Chapter Fourteen

                  King Pururava Enchanted by Urvasi


   The summary of this Fourteenth Chapter is given as follows. This chapter describes Soma and how he kidnapped the wife of Brhaspati and begot in her womb a son named Budha. Budha begot Pururava, who begot six sons, headed by Ayu, in the womb of Urvasi.

   Lord Brahma was born from the lotus that sprouted from the navel of Garbhodakasayi Visnu. Brahma had a son named Atri, and Atri's son was Soma, the king of all drugs and stars. Soma became the conqueror of the entire universe, and, being inflated with pride, he kidnapped Tara, who was the wife of Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods. A great fight ensued between the demigods and the asuras, but Brahma rescued Brhaspati's wife from the clutches of Soma and returned her to her husband, thus stopping the fighting. In the womb of Tara, Soma begot a son named Budha, who later begot in the womb of Ila a son named Aila, or Pururava. Urvasi was captivated by Pururava's beauty, and therefore she lived with him for some time, but when she left his company he became almost like a madman. While traveling all over the world, he met Urvasi again at Kuruksetra, but she agreed to join with him for only one night in a year.

   One year later, Pururava saw Urvasi at Kuruksetra and was glad to be with her for one night, but when he thought of her leaving him again, he was overwhelmed by grief. Urvasi then advised Pururava to worship the Gandharvas. Being satisfied with Pururava, the Gandharvas gave him a woman known as Agnisthali. Pururava mistook Agnisthali for Urvasi, but while he was wandering in the forest his misunderstanding was cleared, and he immediately gave up her company. After returning home and meditating upon Urvasi all night, he wanted to perform a Vedic ritualistic ceremony to satisfy his desire. Thereafter he went to the same place where he had left Agnisthali, and there he saw that from the womb of a sami tree had come an asvattha tree. Pururava made two sticks from this tree and thus produced a fire. By such a fire one can satisfy all lusty desires. The fire was considered the son of Pururava. In Satya-yuga there was only one social division, called hamsa; there were no divisions of varna like brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra. The Veda was the omkara. The various demigods were not worshiped, for only the Supreme Personality of Godhead was the worshipable Deity.


                                TEXT 1




                            sri-suka uvaca

                        athatah sruyatam rajan

                        vamsah somasya pavanah

                       yasminn ailadayo bhupah

                       kirtyante punya-kirtayah




   sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; atha--now (after hearing the history of the dynasty of the sun); atah--therefore; sruyatam--just hear from me; rajan--O King (Maharaja Pariksit); vamsah--the dynasty; somasya--of the moon-god; pavanah--which is purifying to hear about; yasmin--in which (dynasty); aila-adayah--headed by Aila (Pururava); bhupah--kings; kirtyante--are described; punya-kirtayah--persons of whom it is glorious to hear.




   Srila Sukadeva Gosvami said to Maharaja Pariksit: O King, thus far you have heard the description of the dynasty of the sun-god. Now hear the most glorious and purifying description of the dynasty of the moon-god. This description mentions kings like Aila [Pururava] of whom it is glorious to hear.


                                TEXT 2




                        sahasra-sirasah pumso


                        jatasyasit suto dhatur

                        atrih pitr-samo gunaih




   sahasra-sirasah--who has thousands of heads; pumsah--of Lord Visnu (Garbhodakasayi Visnu); nabhi-hrada-saroruhat--from the lotus produced from the lake of the navel; jatasya--who appeared; asit--there was; sutah--a son; dhatuh--of Lord Brahma; atrih--by the name Atri; pitr-samah--like his father; gunaih--qualified.




   Lord Visnu [Garbhodakasayi Visnu] is also known as Sahasra-sirsa Purusa. From the lake of His navel sprang a lotus, on which Lord Brahma was generated. Atri, the son of Lord Brahma, was as qualified as his father.


                                TEXT 3




                     tasya drgbhyo 'bhavat putrah

                         somo 'mrtamayah kila


                       brahmana kalpitah patih




   tasya--of him, Atri, the son of Brahma; drgbhyah--from the tears of jubilation from the eyes; abhavat--was born; putrah--a son; somah--the moon-god; amrta-mayah--full of soothing rays; kila--indeed; vipra--of the brahmanas; osadhi--of the drugs; udu-gananam--and of the luminaries; brahmana--by Lord Brahma; kalpitah--was appointed or designated; patih--the supreme director.




   From Atri's tears of jubilation was born a son named Soma, the moon, who was full of soothing rays. Lord Brahma appointed him the director of the brahmanas, drugs and luminaries.




   According to the Vedic description, Soma, the moon-god, was born from the mind of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (candrama manaso jatah). But here we find that Soma was born from the tears in the eyes of Atri. This appears contradictory to the Vedic information, but actually it is not, for this birth of the moon is understood to have taken place in another millennium. When tears appear in the eyes because of jubilation, the tears are soothing. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says, drgbhya anandasrubhya ata evamrtamayah: "Here the word drgbhyah means 'from tears of jubilation.' Therefore the moon-god is called amrtamayah, 'full of soothing rays.' " In the Fourth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (4.1.15) we find this verse:


                       atreh patny anasuya trin

                        jajne suyasasah sutan

                       dattam durvasasam somam



   This verse describes that Anasuya, the wife of Atri Rsi, bore three sons--Soma, Durvasa and Dattatreya. It is said that at the time of conception Anasuya was impregnated by the tears of Atri.


                                TEXT 4




                         so 'yajad rajasuyena

                        vijitya bhuvana-trayam

                       patnim brhaspater darpat

                        taram namaharad balat




   sah--he, Soma; ayajat--performed; rajasuyena--the sacrifice known as Rajasuya; vijitya--after conquering; bhuvana-trayam--the three worlds (Svarga, Martya and Patala); patnim--the wife; brhaspateh--of Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods; darpat--out of pride; taram--Tara; nama--by name; aharat--took away; balat--by force.




   After conquering the three worlds [the upper, middle and lower planetary systems], Soma, the moon-god, performed a great sacrifice known as the Rajasuya-yajna. Because he was very much puffed up, he forcibly kidnapped Brhaspati's wife, whose name was Tara.


