 'tha
sotsavam pravisat purim
vaidehi laksmanas caiva
bhratra--by His brother (Bharata); abhinanditah--being welcomed properly; sah--He, Lord Ramacandra; atha--thereafter; sa-utsavam--in the midst of a festival; pravisat--entered; purim--the city of Ayodhya; pravisya--after entering; raja-bhavanam--the royal palace; guru-patnih--Kaikeyi and other stepmothers; sva-mataram--His own mother (Kausalya); gurun--the spiritual masters (Sri Vasistha and others); vayasya--unto friends of the same age; avara-jan--and those who were younger than He; pujitah--being worshiped by them; pratyapujayat--He returned the obeisances; vaidehi--mother Sita; laksmanah--Laksmana; ca eva--and; yatha-vat--in a befitting way; samupeyatuh--being welcomed, entered the palace.
Thereafter, having been welcomed by His brother Bharata, Lord Ramacandra entered the city of Ayodhya in the midst of a festival. When He entered the palace, He offered obeisances to all the mothers, including Kaikeyi and the other wives of Maharaja Dasaratha, and especially His own mother, Kausalya. He also offered obeisances to the spiritual preceptors, such as Vasistha. Friends of His own age and younger friends worshiped Him, and He returned their respectful obeisances, as did Laksmana and mother Sita. In this way they all entered the palace.
putran sva-mataras tas tu
pranams tanva ivotthitah
baspaughair vijahuh sucah
putran--the sons; sva-matarah--Their mothers; tah--they, headed by Kausalya and Kaikeyi; tu--but; pranan--life; tanvah--bodies; iva--like; utthitah--arisen; aropya--keeping; anke--on the lap; abhisincantyah--moistening (the bodies of their sons); baspa--by tears; oghaih--continuously pouring; vijahuh--gave up; sucah--lamentation due to separation from their sons.
Upon seeing their sons, the mothers of Rama, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna immediately arose, like unconscious bodies returning to consciousness. The mothers placed their sons on their laps and bathed Them with tears, thus relieving themselves of the grief of long separation.
jata nirmucya vidhivat
kula-vrddhaih samam guruh
jatah--the matted locks of hair on the head; nirmucya--shaving clean; vidhi-vat--according to regulative principles; kula-vrddhaih--the elderly persons in the family; samam--with; guruh--the family priest or spiritual master, Vasistha; abhyasincat--performed the abhiseka ceremony of Lord Ramacandra; yatha--as; eva--like; indram--unto King Indra; catuh-sindhu-jala--with the water of the four oceans; adibhih--and with other paraphernalia for bathing.
The family priest or spiritual master, Vasistha, had Lord Ramacandra cleanly shaved, freeing Him from His matted locks of hair. Then, with the cooperation of the elderly members of the family, he performed the bathing ceremony [abhiseka] for Lord Ramacandra with the water of the four seas and with other substances, just as it was performed for King Indra.
bhratrbhir bharyaya babhau
evam--thus; krta-sirah-snanah--having completely bathed, washing the head; su-vasah--being nicely dressed; sragvi-alankrtah--being decorated with a garland; su-alankrtaih--decorated nicely; su-vasobhih--dressed nicely; bhratrbhih--with His brothers; bharyaya--and with His wife, Sita; babhau--the Lord became very brilliant.
Lord Ramacandra, fully bathed and His head clean-shaven, dressed Himself very nicely and was decorated with a garland and ornaments. Thus He shone brightly, surrounded by His brothers and wife, who were similarly dressed and ornamented.
agrahid asanam bhratra
jugopa pitrvad ramo
menire pitaram ca tam
agrahit--accepted; asanam--the throne of the state; bhratra--by His brother (Bharata); pranipatya--after fully surrendering unto Him; prasaditah--having been pleased; prajah--and the citizens; sva-dharma-niratah--fully engaged in their respective occupational duties; varnasrama--according to the system of varna and asrama; guna-anvitah--all of them being qualified in that process; jugopa--the Lord protected them; pitr-vat--exactly like a father; ramah--Lord Ramacandra; menire--they considered; pitaram--exactly like a father; ca--also; tam--Him, Lord Ramacandra.
Being pleased by the full surrender and submission of Lord Bharata, Lord Ramacandra then accepted the throne of the state. He cared for the citizens exactly like a father, and the citizens, being fully engaged in their occupational duties of varna and asrama, accepted Him as their father.