                                TEXT 5




                         yada sa deva-guruna

                       yacito 'bhiksnaso madat

                       natyajat tat-krte jajne





   yada--when; sah--he (Soma, the moon-god); deva-guruna--by the spiritual master of the demigods, Brhaspati; yacitah--was begged; abhiksnasah--again and again; madat--because of false pride; na--not; atyajat--did deliver; tat-krte--because of this; jajne--there was; sura-danava--between the demigods and the demons; vigrahah--a fight.




   Although requested again and again by Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods, Soma did not return Tara. This was due to his false pride. Consequently, a fight ensued between the demigods and the demons.


                                TEXT 6




                       sukro brhaspater dvesad

                         agrahit sasurodupam

                        haro guru-sutam snehat





   sukrah--the demigod named Sukra; brhaspateh--unto Brhaspati; dvesat--because of enmity; agrahit--took; sa-asura--with the demons; udupam--the side of the moon-god; harah--Lord Siva; guru-sutam--the side of his spiritual master's son; snehat--because of affection; sarva-bhuta-gana-avrtah--accompanied by all kinds of ghosts and hobgoblins.




   Because of enmity between Brhaspati and Sukra, Sukra took the side of the moon-god and was joined by the demons. But Lord Siva, because of affection for the son of his spiritual master, joined the side of Brhaspati and was accompanied by all the ghosts and hobgoblins.




   The moon-god is one of the demigods, but to fight against the other demigods he took the assistance of the demons. Sukra, being an enemy of Brhaspati, also joined the moon-god to retaliate in wrath against Brhaspati. To counteract this situation, Lord Siva, who was affectionate toward Brhaspati, joined Brhaspati. The father of Brhaspati was Angira, from whom Lord Siva had received knowledge. Therefore Lord Siva had some affection for Brhaspati and joined his side in this fight. Sridhara Svami remarks, angirasah sakasat prapta-vidyo hara iti prasiddhah: "Lord Siva is well known to have received knowledge from Angira."


                                TEXT 7





                        mahendro gurum anvayat

                        surasura-vinaso 'bhut

                         samaras tarakamayah




   sarva-deva-gana--by all the different demigods; upetah--joined; mahendrah--Mahendra, the King of heaven, Indra; gurum--his spiritual master; anvayat--followed; sura--of the demigods; asura--and of the demons; vinasah--causing destruction; abhut--there was; samarah--a fight; taraka-mayah--simply because of Tara, a woman, the wife of Brhaspati.




   King Indra, accompanied by all kinds of demigods, joined the side of Brhaspati. Thus there was a great fight, destroying both demons and demigods, only for the sake of Tara, Brhaspati's wife.


                                TEXT 8




                         nivedito 'thangirasa

                     somam nirbhartsya visva-krt

                     taram sva-bhartre prayacchad

                       antarvatnim avait patih




   niveditah--being fully informed; atha--thus; angirasa--by Angira Muni; somam--the moon-god; nirbhartsya--chastising severely; visva-krt--Lord Brahma; taram--Tara, the wife of Brhaspati; sva-bhartre--unto her husband; prayacchat--delivered; antarvatnim--pregnant; avait--could understand; patih--the husband (Brhaspati).




   When Lord Brahma was fully informed by Angira about the entire incident, he severely chastised the moon-god, Soma. Thus Lord Brahma delivered Tara to her husband, who could then understand that she was pregnant.


                                TEXT 9




                       tyaja tyajasu dusprajne

                      mat-ksetrad ahitam paraih

                     naham tvam bhasmasat kuryam

                       striyam santanike 'sati




   tyaja--deliver; tyaja--deliver; asu--immediately; dusprajne--you foolish woman; mat-ksetrat--from the womb meant for me to impregnate; ahitam--begotten; paraih--by others; na--not; aham--I; tvam--you; bhasmasat--burnt to ashes; kuryam--shall make; striyam--because you are a woman; santanike--wanting a child; asati--although you are unchaste.




   Brhaspati said: You foolish woman, your womb, which was meant for me to impregnate, has been impregnated by someone other than me. Immediately deliver your child! Immediately deliver it! Be assured that after the child is delivered, I shall not burn you to ashes. I know that although you are unchaste, you wanted a son. Therefore I shall not punish you.




   Tara was married to Brhaspati, and therefore as a chaste woman she should have been impregnated by him. But instead she preferred to be impregnated by Soma, the moon-god, and therefore she was unchaste. Although Brhaspati accepted Tara from Brahma, when he saw that she was pregnant he wanted her to deliver a son immediately. Tara certainly very much feared her husband, and she thought she might be punished after giving birth. Thus Brhaspati assured her that he would not punish her, for although she was unchaste and had become pregnant illicitly, she wanted a son.


                               TEXT 10




                         tatyaja vridita tara

                        kumaram kanaka-prabham

                        sprham angirasas cakre

                          kumare soma eva ca




   tatyaja--gave delivery; vridita--being very much ashamed; tara--Tara, the wife of Brhaspati; kumaram--to a child; kanaka-prabham--having a bodily effulgence like gold; sprham--aspiration; angirasah--Brhaspati; cakre--made; kumare--unto the child; somah--the moon-god; eva--indeed; ca--also.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: By Brhaspati's order, Tara, who was very much ashamed, immediately gave birth to the child, who was very beautiful, with a golden bodily hue. Both Brhaspati and the moon-god, Soma, desired the beautiful child.


                               TEXT 11




                       mamayam na tavety uccais

                         tasmin vivadamanayoh

                        papracchur rsayo deva

                        naivoce vridita tu sa




   mama--mine; ayam--this (child); na--not; tava--yours; iti--thus; uccaih--very loudly; tasmin--for the child; vivadamanayoh--when the two parties were fighting; papracchuh--inquired (from Tara); rsayah--all the saintly persons; devah--all the demigods; na--not; eva--indeed; uce--said anything; vridita--being ashamed; tu--indeed; sa--Tara.




   Fighting again broke out between Brhaspati and the moon-god, both of whom claimed, "This is my child, not yours!" All the saints and demigods present asked Tara whose child the newborn baby actually was, but because she was ashamed she could not immediately answer.


                               TEXT 12




                         kumaro mataram praha

                         kupito 'lika-lajjaya

                       kim na vacasy asad-vrtte

                         atmavadyam vadasu me




   kumarah--the child; mataram--unto his mother; praha--said; kupitah--being very angry; alika--unnecessary; lajjaya--with shame; kim--why; na--not; vacasi--you say; asat-vrtte--O unchaste woman; atma-avadyam--the fault you have committed; vada--say; asu--immediately; me--unto me.




   The child then became very angry and demanded that his mother immediately tell the truth. "You unchaste woman," he said, "what is the use of your unnecessary shame? Why do you not admit your fault? Immediately tell me about your faulty behavior."


                               TEXT 13




                        brahma tam raha ahuya

                       samapraksic ca santvayan

                        somasyety aha sanakaih

                       somas tam tavad agrahit




   brahma--Lord Brahma; tam--unto her, Tara; rahah--in a secluded place; ahuya--putting her; samapraksit--inquired in detail; ca--and; santvayan--pacifying; somasya--this son belongs to Soma, the moon-god; iti--thus; aha--she replied; sanakaih--very slowly; somah--Soma; tam--the child; tavat--immediately; agrahit--took charge of.




   Lord Brahma then brought Tara to a secluded place, and after pacifying her he asked to whom the child actually belonged. She replied very slowly, "This is the son of Soma, the moon-god." Then the moon-god immediately took charge of the child.


                               TEXT 14




                         tasyatma-yonir akrta

                       budha ity abhidham nrpa

                       buddhya gambhiraya yena

                         putrenapoduran mudam




   tasya--of the child; atma-yonih--Lord Brahma; akrta--made; budhah--Budha; iti--thus; abhidham--the name; nrpa--O King Pariksit; buddhya--by intelligence; gambhiraya--very deeply situated; yena--by whom; putrena--by such a son; apa--he got; udurat--the moon-god; mudam--jubilation.




   O Maharaja Pariksit, when Lord Brahma saw that the child was deeply intelligent, he gave the child the name Budha. The moon-god, the ruler of the stars, enjoyed great jubilation because of this son.


                             TEXTS 15-16




                         tatah pururava jajne

                          ilayam ya udahrtah

                        tasya rupa-gunaudarya-




                         giyamanan surarsina

                         tad-antikam upeyaya

                         devi smara-sarardita




   tatah--from him (Budha); pururavah--the son named Pururava; jajne--was born; ilayam--in the womb of Ila; yah--one who; udahrtah--has already been described (in the beginning of the Ninth Canto); tasya--his (Pururava's); rupa--beauty; guna--qualities; audarya--magnanimity; sila--behavior; dravina--wealth; vikraman--power; srutva--by hearing; urvasi--the celestial woman named Urvasi; indra-bhavane--in the court of King Indra; giyamanan--when they were being described; sura-rsina--by Narada; tat-antikam--near him; upeyaya--approached; devi--Urvasi; smara-sara--by the arrows of Cupid; ardita--being stricken.




   Thereafter, from Budha, through the womb of Ila, a son was born named Pururava, who was described in the beginning of the Ninth Canto. When his beauty, personal qualities, magnanimity, behavior, wealth and power were described by Narada in the court of Lord Indra, the celestial woman Urvasi was attracted to him. Pierced by the arrow of Cupid, she thus approached him.


                             TEXTS 17-18




                        mitra-varunayoh sapad

                         apanna nara-lokatam

                       nisamya purusa-srestham

                        kandarpam iva rupinam


                       dhrtim vistabhya lalana

                         upatasthe tad-antike

                        sa tam vilokya nrpatir


                         uvaca slaksnaya vaca

                        devim hrsta-tanuruhah




   mitra-varunayoh--of Mitra and Varuna; sapat--by the curse; apanna--having obtained; nara-lokatam--the habits of a human being; nisamya--thus seeing; purusa-srestham--the best of males; kandarpam iva--like Cupid; rupinam--having beauty; dhrtim--patience, forbearance; vistabhya--accepting; lalana--that woman; upatasthe--approached; tat-antike--near to him; sah--he, Pururava; tam--her; vilokya--by seeing; nrpatih--the King; harsena--with great jubilation; utphulla-locanah--whose eyes became very bright; uvaca--said; slaksnaya--very mild; vaca--by words; devim--unto the demigoddess; hrsta-tanuruhah--the hairs on whose body were standing in jubilation.




   Having been cursed by Mitra and Varuna, the celestial woman Urvasi had acquired the habits of a human being. Therefore, upon seeing Pururava, the best of males, whose beauty resembled that of Cupid, she controlled herself and then approached him. When King Pururava saw Urvasi, his eyes became jubilant in the ecstasy of joy, and the hairs on his body stood on end. With mild, pleasing words, he spoke to her as follows.


                               TEXT 19





                         svagatam te vararohe

                         asyatam karavama kim

                        samramasva maya sakam

                       ratir nau sasvatih samah




   sri-raja uvaca--the King (Pururava) said; svagatam--welcome; te--unto you; vararohe--O best of beautiful women; asyatam--kindly take your seat; karavama kim--what can I do for you; samramasva--just become my companion; maya sakam--with me; ratih--a sexual relationship; nau--between us; sasvatih samah--for many years.




   King Pururava said: O most beautiful woman, you are welcome. Please sit here and tell me what I can do for you. You may enjoy with me as long as you desire. Let us pass our life happily in a sexual relationship.


                               TEXT 20




                             urvasy uvaca

                       kasyas tvayi na sajjeta

                        mano drstis ca sundara

                        yad-angantaram asadya

                         cyavate ha riramsaya




   urvasi uvaca--Urvasi replied; kasyah--of which woman; tvayi--unto you; na--not; sajjeta--would become attracted; manah--the mind; drstih ca--and sight; sundara--O most beautiful man; yat-angantaram--whose chest; asadya--enjoying; cyavate--gives up; ha--indeed; riramsaya--for sexual enjoyment.




   Urvasi replied: O most handsome man, who is the woman whose mind and sight would not be attracted by you? If a woman takes shelter of your chest, she cannot refuse to enjoy with you in a sexual relationship.




   When a beautiful man and a beautiful woman unite together and embrace one another, how within these three worlds can they check their sexual relationship? Therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.45) says, yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham.


                               TEXT 21




                         etav uranakau rajan

                        nyasau raksasva manada

                       samramsye bhavata sakam

                    slaghyah strinam varah smrtah




   etau--to these two; uranakau--lambs; rajan--O King Pururava; nyasau--who have fallen down; raksasva--please give protection; mana-da--O one who gives all honor to a guest or visitor; samramsye--I shall enjoy sexual union; bhavata sakam--in your company; slaghyah--superior; strinam--of a woman; varah--husband; smrtah--it is said.