People are very fond of the pattern of Rama-rajya, and even today politicians sometimes form a party called Rama-rajya, but unfortunately they have no obedience to Lord Rama. It is sometimes said that people want the kingdom of God without God. Such an aspiration, however, is never to be fulfilled. Good government can exist when the relationship between the citizens and the government is like that exemplified by Lord Ramacandra and His citizens. Lord Ramacandra ruled His kingdom exactly as a father takes care of his children, and the citizens, being obliged to the good government of Lord Ramacandra, accepted the Lord as their father. Thus the relationship between the citizens and the government should be exactly like that between father and son. When the sons in a family are well trained, they are obedient to the father and mother, and when the father is well qualified, he takes good care of the children. As indicated here by the words sva-dharma-nirata varnasrama-gunan-vitah, the people were good citizens because they accepted the institution of varna and asrama, which arranges society in the varna divisions of brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra and the asrama divisions of brahmacarya, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. This is actual human civilization. People must be trained according to the different varnasrama occupational duties. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.13), catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah: the four varnas must be established according to varying qualities and work. The first principle for good government is that it must institute this varnasrama system. The purpose of varnasrama is to enable people to become God conscious. Varnasramacaravata purusena parah puman visnur aradhyate. The entire varnasrama scheme is intended to enable people to become Vaisnavas. Visnur asya devata. When people worship Lord Visnu as the Supreme Lord, they become Vaisnavas. Thus people should be trained to become Vaisnavas through the system of varna and asrama, as they were during the reign of Lord Ramacandra, when everyone was fully trained to follow the varnasrama principles.
Simply enforcing laws and ordinances cannot make the citizens obedient and lawful. That is impossible. Throughout the entire world there are so many states, legislative assemblies and parliaments, but still the citizens are rogues and thieves. Good citizenship, therefore, cannot be enforced; the citizens must be trained. As there are schools and colleges to train students to become chemical engineers, lawyers or specialists in many other departments of knowledge, there must be schools and colleges to train students to become brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas, sudras, brahmacaris, grhasthas, vanaprasthas and sannyasis. This will provide the preliminary condition for good citizenship (varnasrama-gunan-vitah). Generally speaking, if the king or president is a rajarsi, the relationship between the citizens and the chief executive will be clear, and there will be no possibility of disruption in the state, because the number of thieves and rogues will decrease. In Kali-yuga, however, because the varnasrama system is neglected, people are generally thieves and rogues. In the system of democracy, such thieves and rogues naturally collect money from other thieves and rogues, and thus there is chaos in every government, and no one is happy. But here the example of good government is to be found in the reign of Lord Ramacandra. If people follow this example, there will be good government all over the world.
kalah krta-samo 'bhavat
rame rajani dharma-jne
tretayam--in the Treta-yuga; vartamanayam--although situated in that period; kalah--the period; krta--with Satya-yuga; samah--equal; abhavat--it so became; rame--because of Lord Ramacandra's being present; rajani--as the ruling king; dharma-jne--because He was fully religious; sarva-bhuta--of all living entities; sukha-avahe--giving full happiness.
Lord Ramacandra became King during Treta-yuga, but because of His good government, the age was like Satya-yuga. Everyone was religious and completely happy.
Among the four yugas--Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali--the Kali-yuga is the worst, but if the process of varnasrama-dharma is introduced, even in this age of Kali, the situation of Satya-yuga can be invoked. The Hare Krsna movement, or Krsna consciousness movement, is meant for this purpose.
kaler dosa-nidhe rajann
asti hy eko mahan gunah
kirtanad eva krsnasya
mukta-sangah param vrajet
"My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: simply by chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom." (Bhag. 12.3.51) If people take to this sankirtana movement of chanting Hare Krsna, Hare Rama, they will certainly be freed from the contamination of Kali-yuga, and the people of this age will be happy, as people were in Satya-yuga, the golden age. Anyone, anywhere, can easily take to this Hare Krsna movement; one need only chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, observe the rules and regulations, and stay free from the contamination of sinful life. Even if one is sinful and cannot give up sinful life immediately, if he chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra with devotion and faith he will certainly be freed from all sinful activities, and his life will be successful. Param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam. This is the blessing of Lord Ramacandra, who has appeared in this age of Kali as Lord Gaurasundara.
vanani nadyo girayo
sarve kama-dugha asan
vanani--the forests; nadyah--the rivers; girayah--the hills and mountains; varsani--various parts of the states or divisions on the surface of the earth; dvipa--islands; sindhavah--the oceans and seas; sarve--all of them; kama-dughah--full of their respective opulences; asan--existed like that; prajanam--of all the living beings; bharata-rsabha--O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Bharata dynasty.