   My dear King Pururava, please give protection to these two lambs, who have fallen down with me. Although I belong to the heavenly planets and you belong to earth, I shall certainly enjoy sexual union with you. I have no objection to accepting you as my husband, for you are superior in every respect.




   As stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.40), yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-kotisv asesa-vasudhadi-vibhuti-bhinnam. There are various planets and various atmospheres within this universe. The atmosphere of the heavenly planet from which Urvasi descended after being cursed by Mitra and Varuna was different from the atmosphere of this earth. Indeed, the inhabitants of the heavenly planets are certainly far superior to the inhabitants of earth. Nonetheless, Urvasi agreed to remain the consort of Pururava, although she belonged to a superior community. A woman who finds a man with superior qualities may accept such a man as her husband. Similarly, if a man finds a woman who is from an inferior family but who has good qualities, he can accept such a brilliant wife, as advised by Sri Canakya Pandita (stri-ratnam duskulad api). The combination of male and female is worthwhile if the qualities of both are on an equal level.


                               TEXT 22




                     ghrtam me vira bhaksyam syan

                      nekse tvanyatra maithunat

                        vivasasam tat tatheti

                         pratipede mahamanah




   ghrtam--clarified butter or nectar; me--my; vira--O hero; bhaksyam--eatable; syat--shall be; na--not; ikse--I shall see; tva--you; anyatra--any other time; maithunat--except at the time of sexual intercourse; vivasasam--without any dress (naked); tat--that; tatha iti--shall be like that; pratipede--promised; mahamanah--King Pururava.




   Urvasi said: "My dear hero, only preparations made in ghee [clarified butter] will be my eatables, and I shall not want to see you naked at any time, except at the time of sexual intercourse." The great-minded King Pururava accepted these proposals.


                               TEXT 23




                         aho rupam aho bhavo


                         ko na seveta manujo

                       devim tvam svayam agatam




   aho--wonderful; rupam--beauty; aho--wonderful; bhavah--postures; nara-loka--in human society or on the planet earth; vimohanam--so attractive; kah--who; na--not; seveta--can accept; manujah--among human beings; devim--a demigoddess; tvam--like you; svayam agatam--who has personally arrived.




   Pururava replied: O beautiful one, your beauty is wonderful and your gestures are also wonderful. Indeed, you are attractive to all human society. Therefore, since you have come of your own accord from the heavenly planets, who on earth would not agree to serve a demigoddess such as you.




   It appears from the words of Urvasi that the standard of living, eating, behavior and speech are all different on the heavenly planets from the standards on this planet earth. The inhabitants of the heavenly planets do not eat such abominable things as meat and eggs; everything they eat is prepared in clarified butter. Nor do they like to see either men or women naked, except at the time of sexual intercourse. To live naked or almost naked is uncivilized, but on this planet earth it has now become fashionable to dress half naked, and sometimes those like hippies live completely naked. Indeed, there are many clubs and societies for this purpose. Such conduct is not allowed, however, on the heavenly planets. The inhabitants of the heavenly planets, aside from being very beautiful, both in complexion and bodily features, are well behaved and long-living, and they eat first-class food in goodness. These are some of the distinctions between the inhabitants of the heavenly planets and the inhabitants of earth.


                               TEXT 24




                        taya sa purusa-srestho

                        ramayantya yatharhatah

                          reme sura-viharesu

                        kamam caitrarathadisu




   taya--with her; sah--he; purusa-sresthah--the best of human beings (Pururava); ramayantya--enjoying; yatha-arhatah--as far as possible; reme--enjoyed; sura-viharesu--in places resembling the heavenly parks; kamam--according to his desire; caitraratha-adisu--in the best gardens, like Caitraratha.




   Sukadeva Gosvami continued: The best of human beings, Pururava, began freely enjoying the company of Urvasi, who engaged in sexual activities with him in many celestial places, such as Caitraratha and Nandana-kanana, where the demigods enjoy.


                               TEXT 25




                         ramamanas taya devya



                       mumude 'har-ganan bahun




   ramamanah--enjoying sex; taya--with her; devya--the heavenly goddess; padma--of a lotus; kinjalka--like the saffron; gandhaya--the fragrance of whom; tat-mukha--her beautiful face; amoda--by the fragrance; musitah--being enlivened more and more; mumude--enjoyed life; ahah-ganan--days after days; bahun--many.




   Urvasi's body was as fragrant as the saffron of a lotus. Being enlivened by the fragrance of her face and body, Pururava enjoyed her company for many days with great jubilation.


                               TEXT 26




                        apasyann urvasim indro

                        gandharvan samacodayat

                        urvasi-rahitam mahyam

                         asthanam natisobhate




   apasyan--without seeing; urvasim--Urvasi; indrah--the King of the heavenly planet; gandharvan--unto the Gandharvas; samacodayat--instructed; urvasi-rahitam--without Urvasi; mahyam--my; asthanam--place; na--not; atisobhate--appears beautiful.




   Not seeing Urvasi in his assembly, the King of heaven, Lord Indra, said, "Without Urvasi my assembly is no longer beautiful." Considering this, he requested the Gandharvas to bring her back to his heavenly planet.


                               TEXT 27




                         te upetya maha-ratre

                        tamasi pratyupasthite

                        urvasya uranau jahrur

                        nyastau rajani jayaya




   te--they, the Gandharvas; upetya--coming there; maha-ratre--in the dead of night; tamasi--when the darkness; pratyupasthite--appeared; urvasya--by Urvasi; uranau--two lambs; jahruh--stole; nyastau--given in charge; rajani--unto the King; jayaya--by his wife, Urvasi.




   Thus the Gandharvas came to earth, and at midnight, when everything was dark, they appeared in the house of Pururava and stole the two lambs entrusted to the King by his wife, Urvasi.




   "The dead of night" refers to midnight. The maha-nisa is described in this smrti-mantra: maha-nisa dve ghatike ratrer madhyama-yamayoh, "Twelve o'clock midnight is called the dead of night."


                               TEXT 28




                        nisamyakranditam devi

                         putrayor niyamanayoh

                        hatasmy aham kunathena

                         napumsa vira-manina




   nisamya--by hearing; akranditam--crying (because of being stolen); devi--Urvasi; putrayoh--of those two lambs, which she treated as sons; niyamanayoh--as they were being taken away; hata--killed; asmi--am; aham--I; ku-nathena--under the protection of a bad husband; na-pumsa--by the eunuch; vira-manina--although considering himself a hero.




   Urvasi treated the two lambs like her own sons. Therefore, when they were being taken by the Gandharvas and began crying, Urvasi heard them and rebuked her husband. "Now I am being killed," she said, "under the protection of an unworthy husband, who is a coward and a eunuch although he thinks himself a great hero.


                               TEXT 29




                      yad-visrambhad aham nasta

                        hrtapatya ca dasyubhih

                       yah sete nisi santrasto

                        yatha nari diva puman




   yat-visrambhat--because of depending upon whom; aham--I (am); nasta--lost; hrta-apatya--bereft of my two sons, the lambs; ca--also; dasyubhih--by the plunderers; yah--he who (my so-called husband); sete--lies down; nisi--at night; santrastah--being afraid; yatha--as; nari--a woman; diva--during the daytime; puman--male.




   "Because I depended on him, the plunderers have deprived me of my two sons the lambs, and therefore I am now lost. My husband lies down at night in fear, exactly like a woman, although he appears to be a man during the day."


                               TEXT 30




                       iti vak-sayakair biddhah

                       pratottrair iva kunjarah

                        nisi nistrimsam adaya

                      vivastro 'bhyadravad rusa




   iti--thus; vak-sayakaih--by the arrows of strong words; biddhah--being pierced; pratottraih--by the goads; iva--like; kunjarah--an elephant; nisi--in the night; nistrimsam--a sword; adaya--taking in hand; vivastrah--naked; abhyadravat--went out; rusa--in anger.




   Pururava, stricken by the sharp words of Urvasi like an elephant struck by its driver's pointed rod, became very angry. Not even dressing himself properly, he took a sword in hand and went out naked into the night to follow the Gandharvas who had stolen the lambs.


                               TEXT 31




                        te visrjyoranau tatra

                       vyadyotanta sma vidyutah

                         adaya mesav ayantam

                       nagnam aiksata sa patim




   te--they, the Gandharvas; visrjya--after giving up; uranau--the two lambs; tatra--on the spot; vyadyotanta sma--illuminated; vidyutah--shining like lightning; adaya--taking in hand; mesau--the two lambs; ayantam--returning; nagnam--naked; aiksata--saw; sa--Urvasi; patim--her husband.




   After giving up the two lambs, the Gandharvas shone brightly like lightning, thus illuminating the house of Pururava. Urvasi then saw her husband returning with the lambs in hand, but he was naked, and therefore she left.


                               TEXT 32




                        ailo 'pi sayane jayam

                          apasyan vimana iva

                       tac-citto vihvalah socan

                       babhramonmattavan mahim




   ailah--Pururava; api--also; sayane--on the bedstead; jayam--his wife; apasyan--not seeing; vimanah--morose; iva--like that; tat-cittah--being too much attached to her; vihvalah--disturbed in mind; socan--lamenting; babhrama--traveled; unmatta-vat--like a madman; mahim--on the earth.




   No longer seeing Urvasi on his bed, Pururava was most aggrieved. Because of his great attraction for her, he was very much disturbed. Thus, lamenting, he began traveling about the earth like a madman.


                               TEXT 33




                       sa tam viksya kuruksetre

                      sarasvatyam ca tat-sakhih

                        panca prahrsta-vadanah

                        praha suktam pururavah




   sah--he, Pururava; tam--Urvasi; viksya--observing; kuruksetre--at the place known as Kuruksetra; sarasvatyam--on the bank of the Sarasvati; ca--also; tat-sakhih--her companions; panca--five; prahrsta-vadanah--being very happy and smiling; praha--said; suktam--sweet words; pururavah--King Pururava.




   Once during his travels all over the world, Pururava saw Urvasi, accompanied by five companions, on the bank of the Sarasvati at Kuruksetra. With jubilation in his face, he then spoke to her in sweet words as follows.


                               TEXT 34




                        aho jaye tistha tistha

                       ghore na tyaktum arhasi

                      mam tvam adyapy anirvrtya

                         vacamsi krnavavahai




   aho--hello; jaye--O my dear wife; tistha tistha--kindly stay, stay; ghore--O most cruel one; na--not; tyaktum--to give up; arhasi--you ought; mam--me; tvam--you; adya api--until now; anirvrtya--having not gotten any happiness from me; vacamsi--some words; krnavavahai--let us talk for some time.




   O my dear wife, O most cruel one, kindly stay, kindly stay. I know that I have never made you happy until now, but you should not give me up for that reason. This is not proper for you. Even if you have decided to give up my company, let us nonetheless talk for some time.


                               TEXT 35




                       sudeho 'yam pataty atra

                        devi duram hrtas tvaya

                      khadanty enam vrka grdhras

                       tvat-prasadasya naspadam




   su-dehah--very beautiful body; ayam--this; patati--will now fall down; atra--on the spot; devi--O Urvasi; duram--far, far away from home; hrtah--taken away; tvaya--by you; khadanti--they will eat; enam--this (body); vrkah--foxes; grdhrah--vultures; tvat--your; prasadasya--in mercy; na--not; aspadam--suitable.




   O goddess, now that you have refused me, my beautiful body will fall down here, and because it is unsuitable for your pleasure, it will be eaten by foxes and vultures.


                               TEXT 36




                             urvasy uvaca

                      ma mrthah puruso 'si tvam

                       ma sma tvadyur vrka ime

                     kvapi sakhyam na vai strinam

                        vrkanam hrdayam yatha




   urvasi uvaca--Urvasi said; ma--do not; mrthah--give up your life; purusah--male; asi--are; tvam--you; ma sma--do not allow it; tva--unto you; adyuh--may eat; vrkah--the foxes; ime--these senses (do not be under the control of your senses); kva api--anywhere; sakhyam--friendship; na--not; vai--indeed; strinam--of women; vrkanam--of the foxes; hrdayam--the heart; yatha--as.