O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Bharata dynasty, during the reign of Lord Ramacandra the forests, the rivers, the hills and mountains, the states, the seven islands and the seven seas were all favorable in supplying the necessities of life for all living beings.
mrtyus canicchatam nasid
rame rajany adhoksaje
na--not; adhi--adhyatmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika sufferings (that is, sufferings from the body and mind, from other living entities and from nature); vyadhi--diseases; jara--old age; glani--bereavement; duhkha--grief; soka--lamentation; bhaya--fear; klamah--and fatigue; mrtyuh--death; ca--also; anicchatam--of those who did not like it; na asit--there was not; rame--during the rule of Lord Ramacandra; rajani--because of His being the king; adhoksaje--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond this material world.
When Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was the King of this world, all bodily and mental suffering, disease, old age, bereavement, lamentation, distress, fear and fatigue were completely absent. There was even no death for those who did not want it.
All these facilities existed because of Lord Ramacandra's presence as the King of the entire world. A similar situation could be introduced immediately, even in this age called Kali, the worst of all ages. It is said, kali-kale nama-rupe krsna-avatara: Krsna descends in this Kali-yuga in the form of His holy name--Hare Krsna, Hare Rama. If we chant offenselessly, Rama and Krsna are still present in this age. The kingdom of Rama was immensely popular and beneficial, and the spreading of this Hare Krsna movement can immediately introduce a similar situation, even in this Kali-yuga.
siksayan svayam acarat
eka-patni-vrata-dharah--taking a vow not to accept a second wife or to have any connection with any other woman; raja-rsi--like a saintly king; caritah--whose character; sucih--pure; sva-dharmam--one's own occupational duty; grha-medhiyam--especially of persons situated in household life; siksayan--teaching (by personal behavior); svayam--personally; acarat--executed His duty.
Lord Ramacandra took a vow to accept only one wife and have no connection with any other women. He was a saintly king, and everything in His character was good, untinged by qualities like anger. He taught good behavior for everyone, especially for householders, in terms of varnasrama-dharma. Thus He taught the general public by His personal activities.
Eka-patni-vrata, accepting only one wife, was the glorious example set by Lord Ramacandra. One should not accept more than one wife. In those days, of course, people did marry more than one wife. Even Lord Ramacandra's father accepted more wives than one. But Lord Ramacandra, as an ideal king, accepted only one wife, mother Sita. When mother Sita was kidnapped by Ravana and the Raksasas, Lord Ramacandra, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, could have married hundreds and thousands of Sitas, but to teach us how faithful He was to His wife, He fought with Ravana and finally killed him. The Lord punished Ravana and rescued His wife to instruct men to have only one wife. Lord Ramacandra accepted only one wife and manifested sublime character, thus setting an example for householders. A householder should live according to the ideal of Lord Ramacandra, who showed how to be a perfect person. Being a householder or living with a wife and children is never condemned, provided one lives according to the regulative principles of varnasrama-dharma. Those who live in accordance with these principles, whether as householders, brahmacaris or vanaprasthas, are all equally important.
bhiya hriya ca bhava-jna
bhartuh sitaharan manah
premna anuvrttya--because of service rendered to the husband with love and faith; silena--by such good character; prasraya-avanata--always very submissive and ready to satisfy the husband; sati--chaste; bhiya--by being afraid; hriya--by shyness; ca--also; bhava-jna--understanding the attitude (of the husband); bhartuh--of her husband, Lord Ramacandra; sita--mother Sita; aharat--simply captivated; manah--the mind.
Mother Sita was very submissive, faithful, shy and chaste, always understanding the attitude of her husband. Thus by her character and her love and service she completely attracted the mind of the Lord.
As Lord Ramacandra is the ideal husband (eka-patni-vrata), mother Sita is the ideal wife. Such a combination makes family life very happy. Yad yad acarati sresthas tat tad evetaro janah: whatever example a great man sets, common people follow. If the kings, the leaders, and the brahmanas, the teachers, would set forth the examples we receive from Vedic literature, the entire world would be heaven; indeed, there would no longer be hellish conditions within this material world.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Tenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Pastimes of the Supreme Lord, Ramacandra."