   Urvasi said: My dear King, you are a man, a hero. Don't be impatient and give up your life. Be sober and don't allow the senses to overcome you like foxes. Don't let the foxes eat you. In other words, you should not be controlled by your senses. Rather, you should know that the heart of a woman is like that of a fox. There is no use making friendship with women.




   Canakya Pandita has advised, visvaso naiva kartavyah strisu raja-kulesu ca: "Never place your faith in a woman or a politician." Unless elevated to spiritual consciousness, everyone is conditioned and fallen, what to speak of women, who are less intelligent than men. Women have been compared to sudras and vaisyas (striyo vaisyas tatha sudrah). On the spiritual platform, however, when one is elevated to the platform of Krsna consciousness, whether one is a man, woman, sudra or whatever, everyone is equal. Otherwise, Urvasi, who was a woman herself and who knew the nature of women, said that a woman's heart is like that of a sly fox. If a man cannot control his senses, he becomes a victim of such sly foxes. But if one can control the senses, there is no chance of his being victimized by sly, foxlike women. Canakya Pandita has also advised that if one has a wife like a sly fox, he must immediately give up his life at home and go to the forest.


                        mata yasya grhe nasti

                        bharya capriya-vadini

                        aranyam tena gantavyam

                       yatharanyam tatha grham


   (Canakya-sloka 57)


   Krsna conscious grhasthas must be very careful of the sly fox woman. If the wife at home is obedient and follows her husband in Krsna consciousness, the home is welcome. Otherwise one should give up one's home and go to the forest.


                   hitvatma-patam grham andha-kupam

                    vanam gato yad dharim asrayeta


   (Bhag. 7.5.5)


   One should go to the forest and take shelter of the lotus feet of Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


                               TEXT 37




                       striyo hy akarunah krura

                       durmarsah priya-sahasah

                   ghnanty alparthe 'pi visrabdham

                       patim bhrataram apy uta




   striyah--women; hi--indeed; akarunah--merciless; krurah--cunning; durmarsah--intolerant; priya-sahasah--for their own pleasure they can do anything; ghnanti--they kill; alpa-arthe--for a slight reason; api--indeed; visrabdham--faithful; patim--husband; bhrataram--brother; api--also; uta--it is said.




   Women as a class are merciless and cunning. They cannot tolerate even a slight offense. For their own pleasure they can do anything irreligious, and therefore they do not fear killing even a faithful husband or brother.




   King Pururava was greatly attached to Urvasi. Yet despite his faithfulness to her, she had left him. Now, considering that the King was wasting his rarely achieved human form of life, Urvasi frankly explained the nature of a woman. Because of her nature, a woman can respond to even a slight offense from her husband by not only leaving him but even killing him if required. To say nothing of her husband, she can even kill her brother. That is a woman's nature. Therefore, in the material world, unless women are trained to be chaste and faithful to their husbands, there cannot be peace or prosperity in society.


                               TEXT 38





                        ajnesu tyakta-sauhrdah

                       navam navam abhipsantyah

                      pumscalyah svaira-vrttayah




   vidhaya--by establishing; alika--false; visrambham--faithfulness; ajnesu--unto the foolish men; tyakta-sauhrdah--who have given up the company of well-wishers; navam--new; navam--new; abhipsantyah--desiring; pumscalyah--women very easily allured by other men; svaira--independently; vrttayah--professional.




   Women are very easily seduced by men. Therefore, polluted women give up the friendship of a man who is their well-wisher and establish false friendship among fools. Indeed, they seek newer and newer friends, one after another.




   Because women are easily seduced, the Manu-samhita enjoins that they should not be given freedom. A woman must always be protected, either by her father, by her husband, or by her elderly son. If women are given freedom to mingle with men like equals, which they now claim to be, they cannot keep their propriety. The nature of a woman, as personally described by Urvasi, is to establish false friendship with someone and then seek new male companions, one after another, even if this means giving up the company of a sincere well-wisher.


                               TEXT 39




                       samvatsarante hi bhavan

                        eka-ratram mayesvarah

                       ramsyaty apatyani ca te

                       bhavisyanty aparani bhoh




   samvatsara-ante--at the end of every year; hi--indeed; bhavan--your good self; eka-ratram--one night only; maya--with me; isvarah--my husband; ramsyati--will enjoy sex life; apatyani--children; ca--also; te--your; bhavisyanti--will generate; aparani--others, one after another; bhoh--O my dear King.




   O my dear King, you will be able to enjoy with me as my husband at the end of every year, for one night only. In this way you will have other children, one after another.




   Although Urvasi had adversely explained the nature of woman, Maharaja Pururava was very much attached to her, and therefore she wanted to give the King some concession by agreeing to be his wife for one night at the end of each year.


                               TEXT 40




                        antarvatnim upalaksya

                       devim sa prayayau purim

                       punas tatra gato 'bdante

                         urvasim vira-mataram




   antarvatnim--pregnant; upalaksya--by observing; devim--Urvasi; sah--he, King Pururava; prayayau--returned; purim--to his palace; punah--again; tatra--at that very spot; gatah--went; abda-ante--at the end of the year; urvasim--Urvasi; vira-mataram--the mother of one ksatriya son.




   Understanding that Urvasi was pregnant, Pururava returned to his palace. At the end of the year, there at Kuruksetra, he again obtained the association of Urvasi, who was then the mother of a heroic son.


                               TEXT 41




                        upalabhya muda yuktah

                         samuvasa taya nisam

                        athainam urvasi praha

                         krpanam virahaturam




   upalabhya--getting the association; muda--in great jubilation; yuktah--being united; samuvasa--enjoyed her company in sex; taya--with her; nisam--that night; atha--thereafter; enam--unto King Pururava; urvasi--the woman named Urvasi; praha--said; krpanam--to he who was poor-hearted; viraha-aturam--afflicted by the thought of separation.




   Having regained Urvasi at the end of the year, King Pururava was most jubilant, and he enjoyed her company in sex for one night. But then he was very sorry at the thought of separation from her, so Urvasi spoke to him as follows.


                               TEXT 42




                       gandharvan upadhavemams

                       tubhyam dasyanti mam iti

                       tasya samstuvatas tusta

                       agni-sthalim dadur nrpa

                        urvasim manyamanas tam

                       so 'budhyata caran vane




   gandharvan--unto the Gandharvas; upadhava--go take shelter; iman--these; tubhyam--unto you; dasyanti--will deliver; mam iti--exactly like me, or me factually; tasya--by him; samstuvatah--offering prayers; tustah--being satisfied; agni-sthalim--a girl produced from fire; daduh--delivered; nrpa--O King; urvasim--Urvasi; manya-manah--thinking; tam--her; sah--he (Pururava); abudhyata--understood factually; caran--while walking; vane--in the forest.




   Urvasi said: "My dear King, seek shelter of the Gandharvas, for they will be able to deliver me to you again." In accordance with these words, the King satisfied the Gandharvas by prayers, and the Gandharvas, being pleased with him, gave him an Agnisthali girl who looked exactly like Urvasi. Thinking that the girl was Urvasi, the King began walking with her in the forest, but later he could understand that she was not Urvasi but Agnisthali.




   Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks that Pururava was very lusty. Immediately after getting the Agnisthali girl, he wanted to have sex with her, but during sexual intercourse he could understand that the girl was Agnisthali, not Urvasi. This indicates that every man attached to a particular woman knows the particular characteristics of that woman during sex life. Thus Pururava understood during sexual intercourse that the Agnisthali girl was not Urvasi.


                               TEXT 43




                      sthalim nyasya vane gatva

                         grhan adhyayato nisi

                       tretayam sampravrttayam

                        manasi trayy avartata




   sthalim--the woman Agnisthali; nyasya--immediately giving up; vane--in the forest; gatva--on returning; grhan--at home; adhyayatah--began to meditate; nisi--the whole night; tretayam--when the Treta millennium; sampravrttayam--was just on the point of beginning; manasi--in his mind; trayi--the principles of the three Vedas; avartata--became revealed.




   King Pururava then left Agnisthali in the forest and returned home, where he meditated all night upon Urvasi. In the course of his meditation, the Treta millennium began, and therefore the principles of the three Vedas, including the process of performing yajna to fulfill fruitive activities, appeared within his heart.




   It is said, tretayam yajato makhaih: in Treta-yuga, if one performed yajnas, he would get the results of those yajnas. By performing visnu-yajna specifically, one could even achieve the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Of course, yajna is intended to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead. While Pururava was meditating upon Urvasi, the Treta-yuga began, and therefore the Vedic yajnas were revealed in his heart. But Pururava was a materialistic man, especially interested in enjoying the senses. Yajnas for enjoyment of the senses are called karma-kandiya-yajnas. Therefore, he decided to perform karma-kandiya-yajnas to fulfill his lusty desires. In other words, karma-kandiya-yajnas are meant for sensuous persons, whereas yajna should actually be performed to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To please the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Kali-yuga, the sankirtana-yajna is recommended. Yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah. Only those who are very intelligent take to sankirtana-yajna to fulfill all their desires, material and spiritual, whereas those who are lusty for sense enjoyment perform karma-kandiya-yajnas.


                             TEXTS 44-45




                    sthali-sthanam gato 'svattham

                      sami-garbham vilaksya sah

                         tena dve arani krtva



                      urvasim mantrato dhyayann

                         adhararanim uttaram

                        atmanam ubhayor madhye

                      yat tat prajananam prabhuh




   sthali-sthanam--the place where Agnisthali was left; gatah--going there; asvattham--an asvattha tree; sami-garbham--produced from the womb of the sami tree; vilaksya--seeing; sah--he, Pururava; tena--from that; dve--two; arani--pieces of wood required for igniting a fire for sacrifice; krtva--making; urvasi-loka-kamyaya--desiring to go to the planet where Urvasi was present; urvasim--Urvasi; mantratah--by chanting the required mantra; dhyayan--meditating upon; adhara--lower; aranim--arani wood; uttaram--and the upper one; atmanam--himself; ubhayoh madhye--in between the two; yat tat--that which (he meditated upon); prajananam--as a son; prabhuh--the King.




   When the process of fruitive yajna became manifest within his heart, King Pururava went to the same spot where he had left Agnisthali. There he saw that from the womb of a sami tree, an asvattha tree had grown. He then took a piece of wood from that tree and made it into two aranis. Desiring to go to the planet where Urvasi resided, he chanted mantras, meditating upon the lower arani as Urvasi, the upper one as himself, and the piece of wood between them as his son. In this way he began to ignite a fire.




   The Vedic fire for performing yajna was not ignited with ordinary matches or similar devices. Rather, the Vedic sacrificial fire was ignited by the aranis, or two sacred pieces of wood, which produced fire by friction with a third. Such a fire is necessary for the performance of yajna. If successful, a yajna will fulfill the desire of its performer. Thus Pururava took advantage of the process of yajna to fulfill his lusty desires. He thought of the lower arani as Urvasi, the upper one as himself, and the middle one as his son. A relevant Vedic mantra quoted herein by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura is sami-garbhad agnim mantha. A similar mantra is urvasyam urasi pururavah. Pururava wanted to have children continuously by the womb of Urvasi. His only ambition was to have sex life with Urvasi and thereby get a son. In other words, he had so much lust in his heart that even while performing yajna he thought of Urvasi, instead of thinking of the master of yajna, Yajnesvara, Lord Visnu.


                               TEXT 46




                       tasya nirmanthanaj jato

                         jata-veda vibhavasuh

                       trayya sa vidyaya rajna

                      putratve kalpitas tri-vrt




   tasya--of Pururava; nirmanthanat--because of interaction; jatah--was born; jata-vedah--meant for material enjoyment according to the Vedic principles; vibhavasuh--a fire; trayya--following the Vedic principles; sah--the fire; vidyaya--by such a process; rajna--by the King; putratve--a son's being born; kalpitah--it so became; tri-vrt--the three letters a-u-m combined together as om.




   From Pururava's rubbing of the aranis came a fire. By such a fire one can achieve all success in material enjoyment and be purified in seminal birth, initiation and in the performance of sacrifice, which are invoked with the combined letters a-u-m. Thus the fire was considered the son of King Pururava.




   According to the Vedic process, one can get a son through semen (sukra), one can get a bona fide disciple through initiation (savitra), or one can get a son or disciple through the fire of sacrifice (yajna). Thus when Maharaja Pururava generated the fire by rubbing the aranis, the fire became his son. Either by semen, by initiation or by yajna one may get a son. The Vedic mantra omkara, or pranava, consisting of the letters a-u-m, can call each of these three methods into existence. Therefore the words nirmanthanaj jatah indicate that by the rubbing of the aranis a son was born.


                               TEXT 47




                         tenayajata yajnesam

                        bhagavantam adhoksajam

                        urvasi-lokam anvicchan

                        sarva-devamayam harim




   tena--by generating such a fire; ayajata--he worshiped; yajna-isam--the master or enjoyer of the yajna; bhagavantam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhoksajam--beyond the perception of the senses; urvasi-lokam--to the planet where Urvasi was staying; anvicchan--although desiring to go; sarva-deva-mayam--the reservoir of all demigods; harim--the Supreme personality of Godhead.




   By means of that fire, Pururava, who desired to go to the planet where Urvasi resided, performed a sacrifice, by which he satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, the enjoyer of the results of sacrifice. Thus he worshiped the Lord, who is beyond the perception of the senses and is the reservoir of all the demigods.




   As stated in Bhagavad-gita, bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram: any loka, or planet, to which one wants to go is the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the enjoyer of the performance of sacrifice. The purpose of yajna is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this age, as we have explained many times, the yajna of chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is the only sacrifice that can satisfy the Supreme Lord. When the Lord is satisfied, one can fulfill any desire, material or spiritual. Bhagavad-gita (3.14) also says, yajnad bhavati parjanyah: by offering sacrifices to Lord Visnu, one can have sufficient rainfall. When there is sufficient rainfall, the earth becomes fit to produce everything (sama-kama-dugha mahi). If one can utilize the land properly, one can get all the necessities of life from the land, including food grains, fruits, flowers and vegetables. Everything one gets for material wealth is produced from the earth, and therefore it is said, sarva-kama-dugha mahi (Bhag. 1.10.4). Everything is possible by performing yajna. Therefore although Pururava desired something material, he factually performed yajna to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord is adhoksaja, beyond the perception of Pururava and everyone else. Consequently, some kind of yajna must be performed to fulfill the desires of the living entity. Yajnas can be performed in human society only when society is divided by varnasrama-dharma into four varnas and four asramas. Without such a regulative process, no one can perform yajnas, and without the performance of yajnas, no material plans can make human society happy at any time. Everyone should therefore be induced to perform yajnas. In this age of Kali, the yajna recommended is sankirtana, the individual or collective chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. This will bring the fulfillment of all necessities for human society.


                               TEXT 48




                          eka eva pura vedah

                       pranavah sarva-vanmayah

                         devo narayano nanya

                        eko 'gnir varna eva ca




   ekah--only one; eva--indeed; pura--formerly; vedah--book of transcendental knowledge; pranavah--omkara; sarva-vak-mayah--consisting of all Vedic mantras; devah--the Lord, God; narayanah--only Narayana (was worshipable in the Satya-yuga); na anyah--no other; ekah agnih--one division only for agni; varnah--order of life; eva ca--and certainly.




   In the Satya-yuga, the first millennium, all the Vedic mantras were included in one mantra--pranava, the root of all Vedic mantras. In other words, the Atharva Veda alone was the source of all Vedic knowledge. The Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana was the only worshipable Deity; there was no recommendation for worship of the demigods. Fire was one only, and the only order of life in human society was known as hamsa.




   In Satya-yuga there was only one Veda, not four. Later, before the beginning of Kali-yuga, this one Veda, the Atharva Veda (or, some say, the Yajur Veda), was divided into four--Sama, Yajur, Rg and Atharva--for the facility of human society. In Satya-yuga the only mantra was omkara (om tat sat). The same name omkara is manifest in the mantra Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. Unless one is a brahmana, one cannot utter omkara and get the desired result. But in Kali-yuga almost everyone is a sudra, unfit for pronouncing the pranava, omkara. Therefore the sastras have recommended the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Omkara is a mantra, or maha-mantra, and Hare Krsna is also a maha-mantra. The purpose of pronouncing omkara is to address the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva (om namo bhagavate vasudevaya). And the purpose of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra is the same. Hare: "O energy of the Lord!" Krsna: "O Lord Krsna!" Hare: "O energy of the Lord!" Rama: "O Supreme Lord, O supreme enjoyer!" The only worshipable Lord is Hari, who is the goal of the Vedas (vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah). By worshiping the demigods, one worships the different parts of the Lord, just as one might water the branches and twigs of a tree. But worshiping Narayana, the all-inclusive Supreme personality of Godhead, is like pouring water on the root of the tree, thus supplying water to the trunk, branches, twigs, leaves and so on. In Satya-yuga people knew how to fulfill the necessities of life simply by worshiping Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The same purpose can be served in this age of Kali by the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra, as recommended in the Bhagavatam. Kirtanad eva krsnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet. Simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, one becomes free from the bondage of material existence and thus becomes eligible to return home, back to Godhead.


                               TEXT 49




                          pururavasa evasit

                        trayi treta-mukhe nrpa

                         agnina prajaya raja

                       lokam gandharvam eyivan




   pururavasah--from King Pururava; eva--thus; asit--there was; trayi--the Vedic principles of karma, jnana and upasana; treta-mukhe--in the beginning of the Treta-yuga; nrpa--O King Pariksit; agnina--simply by generating the fire of sacrifice; prajaya--by his son; raja--King Pururava; lokam--to the planet; gandharvam--of the Gandharvas; eyivan--achieved.




   O Maharaja Pariksit, at the beginning of Treta-yuga, King Pururava inaugurated a karma-kanda sacrifice. Thus Pururava, who considered the yajnic fire his son, was able to go to Gandharvaloka as he desired.




   In Satya-yuga, Lord Narayana was worshiped by meditation (krte yad dhyayato visnum). Indeed, everyone always meditated upon Lord Visnu, Narayana, and achieved every success by this process of meditation. In the next yuga, Treta-yuga, the performance of yajna began (tretayam yajato mukhaih). Therefore this verse says, trayi treta-mukhe. Ritualistic ceremonies are generally called fruitive activities. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that in Treta-yuga, beginning in the Svayambhuva-manvantara, ritualistic fruitive activities were similarly manifested from Priyavrata, etc.


Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Fourteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "King Pururava Enchanted by Urvasi."

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